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El wooden walls between the fleets of Sebas- | exposed by a refusal, and declared that the

topol and the palaces of Stamboul; but still responsibility of the war which must be the be she maintained peace. At Vienna, in Con- consequence of that refusal would REST ON o stantinople, and at St. Petersburg, she THE EMPEROR.” When Austria, bound to Did reasoned and pleaded with the wrongdoer. Russia by many ties, can thus write; when

The butchery of Sinope thrilled her with Prussia, trammeled by the sympathies of of his indignant horror, but still she clung to peace. relationship and vicinage, can thus condemn;

The duplicity of the Czar was unveiled step who can doubt where the justice of the war

by step, till at last one of two courses only lies? Proclaim aloud the dogmas of the 20remained-she must draw the sword, or Peace Society, if you will. Tell us that por abrogate her position as a secular power, nations have neither rights nor duties, ther cast away the right to self-defence and the neither privileges nor sympathies; that indeat defence of justice, despise alike her own pendence is not worth a thought, and that de interests and the claims of her ally, and liberty is but an idle toy; that patriotism, bogat deny both the principles of reason and the national or philanthropic, is but the sinful

dictates of generosity. Nobly, wisely, and lust of an unregenerate heart. Brand, if du solemnly she chose the former alternative: you will, Spartan Leonidas and the 300

she refused to adopt the doctrines of fatalism, heroes of Thermopylæ as men of blood;

and to expect Providence to do that for her Quintus Curtius, as he leaped into the yawnhadices which she refused to do for herself. She ing gulf, Caius Mucius, as he held his hand

had tried moral means to the utmost, but in the scorching flame, and him of whom Entice she knew that physical force must be met the poet sings, mert le with physical weapons, and she shrunk not “How well Horatius kept the bridge thy from the contest. She could not understand In the brave days of old !" miting those good Samaritans, who could watch-- as fools and madmen. Consign Cromwell when calmly watch-the thief and assassin despoil and Hampden, Tell and Washington, Kos

Pieces and wound their brethren, without an attempt ciusko and Kossuth, to eternal infamy. Try Le to save them; she refused to adopt that to persuade us that Britons ever should be

the strange benevolence which will staunch for slaves, alike refusing to earn one line of di a moment the bleeding death-wound which Magna Charta by their blood, or to resist

it would not prevent. On February 27, the armadas of spiritual and the autocrats 1854, England, jointly with France, de- of civil despotism and barbarianism. But, manded of Nicholas that within six days oh! insult not both Deity and man by telling after the arrival of their summons, an assur- us that justice walks hand in hand with ance should be given that he would evacuate oppression; that invasion is a virtue in the the principalities by the 1st of May: the Czar, while defence is a crime in a Saxon or answer he condescended to give was, that a Turk. Tell us, if you please, that the

the Emperor had no reply to make!Bible forbids us to resist evil; but asperse Listen to the opinions of other states. On not its sacred pages by calling good evil, and the 4th of March, Lord Westmoreland writes evil good. We believe our opponents honest,

from Vienna—"Count Buol has written a but we are not the less honest ourselves; using 3

strong letter to be communicated to Count and, believing as we do, we solemnly call
Vesselrode in support of the summons ad- Deity itself to witness the purity of Eng-
dressed by your lordship and the French land's motives, and the justice of her cause.
government.” On the same day, Lord Not in the spirit of fanaticism, but in that
Bloomfield writes from Berlin:-“ Baron of humble reverence, we declare our con-
Manteuffel has just informed me that His sciences clear in this matter. We appeal to
(Prussian) Majesty immediately ordered him the God of Battles, who nerved the arm of
to address an instruction in the sense desired David, and the hands of Sampson; to Him
by Her Majesty's government. This in- who bade his sun to stand still while Joshua
struction, he said, was sent to St. Peters- smote the kings of the Amorites in defence
burgh last night, by post, and was drawn of Israel's feeble ally, Gideon, to plead our
up in very pressing language. It urged the cause; and we pray solemnly, trustfully, and
russian government to consider the dangers earnestly,—“May God defend the right!”
to which the peace of the world would be! There is one other point deserving notice.

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The Vienna note of August, 1853, was I refused them. Who was in the right? Let accepted by the Czar, but modified by the the readers judge. We transcribe those Porte; England and the other great powers passages which were altered: adopted those modifications, but Nicholas ORIGINAL NOTE.

MODIFICATION OF DITTO. "If at all times the Emperors of Russia “If at all times the Emperors of Russia have shown their active solicitude for the have shown their active solicitude for the maintenance of the immunities and priri- worship of the Orthodox Greek Church, the leges of the Orthodox Greek Church in the Sultans have never ceased to watch over the Ottoman empire, the Sultans have never privileges and immunities of that worship refused to confirm them anew,..." &c. and of that church in the Ottoman empire,

and to confirm them anew,...." &c. “H. M. the Sultan .... bas deigned to “H. M. the Sultan .... has deigned to take into serious consideration the represen- take into serious consideration the comtations of H. E. the Prince Menschikoff, munications of H. E. the Prince Menschi...." &c.

koff,...." &c. “The undersigned bas consequently re- “The undersigned has consequently received the order to declare by the present ceived the order to declare by the present that the government of H. M. the Sultan that the government of H. M. the Sultan will remain faithful to the letter and the will remain faithful to the letter and the spirit of the stipulations of the treaties of spirit of the stipulations of the treaty of Kainardji and of Adrianople, relative to Kainardji, confirmed by that of Adrianople, the protection of christian worship; and that relative to the protection by the Porte of the H. M. regards it as a point of honour, ...." christian worship, and to make known that &c.

H. M. regards it as a point of honour, ...." &c. “.... moreover, to allow the Greek wor “Moreover, to allow the Greek worship to ship to participate in a spirit of high justice participate in a spirit of high justice in the in the advantages conceded to other Chris- advantages accorded to other christian comtians by convention or special agreement,” &c. munities, Ottoman subjects,” &c.

Now, every one of these amendments vin- , drawn between “the worship of the Greek dicates the independence of the Porte, and church,” and “the Greek church in the clears up a difficulty; they were the result Ottoman empire,” i. e., the Greek subjects of much deliberation in the divan, which, of the Porte. The cause of his rejection of but for the strong advice of the mediating the modifications was, that he cared not for powers, would have rejected the note in toto. the worship of his church, and aimed only The whole note was, in reality, an extra- at the government of its worshippers. To ordinary blunder ;-well might Russia accept the honour of the Vienna conference, they it so eagerly, for it conceded all sbe aimed saw and confessed their egregious blunder; at; well might Turkey pause, for it laid her they had sinned, not against Russia, but crouching at the foot of the Czar. Inits origi- against Turkey, and we justify their repentnal form, the vagueness of the language would ance. Members of the Peace Society would not have required the astuteness of Russian doubtless have rejoiced in the spectacle of diplomacy in order to have construed it into the four powers urging the duty of suicide, a plain acknowledgment of the Czar's right and (in case their representations failed) to interfere “actively” in all matters con- deserting unhappy Turkey. We believe pected with the position and privileges of non-resistance to be moral suicide, and the the Greek subjects of the Porte; it in fact withholding of help from the feeble and placed the sceptre of the Sultan in the hands oppressed to be moral murder; and, conof Russia, and yielded up to her the whole sequently, while we mourn over the horrors power of active rule. The modifications are of war, we believe that “the British governcourteous and civil, though firm; the Czar ment was justified in entering upon the could not by possibility object to anything present war with Russia"-nay, more, that in their letter, but, at the same time, he it was their SOLEMN DUTY. could not bear to hare the distinction clearly !

B. S.

burial Economy.

IS SECULARISM CONSONANT WITH THE HIGHEST AMOUNT OF SOCIAL

HAPPINESS?

AFFIRMATIVE ARTICLE.-I. SECULARISM is that phase of modern free is wonderfully but indissolubly bound in one thought developed by Mr. G. J. Holyoake, chain, and that whatever threatens the peace and of which he is considered, both by its and repose of one threatens the peace and disciples and opponents, the foremost expo- repose of all—that if one be ignorant and nent. It proposes pure moralism as a basis wretched the intelligence and happiness of of union and rule of conduct for those who all are in danger-he will strive after a state stand outside the churches and sects of of society in which none shall be ignorant Christianity-the theist, the nontbeist, and and wretched. When plagues curse the the believer in the eclectical uses of the chris- land with their presence, blighting the fair tian scriptures. It is "the philosophy of earth at every footstep, and sweeping away the things of time.” The secularist does alike and relentlessly old age in its weakness, not pretend to have learnt the mystery of manhood in its strength, and youth in its the past, nor to have penetrated

beauty, the secularist will not recognize in “The stern secret folded up

them the acts of Deity, the anger of offended In the ciosed hand of death."

Omnipotence, but will know that they are To him the Past is a sealed book, the Future the offspring of his inattention to the monia problem which death will solve. What tions of rature, the teachings of experience, has been, or what may be, he knows not; and the requirements of his frame, and, and he cleaves to the present, and gives heed abandoning prayers and fasts to the credulous, to those subjects, the issues of which can be he will look solely to material agencies for a tested in this life. Conscientiously reject- panacea. Others may trust in Providence ing the creeds of the past, be seeks for some he will keep his powder dry. Instead of a surer and more reliable belief, which may day of humiliation and prayer for the success guide him with dignity through life, and of our arms in the Crimea, the secularist light him in peace to the grave. He dis- would propose to send out abler commanders covers that science is the providence of man, (if such are to be had), more troops, and a and that reliance on other aid leads only to better managed commissariat, and to place disastrous results; that experience is his in Downing-street men honestly bent on only guidance, and that self-dependence is obeying the national will by pushing the the safest support. He studies the order of war with vigour. nature, and strives to conform himself there. When men err grievously and do that to. Placing no reliance on mysterious and which is hurtful, the secularist will not take unknown agencies, he does not, in the hour sp the language of the prophet, and say, of distress or danger, consume precious time " The heart of man is deceitful above all in fruitless appeals and unheeded propitia- | things and desperately wicked,” but will tions. He will not inquire with Campbell recall the profound reflection of Mrs Stowe, “Oh, Righteous Heaven! ere freedom found a when speaking of Haley, the slave-driver, grave,

“ His heart was exactly where yours, sir, Why'slept the sword omnipotent to save?"

and mine could be brought with proper effort but will rather repeat the wise words of and cultivation,” and will seek in an elevated Emerson, “I say to you, you must save standard of education, of mental and moral yourselves, black or white, man or woman; culture, and in an improved state of phyother help there is none.” Floating on the sical circumstances, for the required remedy. Sea of human ills, he will not look for super- The endeavour after the good and beautinatural assistance, but will strike out with ful; the struggle for a nobler humanity, a lusty vigour for land. Beholding that society | purer nation, a holier, because a more manly

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and practical religion, a wiser plan of life; “4. The social and political laws on which the incessant effort to attain to whatever is national prosperity and advancement depend. brave, disinterested, patriotic, heroic, self-' “5. The economic laws on which wealth reliant, and loveable; the constant imitation depends." of all that is worthy and true in our eyes; “Excelsior!" is the motto of Secularism; the stedfast looking to the great names of and it asks of its votaries constant effort, the past and present, and the resolute follow- patient endurance, and devoted service in ing in their footsteps;—this is the aim of the the life-battle for a fuller and higher develsecularist. He may not fulfil all that is opment of their physical and mental powers. here indicated, but he goes in that direction. He believes with Paley that

“ Not enjoyment, and not sorrow,

Is our destined end or way; “He most lives

But to act, that each to-morrow Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best." | Find us farther than to-day."

Thus he seeks to live, and to enjoy life wisely by employing it usefully in the ser

Living the life of the freeman, the seci. vice of the race. His object “is to develop

is to develon larist cannot die the death of the slave. those sentiments which have their source in

When he reposes at last, he can lay himself human nature, which impel and ennoble all

down without fear, in the consciousness of morality, which are grounded upon intelligent

right intent and good conduct. He never personal conviction, and manifest themselves

fears that God, who is just, will condemn in worthy and noble actions, especially in

him in Eternity because he has not been able the promotion of truth, justice, and love."

to see truth in some dogma in Time. He Practical in his endeavours, the secularist

relies unfalteringly on being judged by seeks to know and to communicate to others

his conduct, by the light thrown on his a knowledge of

path, by his aptitudes and opportunities. “1. The physical laws on which health

He does not seek to evade the natural condepends.

sequences and just punishment of sin; nor *2. The moral laws on which happiness

does he fear that a good God, whose tender depends.

mercies are said to be over all his works, *3. The intellectual laws on which know

will superadd any other punishment thereto. ledge depends.

JAMES.

The Juguirer.

QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS. who alludes to the manner of his death, though

he mentions the report of some that it was due to 260. Is Bull's Blood Poison ?--The following poison, does not believe it. Aristophanes, how: cases of death from drinking fresh bull's blood are ever, who came later, may nevertheless have had related :--Pelias, by Apollodorus Athen. and Dio better means of knowing the truth, though it is dorus Siculus; Midas, by Strabo; Psammenitus, also possible that interested motives may have by Herodotus; Themistocles, by Aristophanes, originated the account he adopts. But I am Plutarch, and Diodorus; Annibal, by Plutarch. sensible that the question is by no means settled, Grote, in the case of Themistocles, and Dr. Smith, | and therefore propound it in the hope that mediin that of Psammenitus, appear to find no diffi. I cal readers of the Inquirer" will favour me with culty in the statement of death by bull's blood; but opinions on the subject.--F. J. L., B.A. Niebuhr denies its possibility, and fancies that the Greeks extracted prussic acid from the blood.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. I have elsewhere (“Notes and Queries," Vol. XI., pp. 67, 148; Nos. 274, 278) preferred the plain! 242. The Equation of Time, or exact difference statement of the Greek medical writer, Diosco between mean solar time and true solar time, is rides, that the blood acts as poison by coagulating 1 given in almost all almanacs of the better class. in the stomach, and impeding respiration, and I The authority on such matters is the “ Nautical have also, I think, vindicated the above writers Almanac," which is always published some years from the imputation of carelessly copying from l in advance, for the benefit of nautical men, who each other a mistake originating in a corrupted are not always in the neighbourhood of Pater. line of Sophocles. The only plausible objection noster Row and Albemarle Street at the end of to the arguments I have there used is, that Thu- each year. A very cheap, useful, and trustworthy cydides, the only contemporary of Themistocles substitute will, however, be found in Dietrichsen

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and Hannay's Almanac; its astronomical tables a compendious and universally recognized form are amply sufficient for the purposes of ordinary of expressing a particular idea. Having preastronomers. The equation of time in English mised thus much by way of explanation, we protables is calculated for the longitude of Green-ceed to tender "Leo" our advice as to the method wich, and is given only for the precise moment of his studies. Let him purchase one of Mr. when the sun is on the meridian of Greenwich ; Pott's editions of Euclid (college edition, 10s.; at any other time, i.e., when the sun is on the school edition, containing only the first six meridian of any other place, a proportional part books, 4s. 6d.), and commence with the definimust be taken, A. may calculate the equation of tions, postulates, and axioms of the first book, time for the instaut when the sun is on the learning them off by heart, and studying to unmeridian of his house in Penzance, from the subderstand them by the aid of Mr. Potts's notes. joined formula:

When this is done, let him test his knowledge by Let E = equation of time to-day (i. e., any day), the questions at the end of the notes; if he finds as given in the almanac,

that his answers (which he should write) agree E' = equation of time to-morrow,

strictly in substance with the explanatory notes I = longitude (of Penzance) in degrees West of Mr. Potts, he may congratulate himselfof Greenwich. Then the equation of time, at solar noon, “to

“- subacta ferre jugum valet

Cervice;" day" (in Penzance) = E + (E' - E). the first, and, consequently, the hardest step toThe same formula holds good for all other

wards mental training is accomplished. If, how

ever, his answers are couched in the very words places. The tables in the almanacs suppose that

of Mr. Potts, he will do well to suspect himselfthe hour of true noon is known, and that of mean noon sought, and not vice versa. The former, of

memory may have put on the mask of undercourse, is ascertained either by the sun-dial, or

standing, and if so, "Leo" is in danger of be

coming a mere animated and inconveniently more accurately by the transit instrument. The

bulky copy of Potts's Euclid. The next step mode in which the scientific astronomer" finds"

will be, to master the “propositions." The the equations of time, and so forms the tables,

" enunciations" must be learned by heart; and belongs to the abstruser branches of mixed

as the strict reasoning of the propositions them. mathematics.-B. S. 246. The Matriculation Examination of the

selves will not allow of more than the most trivial

alterations, “ Leo" must make rigorous use of the University of London is restricted, in respect of geometry, to the first book of Euclid; but this

notes and questions supplied by Mr. Potts, in

order to guard against merely remembering what the candidate is expected to understand, not

he ought thoroughly to comprehend. In exmerely to have learned. There are two means of

amining himself by writing out the propositions testing whether we understand any branch of

he has learnt, I would strongly advise the ocknowledge, -1st, Can we apply it? No one would

casional use of the latter letters of the alphabet, say that a physician understands medicine, if be

as X, Y, Z, &c; many a student, apparently can neither discover his patient's disease, nor

quite au fait in his Euclid, has been seriously prescribe a remedy. It would be folly to say

puzzled by being compelled to use letters difthat a schoolboy understands Latin because he

1.ferent from those in the text-book. Lastly, "Leo" can repeat the Eton grammar by rote, if at the same time he is neither able to construe a dozen

must apply his knowledge in solving the “Geo. consecutive lines of Virgil, nor to turn the sim

metrical Exercises on Book I.," given by Mr.

Potts towards the end of the volume, in which plest sentence out of English into Latin. Just

task he may avail himself of the aid afforded by So, no one can be said to understand Euclid until he can apply his propositions to the solu

the accompanying "hints, solutions," &c. This tion of easy geometrical problems or theorems

done, he will be fully prepared for the University

examination. To illustrate the general character such as are generally appended to the better

of the examination papers, I append an abstract editions of this ancient and standard author.

of that for 1851. znd, Can we express our knowledge in our own language, and explain it to others ? My mean- MATRICULATION PASS EXAMINATION. ing will be best illustrated by an example :-“A point," says Euclid, “is that which hath no parts,

Thursday, July 3. Morning, Ten to One. or which has no magnitude." Now, in this ne- 1. What is meant by a point, an angle, a circle? gative description there is an evident vagneness Distinguish between an axiom and a postulate. and peculiarity which must strike every thought | Do the truths of geometry, as a portion of human ul mind; and if a student, in answer to the science, rest ultimately on the evidence of the inquiry, “ What do you understand by these senses Words ?" can do nothing but reiterate the sentence | 2. From the greater of two given straight lines, again and again, it becomes evident that he has &c. (Euclid I. 3.) 10 more intelligent conception of the nature of a 3. If two triangles have two sides of the one, geometrical point than the sheet of paper on which &c. (Euclid 1. 4.) the definition happens to be printed. But if, on 4. To draw a straight line perpendicular, &c. de other hand, he replies in some such words as

renlies in some such words as (Euclid I. 12.) Dese:-“The geometrical point defined by Euclid 5. If from the ends of the side of a triangle, &c. is the abstract idea of position, divested of those (Euclid I. 21.)

parts" or that " magnitude"'which render the 6. The straight lines which join, &c. (Euclid I. position and existence of a physical point appreciable to the senses,"—then we perceive that 7. If from the right angle, &c. (Exercise, No. i understands the definition, and that its actual | 37, in Mr. Potts's “Exercises on Book I.") Words are to him what they were intended to be, ! 8. Describe a parallelogram, &c. (Euclid' I. 42);

33.)

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