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LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. A new volume of poetry, by Victor Hugo, called We have also to announce the death of Mrs. "Contemplations," is announced in Paris. It is Nicholls, forinerly Miss Bronté, who, under the stated that, unlike this author's recent publica- nom de plume of Currer Bell," was the authoress tions, it is not at all to be of a political character. of“ Jane Eyre." We have two other novels from
A new Indian periodical has been commenced, her pen,“ Shirley," and“ Villette." She died at entitled " The Bombay Quarterly Review." Thé her father's house, at Haworth, Yorkshire, and articles in the first number are on well chosen was the last surviver of a family of six children. stbjects, and ably written.
Mr. Bronté is the incumbent of Haworth, and the We regret to have to report the decease, during father of the “three sisters ;" two had already the past month, of two eminent geologists-George died, when Mr. Nicholls, bis curate, wished to B. Greenougl, F.R.S., and Sir Henry De la marry the last sole hope. To this Mr. Bronté and though they were much attached, the con- | Davies, F.R.S.-a notable instance of self-advancenection was so far broken that Mr. Nicholls was ment. His father was a small farmer, in Wales. to leave. Then the vicar of Bradford interposed, Mr. Davies began life as a quarryman, near Car. by offering to secure to Mr. Nicholls the incum- narvon; he had almost attained manhood before bency of Haworth after Mr. Bronté's death. he got any schooling. But he put himself to This obviated all objections, and last summer a school, practised arithmetic with an iron pencil new study was built to the parsonage, and the on the slate he quarried, and rapidly increased lovers were married, remaining under the father's his knowledge. He soon set off for London ; got roof. But, alas ! in three months the bride's more schooling; then himself became an usher, lungs were attacked, and in three more the father a schoolmaster, an author of arithmetical works, and husband committed their loved one to the actuary to several life insurance companies, and grave! Is it not a sad reality in which the ro- a “great arithmetician," consulted and employed mance ends?
objected, as it might deprive him of bis only child;
by the East India Company and the Bank of An eminent actuary, recently dead-Mr. Griffith | England. He was sixty-seven when he died.
NOTICES OF BOOKS. The Dignity of Labour. A Lecture by Newman have not, a lawful calling. He helped to build
Hall, B.A. London: Nisbet and Co. Price 3d. the new structure of Lincoln's Inn; when, having This is an eloquent oration on the dignity of a trowel in his hand, he had a book in his pocket. labour, as seen in its universality, the honour The name of Shakspere himself I have reserved which has ever been put upon it, its wonderful to the last in this enumeration; for, while it has achievements in the outer world, and its bene- been disputed whether he was the son of a ficial effects upon the individual man. It is not butcher, a glover, a seller of wood, or a small often that we meet with a production like this, so landed proprietor, there is no doubt that his original in style, and pervaded by so healthy and father, as if unable to write, signed a public Strathearty a spirit. We feel tempted to give the lec- ford document with a mark, and that the immorturer's list of distinguished men who have risen tal poet himself, when he first came up to London, from the ranks of toil, not because of its novelty, was glad to earn an honest penny in other ways but on account of the stimulating effect which, we than in the composition of immortal dramas. feel sure, the perusal will have on our youthful “Let us come to the Arts. Giotto, one of the aspirants :
most eminent revivers of painting, was a pea“ If we turn to antiquity, Æsop was a slave, sant's son. Salvator Rosa was brought up in Protagoras was a porter, Cleanthes a drawer of hardship. Claude Lorraine was apprenticed to a water, Epictetus a slave, Plautus a grinder of pastry-cook. Michael Angelo was the son of a corn, Terence a slave, Horace the son of a liber- stonemason. Barry was a ship-boy; Opie a ated slave, and Virgil, we cannot doubt, was prac- sawyer. Gilpin was apprenticed to a ship-painter; tically versed in all the labours of the farm. Who Hogarth to an engraver. Sir Thomas Lawrence knows not the story of Cincinnatus, taken from was the son of an innkeeper. Etty was apprenhis plough to the dictatorship of Rome, and who, ticed to a printer, and the son of a baker of gingerhaving in sixteen days delivered his country, bread. The unrivalled Turner was the son of a returned to his rural toils ? Cato also, and many hairdresser in Covent Garden. Haydn, the great other noble Romans, thought it no disparage- musical composer, was the son of a wheelwright. ment to their patrician dignity to work with their Inigo Jones, great as an architect, was appren. own hands; nor until Roman citizens devolved ticed to a joiner. Canova, the eminent sculptor, all the labours of industry on hired slaves, did was the son of a stonemason; and Sir Francis Rome decline from that lofty elevation which she Chantrey was a milk-boy, and, having first es. reached when her senators and her warriors were hibited his genius in moulding butter, was apmen of toil.
prenticed to a carver and gilder, with a premium “Let us come to more recent times. Amongst of £10. poets, Metastasio was a mechanic's son, and as a “Let us refer to celebrated authors, and men of boy saug verses in the streets. Amigio was a learning. Heyne, the eminent classic, was the blacksmith. Sir W. Daveriant was the son of a son of a weaver. Judge Blackstone, the comvintner. The author of“ Hudibras" was the son mentator on English law, was the son of a draper. of a small farmer. Gay was apprentice to a De Foe, the author of The Plague,' and of draper. Prior was a tavern boy. Pope was the Robinson Crusoe,' was a hosier. Isaac Walton, son of a draper, Collins of a hatter, Beattie of a the author of The Complete Angler,' kept a village shopkeeper, Akenside of a butcher, Cow- draper's shop in Fleet-street, seven and a half feet ley of a grocer, Keats of a livery-stable keeper, long by five feet wide. Prideaux was assistant Chatterton of a sexton. Dodsley was apprenticed in a kitchen. Richardson was the son of a joiner. to a stocking weaver. Bloomfield was the son of Buchanan was a common soldier. Cobbett was a a tailor, and, after being a farmer's boy, became a labouring boy in the fields. Milner, the church hisshoemaker. Ramsay was the son of a miner, torian, was a weaver. Hutton, the great mathemaand meditated poetry while making wigs. Kirke tician, was a stocking weaver. Parkes, the author White was the son of a butcher, and began lite at of the 'Chemical Catechism,' was the son of a small a stocking-frame. Falconer was a sailor boy, grocer. Professor Porson was the son of a parish Burns a ploughwan, Hogg a shepherd, Nicoll a clerk. Foster, the essayist, worked at his father's sadler, Ebenezer Elliott a mechanic, Hood an loom. Lord Chancellor Eldon, and his brother, engraver. Ben Jonson, the friend of Shakspere, the learned Lord Stowell, were sons of a provin worked for his bread as a bricklayer, and is thus cial shopkeeper. Gifford, editor of the Quarterly referred to by Fuller, in his 'English Worthies : Review,' was a cabin-boy in a small coasting - Let them not blush who bave, lut they who vessel.".
flids to Self-Culturr. THE ESSENTIALS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION. To the true student the essentials of any study are sufficient. Life is too brief to afford time to traverse the whole field of speculation which every study includes. Some branches of the tree of knowledge have their fruit hidden among leaves, and hence occupy much time in the gathering, and, in many instances, the fruit is in inverse proportion to the leaves, and the value attained altogether incommensurate to the labour undergone in the search. This is especially the case with those departments of learning in which the theory is unsettled, or in which attempts have been made to dispense altogether with a theory. A theory—that is, a clear conception of the order, method, and relation of the truths to be taught, and the facts to be explained by them—is absolutely necessary to the construction of any system of tuition in any science or art; but it is not at all essentially requisite that the recondite metaphysic reasonings upon which a theory is founded, and on which its validity depends, should be explicitly protruded on the attention of the pupil; indeed, this ought to be particularly avoided in the earlier stages of study. The theory or plan must exist in the mind of the master builder, and the labours of those who are under him must be so directed and overlooked, that the edifice shall grow up in conformity with the plan, independently altogether of the ignorance of the labourers regarding the all-presiding design, to the upbuilding of which their exertions contribute. Afterwards they may retrace the processes by which the totality of the effect was produced, and comprehend the design to which each and all of those processes were subordinate. It is the same with the student of grammar and composition—the theory of the master must be subordinated to the progress of the pupil, and skill in the processes by which grand results are produced must frequently precede the knowledge of the theoretical methods by which the processes are governed. We purpose in the following paper to sketch out the essentials of English Grammar and Composition without the parade of a given theory, yet subordinated to that one, the principles of which have been already expounded in this serial.*
Composition is the art of expressing thought in proper and effective words: Grammar is the art of arranging the words, expressive of thought, in a manner consistent with the particular idiom and laws of any given language. English Grammar and Composition, therefore, signify the art of expressing thought with accuracy of diction, idiom, and relation; in other words, the vocal or visible expression of any thought in conformity to the customs of the best writers or conversationists of the age in which the thinker lives.
Words are the results, representatives, and embodiment of thought.
Each individual exercise of thought refers either to the existences around us, or to their attributes, conditions, or relations.
Each completed act of thought, when expressed either orally or symbolically, constitutes a sentence, i. e., any number of words so arranged as to give full and proper utterance to a judgment or decision formed by the mind—e.g., Ink is a liquid.
Every sentence, logically considered, contains three parts-viz., Ist, Subject, that regarding which we think and speak; 2nd, Predicate, that which we think and speak regarding * See“ Rhetoric," passim, particularly papers II. to VIII. in vol. iii. of the British Controversialist.
the subject; 3rd, Copula, the sign by which these two notions are shown to be united into
2nd. one complete act of thought-e.g., Life (subject) is (copula) fleeting (predicate); but for grammatical purposes the predicate and copula are frequently conjoined to form one word, -the latter being included in the former,—and then the sentence may be divided into two parts only, viz., subject and predicate—e.g., Time (subject) flies (predicate).
Exercise I.- Distinguish the subject by writiny (1) one above it, or drawing one line below it, and the predicate by writing (2) two above it, or drawing two lines below it, and where a copula
(1) (2) occurs, enclose it in brackets-2.9., Babylon (is) fallen, or Babylon (is) FALLEN; Cæsar fel, or Cæsar FELL.
Roses bloom. Stars shine. Morn is breaking. The billows heave. The ships sail. Jesus wept. The pear-tree blossoms. This orange is ripe. The trumpet sounds. The lightning flashes. The horse neighs. Up springs the breeze. Suow is white. Jewels sparkle. The rain falls. The army marches. The fight commences. The enemy retreats. The colours Ay. Soldiers are wounded. Men die. Heroes conquer. Knowledge is power. Self-culture is beneficial.
EXERCISE II.-Write thirty similar sentences—.9., study refines, knowledge elevates.
As all thought concerns itself either with notions or their relations, all words may be regarded as notional or relational, as arranged in the following table:
s i. Proper 6. Ideal
c. Abstract A. Existence =
2o Verbal i. Personal
a. Possessive 2nd. Pronoun ii. Relative
16. Demonstrative (iii. Adjective
d. Indefinite B. Action Verb
b. Ideal 2nd. Common
II.-RELATIONAL, signifyingA. The Relations of Existences = Propositions
ri. Time B. The Relations and Modifica
2. Place tions of Qualities
= Adverbs 3. Manner
4. Circumstance 5. Activities, &c.
1. Co-ordination Adversative C. The Relations between Thoughts=Conjunctions
Diversative 2. Sub-ordination Alternative
Contingent * See another Table of the Parts of Speech,“ Rhetoric,” No. IV., Vol. iii., p. 127.
N.B. Some of the relations of notions are indicated by inflections, i. e., changes made in words to modify their primary significations."
A Noun is the name of any existence, real or ideal; as London, city, truth, army, &c.
As the existences, real or imaginary, of which we have to think and speak are so numerous and varied, the proper use of the Nouns is a matter of great importance in composition, whether oral or written. The chief points to be particularly attended to regarding them are
Ist, That they are the proper words to express the ideas we intend to communicate to others; 2nd, That they are in the places best adapted to be clearly and plainly understood; and, 3rd, That they are rightly inflected. To these three points we shall specially direct our attention in the following lesson.
Exercise III.- Underline the nouns in the following sentences :-—"The acorn is cast carelessly abroad into the wilderness, yet it rises to be an oak: on the wild soil it nourishes itself, it defies the tempest, and lives for a thousand years."-Carlyle. “Perfection in outward life is the fruit of perfection in the life within us."- Arnold. “Life is a train of moods, like a string of beads, and, as we pass through them, they prove to be many-coloured lenses, which paint the world their own hue, and each shows only what lies in its focus."— Emerson. “To set the outward actions right, though with an honest intention, and not to regard and find out the inward disorder of the heart, whence the actions flow, is but to be still putting the index of a clock right with your finger, while it is foul or out of order within, which is a continual business, and does no good.”—Leighton.
EXERCISE IV.-Write forty sentences, each containing one of the following nouns :-Flattery, Fortune, Industry, Relaxation, Time, Temperance, Life, Work, Tranquillity, Testimony, Passion, Night, Instinct, Reason, Happiness, Luxury, Resentment, Temper, Anger, Air, Moon, Clouds, Stars · Summer, Music, Woods, Oak, Icicle, Prayer, Delight, Oblivion, Care, Grain, Flame, Desert, Brook, Ocean, Torrent, Knowledge, Worth.
Exercise V.-Supply appropriate nouns in the following sentences, each noun consisting of the same number of letters as there are small dots in the vacant spaces :–Europe was one great ..... where the weak struggled for
and the strong for ..
The king was and the ... ... without
Mirth is like a of ..... that and glitters for a .. ....;
keeps up a ....
of and fills it with a steady and perpetual
He who pursues trusts his
.... to the .....; but he that endeavours after it by false ...
Life is a
then the better and more pleasing .
in the ....,
with just ·
has to fear not only the in the behind us, then
of old ...
- of the by the fleecy vapoury
EXERCISE VI.–Fill in the vacant spaces with any nouns which will make sense with the words here given. The --, which was now high, and twinkled with all the — of a frosty —, silvered the
and the - and - which the left visible; while her seemed, as it were, absorbed
of the —, wbere it lay thick and condensed, and gave to the - more light and which were elsewhere seen, a — of filmy – resembling the lightest – of silvery
Alas! we die — die by away
— that exempts not any
- on the warrior's —;
which gives Its hope-engrained
- to the , Wide wander as we may. Farewell! thou –