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9. Sir Charles Napier has been chosen to com- ! (6) 54. 4s., 5s. 55. £189. 56. 5. 57. 4 miles mand the Baltic fleet.

per hour. 10. Be careful in writing your exercise; or, (c) 58. 4435197. 59. 675.96153. 60. 2748-9. be careful in the writing of your exercise. 161. 16. 62. 106

11. Ahamaaz outran Cushi, when he carried the tidings of Absalom's death.

12. The man (SFOKE), or has spoken to me of QUESTIONS FOR SOLUTION -VI. the matter, and said that he had spoken of it (a) 63. If 4 oz. of gold, 17 carats fine, are mixed before, and has borne with me far more than he with 3 oz. 13 carats fine, how much fine gold will intends to bear again.

there be in a gold ornament made of the com13. The master has risen, and is now sitting pound, and weighing 37 oz.? in the parlour. He has sat there for some time. 64. Pure water is composed of two gases,

14. Where have you laid the book? It lies on oxygen and hydrogen, in the proportion of 88.9 the table.

to 11:1; what weight of each is there in a cubic 15. We lay in bed rather late this morning, as foot of water? we were up late last night; but James lies in bed 65. In England, gunpowder is made of 75 parts yet.

of nitre, 10 of sulphur, and 15 of charcoal; in 16. A poor man has fallen from the top story France, of 77 of nitre, 9 of sulphur, and 14 of to the ground.

charcoal : if half a ton of each be mixed, what 17. After the master has eaten bis breakfast he weight of nitre, sulphur, and charcoal will there will attend to you.

be in the compound? 18. Her health has been greatly shaken by the 66. A rectangular cistern, of which the length loss of her husband.

is 13 ft., and the breadth 6 ft., contains 2944 19. Having arisen from his seat, he walked cubic feet of water; what is the depth of the towards the arbour.

cistern, and what is the weight of water, when one 20. We have a hen sitting on eleven eggs. cubic inch weighs 252-5 grains ? 21. When I went into the country, I expected 67. Find the square root of .01595169, and the to meet him.

cube root of 16934.994432 NOTES.

(b) A fish was caught, whose tail weighed 9 lbs.: 1. Have is superfluous in both cases. I in his bead weighed as much as his tail and halt tended to have visited. To have visited is the his body, and his body weighed as much as his perfect tense, whereas at that time the intention head and tail. What did the fish weigh? was present, and hence ought to be to visit. Had 6 8. Find a number such, that if of it be subnot have hindered. Here we have the signs of tracted from 20, and of the remainder from the perfect and pluperfect tenses combined in one of the original number, 12 times the second resentence, which is simply confusion of tense. mainder shall be half the original number.

2. Since he or wife is the nominative case, and | 69. There are two bars of metal, the first connot both of them, the verb ought to be singular. taining 14 oz. of silver and 6 of tin; the second

3. The reading of Milton, implies Milton's containing 8 of silver and 12 of tin; how much reading, which is not intended. Reading Milton, must be taken from each to form a bar of 20 oz., means Milton's thoughts, as found in his works, containing equal weights of silver and tin? which is meant.

70. The stones which pave a square court would 4. Here the past tense (spoke) has been used just cover a rectangular area, whose length is 6 instead of the past participle (spoken).

yards longer, and breadth 4 yards shorter than 5. Here the past participle (done) has been the side of the square ; find the area of the court. used instead of the past tense (did).

71. A can do a piece of work in 10 days; but 6. See (4).

after he has been upon it 4 days, B is sent to help 7. See (55.

him, and they finish it together in 2 days; in 8. See 5).

what time would B have done the whole ? 9. See (4).

(c) 72. The circular fences on each side a gravel 11. See (6).

walk surrounding a shrubbery are 800 and 714 12. See (4) and (5).

feet in length; what is the area of the walk? 13. See (4).

73. The diameters of an elliptical piece of 14. Here the past participle of the verb to lie ground are 330 and 220 feet; how many feet is has been substituted for that of to lay, and vice the circumference ? versd.

74. What is the area of an elliptical segment 15. Here the past tense of to lay has been sub cut off by a chord parallel to the shorter axis, the stituted for the past tense of to lie, &c.

height of the segment being 10, and the two 16. See (4).

diameters 35 and 25? 17. See (4).

75. Required the circumference of an ellipse 18. See (4).

wbose transverse axis is 30, and conjugate 20. 19. See (4).

76. What is the circumference of an ellipse 20. Here the active verb to set has been substi. whose diameters are 6 and 4? tuted for the neuter verb to sit. We set a hen on eggs, but she sits on them. 21. See (1).

GEOGRAPHICAL CLASS.

RUSSIA IN EUROPE.
MATHEMATICAL CLASS.

EXERCISE No. XVI.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.-V.

1. Give the boundaries of Russia. (a) 49. £1 198. 69 d. 50.40lbs. 51. £6 58.; £41 2. The latitude of its most N. and S. points ; 38. 4d. ; £3 2s. 60.; £2 10s. 52. 414 ft. 53. 14. longitude of its most E. and W.

ards love the squarece of Wus, B is so days; 11

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Great Yarmouth Discussion Society. We are the culture of their mental and spiritual nature; happy to learn from the honorary secretary that and, often in the face of much discouragement, this society has been established with fair pros- it continues stedfastly to labour in this cause of pects of success, and now contains forty-five mem- social progress and humanity. Its efforts are debers. It appears that the rules have been framed signed to apply to every department of industrial upon our “Model Code," published with the occupation where the period of employment is Essay on Debating Societies.

unduly and unnecessarily protracted; and those London:- Early Closing Association.- We efforts have recently been employed, and with have ever regarded the operations of this associa. considerable success, in promoting the Saturday tion with the greatest interest, and have much half-holiday movement in connection with the pleasure in drawing attention to the following various wholesale trades. The efforts of the brief statement of its history and objects. It was Board are at the present time more particularly established in 1842, and it is estimated, that at directed to the case of the Assistant Chemists, the present time at least 150,000 young men and whose hours of employment extend, for the most young women are more or less directly interested part, from about seven o'clock in the morning till in the efforts of this society. This is quite irre-half past ten and eleven o'clock at night, with a spective of the large measure of influence it is liability, moreover, to their being called up at any known to have exercised, and is still exercising hour in the night, and without being able to call throughout the provinces, in originating and in so much as the sabbath their own; and it is provarious ways assisting branch associations. Pre-posed ere long to draw attention to the condition vious to its establishment, the hours of employ- of that sadly oppressed class, the Journeymen ment in nearly every department of industrial Bakers. The labours of this association are life were excessive; in many cases almost incre- essentially auxiliary to the efforts of all religious dibly so: for instance, it was a very common and benevolent institutions, as it seeks to furnish practice for the linendrapers to keep their shops a very numerous and important class with the open during a large portion of the year till eleven time and opportunity for aiding in such move. and twelve o'clock at night, it being often one, ments. The association has sought to accomplish and sometimes even two o'clock, before the as- its object principally through the instrumentality sistants were really free. On Sunday mornings of public meetings, lectures, sermons, and the they not uvfrequently were kept at work till three, | press; ever striving, by confining its claims withfour, and even five o'clock, and numerous have in the bounds of moderation, and by the exercise been the instances of young men, instead of retir- of a right and kindly spirit, so to melt down the ing to bed, preferring going off to bathe, it being prejudices of opposing employers, as in time to broad daylight when they left their respective conciliate and win them over to the cause. It is shops. Through the agency of the Early Closing hoped the above will be deemed a sufficient proof Association, the hours of employment in many of the importance of the operations of the “ Early departments of business have already been mate-Closing Association," and justify the expectation rially curtailed. Since a partial reduction in the of the Board, that if those operations are adeperiod of employment has thus taken place, very quately sustained by means of public liberality, a many valuable institutions, for the special mental very large amount of good must ensue to all per. and religious benefit of young men, have been sons engaged in trade, and, indirectly, to the formed, which before were not so much as heard community at large.-J. L., Hon. Sec. of, and, indeed, but for the success of the “Early Christchurch Mutual Improvement and DeClosing Association," could not possibly have bating Society. The second quarterly meeting existed. There are, notwithstanding, at the pre- of this society was held on the 12th of April, 1855. sent time many thousands of young men, and Under the patronage of the Rev. Joseph Fletcher, also of young women, who are utterly cut off its president, it has already risen to a highly prosfrom the many privileges offered by these excellent perous state. As the members have but little time institutions. The “Early Closing Association" at their disposal they are only able to meet for is the only organized agency in existence for ex- one bour weekly. On some occasions this hour tending to the overworked population of the me- is devoted to debating, on others lectures and retropolis opportunity for healthful relaxation and citations are delivered. The subjects which have been discussed are as follows:-“Is Cromwell topics of the day have been powerfully discussed. worthy of our Admiration?"-" Which most de-The chairman has always to give an address on a serves the Esteem of Mankind--the Poet, the subject of his own choosing. Mr. Rust was reStatesman, or the Warrior?"-" Which is the cently presented by the members of the society better Form of Government, Monarchical or Re- with an elegant gold pencil.case, as an acknowpublican?"-" Was the Execution of Charles the ledgment of their deep obligations to him for the First Justifiable?"_“Is War under any Circum- lively interest he has ever taken in the welfare of stances Justifiable ?"_“Ought Capital Punish their society. Were ministers in general thus to ments to be abolished ?"--"Does Instinct differ give their influence in the right direction, the from Reason in Kind or in Degree?" Many number and usefulness of young men's societies able and interesting lectures have been delivered. might be greatly increased. Essays have been read by Mr. Edward Asbury on Wolverhampton Mutual Improvement Society. “Longfellow's Poetical Works," and “Edgar Al -This once prosperous and highly interesting lan Poe;" by Mr. C. Millard on “Trenck." A little association, formed by a few young men series of lectures has been delivered by Mr. Henry mutually anxious to contribute to each others' Edwards on “Entomology," and by Mr. W. T. intellectual improvement, fell some time ago into Edwards on “The Plurality of Worlds." Besides a disorganized state. By the exertions of a few these there have been essays on Shakspere, of its most zealous promoters the society was subMilton, Wellington, Mahomet, on Geology, and sequently resuscitated; a number of young men other branches of Natural History, Spectral Illu- joined it, and its prosperity once again augured sions, &c. Mr. James G, Millard read an account well. The sanguine expectations of its friends of a visit made by the members to Chewton, a and supporters have not, however, been realized; neighbouring spot famous for its fossil remains the taste of some of its members seems not to A library is being formed, in which the volumes of accord with such societies. That fact, with the tbe Controversialist hold a conspicuous and ho- sudden removal from the town of one or two of nuured place. I may add that the idea of forming its best members, has led to a final dissolution of such a society took its birth from a perusal of the class. At its last meeting three members only this magazine.-THRELKELD, Sec.

were present, and after due deliberation a motion Slains Mutual Instruction Class.-The annual was carried to the effect, that as there seemed social meeting, in connection with the Slains Mu- no probability of the condition of the class being tual Instruction Class, was recently held in the improved, it should be dissolved, and that the parish church. The chair was occupied by the funds in hand should be expended in purchasing Rev. James Rust, minister of the parish, whose for four members (Mr. George Hughes, Mr.T. J. cheerful and appropriate remarks greatly enlivened Durham, Mr. George Higham, and Mr. Green, the proceedings of the evening. After partaking who had been connected with the class from its of some excellent fruit, able and instructive ad commencement, and who had been its principal dresses were delivered on the following subjects : supporters) a suitable volume, in which an inscrip"Individualism," by George Gray, Thatch Hill; tion should be placed explaining the circum. "Former Worlds," by George Davidson Mills, of stances under which the book was presented, and Leask; “Books," by Alexander Sangster, Knap- with the names of those who established the class perna; “Dignity of Labour," by George Hardie, and strove to promote its improvement, and there. Knapperna; “Present War," by James R. Souter, by to rescue it from premature death. School-house; “Female Elevation," by James [We are always pained in perusing such no, Anderson, Brownhill; “Love," by Hugh Reid, tices as the above, as they indicate so unmistake. jun., Cruden; “Mental Culture," by Thomas ably the apathy of some young men in the cause Miller, Methlie; “ Decision the Duty and Privi- of self-culture. We would suggest, however, to lege of the Young." The choir belonging to the the friends present at the last meeting, whether it church was also in attendance, and executed seve- would not bave been better to have called a meetchurch walesortendendo doveould have hot ral pieces of sacred music very tastefully. The so-ing of the whole society to have decided upon its ciety is at present in a very flourishing state, and dissolution, rather than that it should have been in the course of its existence many of the leading done by so few and without notice.-Evs. B, C.]

Literaturr.

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. Messrs. Puttick and Smith announce among the late eminent geologist, Mr. G. B. Greenother sales of literary property, the copyright of ough, whose decease was announced in our last, the "New Quarterly Review."

has left a fortune of not less than £180,000, ali The first number of a new periodical has ap-derived, it is said, from his father, by whom it was peared, entitled " The Quarterly Journal of Pure realized in the manufacture of lozenges. and Applied Mathematics," and bearing on the We have to announce the death of Sir George title page the names of J. J. Silvester, M.A., Head, author of several valuable works on coloF.R.S.; W. M. Ferrers, M.A.; Prof. Stokes ; A nial matters, especially relating to Canada, where Cayley, M.A., F.R.S.; and M. Hermite, as editors. he was long resident. He was elder brother of

The Belgian goverument, some time ago, insti- the late governor of Canada, Sir Francis Bond tuted a quinquennial prize of the value of £200, Head. In early life Sir George was in the Peninas an encouragement to Flemish literature. This sular war, in the commissariat, and afterwards prize has just been awarded to Conscience, the was stationed in different colonies, in the same popular Flemish author.

department.

NOTICES OF BOOKS.

Creation's Testimony to its God; or, the Accord Letters to Lord John Russell. Dedicated by

ance of Science, Philosophy,and Revelation: al permission to Lady John Russell. By “CelaManual of the Evidences of Natural and Re tus." London: Houlston and Stoneman. vealed Religion, with Especial Reference to the

Whatever may be our estimate of the value of this Progress of Science and Advance of Knowledge. By Thomas Ragg. London: Longman, Brown,

work we cannot doubt its originality. Its pages

are not burdened by quotation marks or foot Green, and Longmans.

notes; but a certain style of writing pervades the We notice this work, not because of its polemi whole volume. The contents of the title page we cal character, but rather on account of its author have given above, and on the back of it the reader having contributed to our pages, and from the is humbly requested to "please to read the dedifact that be started in life as a humble mechanic, catory epistle," as it is modestly suggested-in it and has enjoyed no means of improvement other may possibly be found some“ choice sayings than those of self-culture, and had “ no opportuni. and sentiments expressed and embodied." Being ties of study save in the hours which are usually unable to resist an appeal like this, we have caredevoted to relaxation and repose." Viewed in fully perused the epistle in question, in which connection with these facts the volume before us “Celatus"addresses Lady John Russell in a strain is not merely an evidence of Mr. Ragg's talent of the most fulsome flattery. Lord John is noand industry, but it is full of encouragement to thing less than the sun of " our little system," every humble student and self-educationalist. and his lady “our satellite in the firmament,"

In addition to the numerous volumes on the “yielding her soft and silvery light in solitudes « Evidences of Cbristianity" Mr. Ragg consi- and in the sombre shades of an absent sun;" and ders that one was wanted, that should be “a” our author" trusts that she will long pursue her manual in which the weightiest evidence should course, “Cynthia like, in a clear sky," freely be presented in the strongest light, and that in the yielding her light to “the ornament, joy, and fewest words consistent with force and clearness. comfort of her centre of gravity!" Reader, if in Men who would not read, and who could not such company thou canst preserve thy“ gravity," understand if they did read, the great works of it is more than we can do; but not to be thought our mightiest thinkers, may still, in all probabi- rude, we would, in passing, express in the words lity, have the evidences of our faith presented to of“ Celatus," our admiration of “those lords of them in a comprehensible and acceptable form. I our race who are blessed with “ such ladies to It is by a thirst after knowledge that multitudes | mollify the manifold asperities of this terrene life of them are usually led astray: and a gratification --to mellow much of their mental movements, of that thirst is, at least, one of the likeliest and to mature their measures to meliorate misery methods of leading them back to the Fountain of in this meretricious world!" As our author has true knowledge and wisdom. By such means such an ear for sound, we turn from his " meretheir interest may be excited ; and they will follow tricious" prose to his “ proem in poem," in the an argument which conveys information they are hope that he will be more successful in rhyme; desirous of obtaining. They will read a manual | but here again we are disappointed, as we find which intelligibly sets forth all the new facts him attempting to make such words as "together" advancing science and patient research have made and "another" -“ sluices" and “muses""shaavailable; and thus, if in no other way, may be dow" and "de facto" jingle together. In endealed to see the intimate union which subsists be- vouring to ascertain the cause of the stiff and tween true science and religion.

mechanical style of this pseudo-poem, we dis“The production of such a work as thus appears covered that it is an acrostic, and that the initial to him to be required, has been the object of the letters give us the “ Reverend Owen Owen, alias author in the present volume. He has endea. | • Celatus,' Newport, Monmouthshire." This invoured to render it interesting as well as instruc formation may be useful to such of our readers tive-to impart secular knowledge as well as who wish to have poetry "made to order," and to draw inferences from it—to give a manual of the encourage them to apply to the right person, we physical sciences as well as the gathered results present them with a “ choice" extract from an ode of their positive teaching. Passing through the on Lord John Russell's educational measure:universe of matter and of mind, he has sought,

“ Hurra! hurra! his fame send round. while gathering out its first-fruits as an offering to

From man to man, to the nation's bound; the Deity, to inquire into the pature of that which

And say Lord John deserves the name is felt and seen-aud thus exhibit the accordance

Which we, the sovereign people proclaim. between science, philosophy, and religion."

Hurra! who did exert his mind Although it does not come within our province

· Like him to gain the good of mankind, to decide how far the author has realized his

To banish worse than cholera object, we cannot but say that he has exhibited

From the nation's mind? Hurra! hurra!" great industry in collecting his materials, great tact in using them up, and that we deem his Reader, in the words of our poet, “we might volume worthy of the perusal of men of all enlarge, but, by your kind permission, we desist." opinions.

When individuals rush into print with such

trash as this, and present it to the publie under the Public Pearl ; or, Education the People's attractive titles, critics fail to perform their duty, Right and a Nation's Glory: in Two Popular if they do not endeavour to preserve their readers Lectures on State Interference, and in Three against imposition.

k to the Fountain

such an ear for his proem in pos

Dids to Self-Culturr.

ARITHMETIC. ARITHMETIC (api@uos, number) is the application of logic to number. As a science, it considers the nature and properties of numbers, and the operations to which they are subject; as an art, it applies them in various modes for the practical purposes of life. Logic, as our readers are aware, is the science and art of reasoning; it investigates the connection and relationship of our ideas, and by comparison deduces their consequences, and ascertains the necessary laws by which such deductions are governed. Arithmetic, then, taking number as its subject-matter, and logic as its method or instrument, stands in the foremost rank of the pure sciences.

As in almost every other instance, however, the art of Arithmetic was precedent to the science. Art is tentative—the result of necessity and of instinct;* Science is consequential and ultimate-the result of the tentative efforts of Art. But eventually the order becomes reversed: Science, when perfect, becomes the guide and directress of Art. Thus should it be with those for whom we now write—the noble and increasing band of SelfCulturists. Doubtless every one who reads these pages already has more or less of practical acquaintance with Arithmetic as an art; let him now regard it as a science. Too many of our friends are probably calculating machines, working by rule, without ever thinking of the principles on which those rules are founded; hence they often find themselves perplexed by more complex cases; their rules fail them, and they have nothing then to fall back upon. We invite all such to be “ up and doing”-to vindicate their mental dignity and manhood—to become arithmeticians, and to cease to be mere workers of sums. Our object, therefore, in this paper will be to glance at the nature of the science; to urge its claims as a means of mental discipline; to point out the rich stores of interesting research and knowledge connected with the subject; and to supply a few hints as to the modes and means of study;-in this we feel assured that, howeyer theoretical we may appear, we shall be found to be eminently practical.

A most striking characteristic of mathematical science (of which Arithmetic is an elementary portion), and one which should recommend it to the study of every singleminded and earnest student, is the fact that in its domains alone can the mind revel in the sunlight of ABSOLUTE TRUTH. The possibility of doubt is excluded from mathematics. No sooner have we mastered the few primary and necessary conceptions of the human mind upon which these sciences are founded, than our course through the whole range of mathernatics becomes clear and certain. We may of course blunder in some manipulations

* The writer will perhaps be pardoned this phrase, even by the most rigid adherents of Locke ; his intention is simply to represent Arithmetic as an art peculiar to man, which will necessarily develop itself where there is any degree of mental culture sufficient to raise men alove the level of the “beasts which have no understanding."

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