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The Young Studeut and Writer's Assistant.
2. He is an enemy of the commonwealth's (ene. Perform the Exercise for the Senior Division
1. I love you more than (I love) him. in the May No., 1854, Vol. V., page 196.
2. I love you more than he (loves you).
The words enclosed in brackets complete the MODEL EXERCISE, No. XXIV.
1. John has her book. Vide April No., 1854, p. 156.
2. John has a book of hers, i.e., one book of 1. The goverpinent of England's honour, &c. her books. In this sentence government of England must be regarded as though written in one word. A less
MATHEMATICAL CLASS. objectionable form is, The honour of the govern. ment of England, &c.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.-111. 2. The Sultan of Turkey's army is contending (a) 22. 267 feet. 23.3, yards. 24. 1084 square with the Emperor of all the Russias' (army). inches. 25. L5 6s. 8d. 26. 1. Here we have supplied the ellipsis (ariny, under- (6) 27. 41. 29. 88. 29. £36, £12, £16. 30. stood). The form of the possessive must be ex- 15.5. plained on the principle of (1).
(c). 31. 193137 square feet. 32. 1.442 feet. 3. What church do you attend? St. Paul's | 33. 394 yards. 34. 86.19543. (church, understood); or, more fully (I attend) St. Paul's (church).
QUESTIONS FOR SOLUTION.-IV. 4. This coat was purchased at Dixon's (shop), see (2) and (3).
(a) 35. A parish contains 7,233 acres, 29 poles ; 5. Solomon, the son-of-David's wisdom, &c. express its area as a fraction of the whole of EngHere Solomon and son of David may be regarded land, which contains 58,000 square miles. as two nouns in apposition; and as the idiom of 36. From the sum of and take the differthe language only admits of the possessive sign ence between and in the last case, it is added to David. A better, 37. Which is greater, the product of 173 and because more definite, form would be, The wis- 5. or the product of 202 and 123, and what is the dom of Solomon, &c.
difference? .6. The British Controversialist, &c., supply 38. Find the difference between the continued shop, and the sense is complete.
product of j, $, and á, and that of 4, 6, 4,
and II. Point out errors, &c.
39. How much must be added to 3-4 to make 1. The Most Highest, &c. 2. He is of a more 74; and what number taken from 232 will serener, &c. 3. The most straitest sect, &c. leave of 92 ? These expressions are pleonastic; in other words, (6) 40. A and B have together 8s., A and C the words MOST, MORE, and MOST, are super- have 10s., B and C have 12s.; what have they fluous.
each? 4. I understood him the best of all the others, 41. A cistern is filled in 20 minutes by 3 pipes, &c., should be, I understood him better than all one of which conveys 10 gallons more, and an. the others, &c.
other 5 gallons less than the third, per minute. 5. A ant-hill, should be, an ant-hill.
The cistern holds 820 gallons. How much flows 6. An ewer, should be, a ewer, as the word through each pipe in a minute? ewer is pronounced as though it were spelled yŪer, 42. A and B engage in trade with different and the adjective an drops the n before a conso sums. A gains £150, B loses £50, and now A's nant.
stock is half as large again as B's. But if A had 7 A island, should be, an island, because before gained £100, and B lost £50, A's stock would a vowel sound, an retains its original form. have been a third as large again as B's. Find 8. An house, should be, a house, see (6).
the sums with which they began. 9. A heir. The h in heir is silent; hence it 43. The length of a rectangular field exceeds should be, an heir.
the breadth by 10 yards, and its area is 24,000 10. A humble, &c., should be, an humble, &c. square yards. Find its dimensions. (9). Besides this, the sentence is ambiguous, for 44. What two numbers are those whose differit does not say whether he thinks worse of him ence is 3, and the sum of their squares 485? self than he thinks of his neighbours, or worse (c) 45. Find the radius of a circle, whose cirof himself than his neighbours think of him. cumference is equal to of a mile. 11. Such an one, &c., should be, such a one, 46. Find the length of the quadrant of a circle,
one-fourth of whose radius is 9 75 yards. 12. An union, &c., should be, a union, &c. (6). 47. Find the number of degrees in an arc, whose III. 1. This is a picture of Byron the poet,
length is 1 the circumference, when the radius means his likeness.
is 76.25 feet.
48. If the semi-circumference of a circle, whose 2. This is a picture of Byron the poet's, means radius is 98.5 feet, is equal in length to the quadhis property, or one of his pictures.
rant of another, what is the diameter of this 1. He is an enemy of the commonwealth, means last? simply what it says.
13. How is the deficiency compensated for? Junior Division,
14. Compared with other nations the condition Perform Exercise 4, in the May No., 1854,
of England with regard to minerals?
15. Örwbat race and language are the English ? Vol. V., p. 193.
The Welsh, and inhabitants of Cornwall? The Senior Division.
inhabitants of the Isle of Man? Of the Channel EXERCISE NO. XIV.
Islands? 1. Of wbat does the mineral wealth of England tinct languages spoken in England.
16. Account for the fact that there are two dischiefly consist ? 2. In what parts are mines principally found ?
17. The present language of England ?
18. By how many people is English now spo3. The chief coal-fields? The quantity raised
ken? In what parts ? annually?
19. From what other languages has the Eng. 4. Where is iron found? Copper?
lish been enriched ? 5. In what island was it once very abundant? 6. Where is lead found? Tin? 7. The value of the tin mines as compared with
LOGIC CLASS. those of other countries?
Perform the Exercise on the “ Art of Reason8. Have they been long worked ? 9. Where is blacklead found? Its quality ? ing, No. 4., in the April No., 1851, Vol. II.
10. Where is rock salt found? How else is salt obtained in the same neighbourhood ?
PHONETIC SHORT-HAND CLASS. 11. Where is slate found? Fuller's earth ?
12. Is England rich in building stone? The Go through the 4th lesson, as directed in the best?
No. for April, 1854, Vol. V., p. 156.
The “Plurality of Worlds," by Mr. J.S. Smith, | Dukes of Urbino." Mr. Dennistoun had just announced in Messrs. John W. Parker and Son's completed an interesting memoir of Strange the list of new publications, is, we are informed, one engraver, and of his kinsman, Andrew Lumisden; of these publishers' series of “ Oxford Essays," in two vols. and has nothing to do with “ The Plurality of It is stated in the Publishers' Circular that the Worlds." ascribed, and we believe rightly so, to sum of £1,000, offered by the proprietors of the Dr. Whewell. It would have been as well to Times, for the discovery of a new material for have avoided introducing a plurality of works making paper, is likely to be claimed for a Mr. under the same title.
Watts, who has produced an admirable article We hear that Mr. Henry Reeve is appointed to from wood shavings and bran, and obtained a the editorship of the “Edinburgh Review,"in place patent for it. of Sir G. Cornewali Lewis, the present Chancellor On the principle of going to a distance to hear of the Exchequer.
home news, we copy the following from the An eminent literary gentleman, who is on terms New York Daily Tribune, concerning our leadof friendship with a distinguished member of the ing journal :-" The principal writers in the late Cabinet, inquired recently of the right hon. | Times at present (under Mr. Delane) are the Rer. member whether it was the intention of Her Thomas Mozley; Mr. Sampson, who succeeded Majesty's Government to include literary men, Mr. Alsager as writer of the City article; Mr. artists, and men of science, in a national order of Robert Lowe, the M.P. for Kidderminster, who merit? The reply was, that “the question had has charge of the Colonial subjects; Mr. Thorp. been mooted and abandoned."
ton, who writes the Parliamentary Summary: Count Joseph Tekely, one of the most distin- Tyas,' much renowned for Greek; Macdonald guished literary men of Hungary, died lately at (who was sent to Constantinople with the fund Pestn. He was engaged in writing an historical for the sick); Ward, a Quarterly Reviewer;' work on the era of the Hunyades at the time of John Oxenford, the dramatic critic; Davison, his death.
the musical critic; and Dr. Richardson. The Rafael Fürsthenthal - a renowned Hebrew manager of the Times, now for several years past scholar-has just died at Breslau, aged 74. He -and really more of the editor than Mr. Delane wrote, amongst other things, a poem in modern himself--is Mr. Mowbray Morris, a barrister." Hebrew, called “ Zionide."
Our oldest poet is Mr. Rogers, now in his 90th We have to announce the sudden death of one year. Our oldest historian is Mr. Hallam, in his of the first mathematicians of the age, Professor 74th year. Our oldest critic is Mr. Wilson CroGauss, of Göttingen. For the encouragement of ker, in his 75th year. Our oldest novelist is the young, we may state that he was born of very Lady Morgan, but we shall conceal her ladyship's poor parents, and so completely failed in his first age. Our oldest biographer is Mr. Britton, in his attempts in mathematics, that bis examiner recom- 83rd year. Mr. Leigh Hunt was a poet, with a mended him to turn his attention to other studies ! printed volume of his effusions in verse, more
The death is also announced of James Den- than half a century ago, and is now in his 71st nistoun, Esq., author of the “ Memoirs of the year.
BY SAMUEL NEIL, AUTHOR OF THE ART OF REASONING,” “THE ELEMENTS OF RHETORIC," ETC.
THE IONIC SCHOOL—THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE-ANAXAGORAS.
The watchful survey of the gradual evolution of the processes of " the inner life” gives to the thinker joy unspeakable. There is a tempting fascination in philosophy which great minds cannot resist. The problems it propounds, and the methods it employs for their solation, are alike full of intense interest. In the old ages of the world the thinker voyaged alone, unhelmed and compassless, through the strange seas and yet unfathomed waters of speculative philosophy. In all the grand sublimity of solitude, guided but by the newly-lighted lamp of a noble purpose, despite of the misty shroudments of superstition, these primal excursions were undertaken. It is easy for us, in self-complacent egotism, to smile at their follies, confute their errors, and plume ourselves in prideful selfsufficiency on our superiority to them. But, put the question honestly, how much less foolish than they would we have been, had they not constructed charts for our behoof, and erected lighthouses here and there for our guidance, in that limitless expanse? Here the white light of truth beams out; there the green glare of uncertainty counsels caution; and yonder the red lights warn of certain danger. We have all these helps, besides being beneficiently surrounded by an horizon of holier light and purer lustre, and hence have little cause for self-gratulation, and still less for the contemptuous smile or the scornful negligence with which we treat the philosophy of olden times.
In the old world the only instruments of observation and experiment were the senses the inheritance of what might be called capitalized thought was small -and hence there was greater difficulty in the working out of the problems of the reason than we can now rightly estimate. And in so far as we underrate these difficulties, we must fail to comprehend aright the true position and status of the thinkers of the past. Given, the senses as the sole, unaided instruments of investigation, and their impressions as the phenomena to be explained, there seems nothing more natural than the direction which philosophic inquiries in these ages took in making the mind, its powers and activities, chief factors in the product-knowledge—and in endeavouring by an acquaintance with
“The subtle ways
Of intricate but instantaneous thought," to unriddle the mysteries of nature, and satisfy the earnest soul hungering after wisdom.
To be truly wise requires that Man, Nature, and God, should, in their whole essence and relationships, be accurately known and felt; but it is in phenomena alone that the outward and higher and grander noumena, by which all is ruled, to which all is subject, and in which all lives, are displayed and made knowable. Through our own sensations, Nature is known; through our own reason, the Deity is apprehended; and hence, to know ourselves truly is to have the key to all other knowledge. From this stand-point the philosophy of the Ionic school looked out upon all things, and through this they saw, “as through a glass darkly,” glimpses of several truths. In our previous papers we have explained the steps taken by Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes, in the search after truth. A new thinker succeeds them; let us hear him.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.—ANAXAGORAS (500—428 B.C.), the pupil and successor of Anaximenes, was born at Clazomenæ, near Colophon, in Lydia. He was of noble lineage, and his wealth was princely. Hereditary honours could not satisfy him; he wished to be a noble in virtue of his own achievements. He rightly regarded the statesman's office as less honour-worthy than that of the thinker; and sought in the pursuits of philosophy a prëeminence greater than statesmanship afforded. When reproached for his apparent apathy regarding the interests of his native country, he, pointing to the heavens, replied, “I have the greatest love for my native land.” When he saw that the management of his patrimonial estate prevented the entire devotion of his soul to the contemplation of Nature and Thought, he relinquished it to his relatives, and migrated to Athens, then the chief city in Greece, that held out peculiar inducements to those who desired to pursue an intellectual life. Here he developed and taught those doctrines which gained him the title of “ The Intelligence" (Nows). His most distinguished pupils were-Pericles, the statesman; Euripides, the dramatist; and Archelaus, the tutor of Socrates. It was a grand era in Athenian history, that. Athens was just in the transition state—now the chief of the allied Greek cities, and shortly after—when the triumphs of Miltiades, Leonidas, Cimon, and Themistocles had added Marathon, Thermopylæ, Salamis, and Mycale as words of glory to the Greek nationalities—to become the queen and mistress of them all. The Dionysiac theatre afforded culture to the minds and tastes of the people, by representing the dramas of Æschylus and Sophocles; statues and temples rose around in magnificence and beauty; and the poems of Homer were read delightedly by, and formed the theme of much refined discourse among, the literary men of the day. Philosophy was much cultivated, and a general activity of thought prevailed. For a time Anaxagoras taught his doctrines in peace, and pursued his inquiries unmolested. There arose, however, about the year 432, a faction in the Athenian state, whose object was to oppose Pericles. This they attempted to effect, in the first instance, by trying their strength in the prosecution of his known friends. They fixed on the beautiful, learned, and calumniated Aspasia, the illustrious architect and sculptor Phidias, and the philosopher Anaxagoras. Anaxagoras had made himself obnoxious to the envious by his superiority, to the religious by his tenets, to the enthusiastic politicians by his well known indifference to national patriotism, and to all these for having been the teacher of him who had now become—chiefly, it was thought, by his instructions—the foremost man in all the state. Two charges were, therefore, brought against Anaxagoras—either of them sufficient in Greece to compass the end this faction had in view—viz., unbelief in, and impiety towards, the Gods of the state; and Medism, i. e., a favourable leaning towards the Persians. For these crimes he was first imprisoned, and then condemned to death. It is difficult to say whether he escaped the poison cup through the intercession of Pericles or by flight, so different are the accounts handed down to us by ancient writers. Lucian, the satirist, in his “Dialogues," represents “ the father of Gods and king of men” as launching a terribly destructive thunderbolt at Anaxagoras, which Pericles
bravely turns aside from his aged friend; but Plutarch accuses the great statesman of forgetfulness, if not faithlessness, to his instructor, and asserts that when Anaxagoras saw himself neglected, he lay down calmly determined to starve himself to death. On hearing of this resolution, Pericles flew to his prison, and besought him to live, if not for the love of life, yet for the good his counsel might do the state. Whereupon Anaxagoras, uncover, ing his face, hitherto moodily rolled up in his robe (xlaiva), said, “O Pericles! those who desire to see by the light of a lamp, must put oil in it, to make the light burn." Whether he fled from prison, or had his sentence commuted to banishment, the Areopagus seems not to have been fully satisfied, and hence they put his two sons to death. When he was informed of this cruelty, in his retreat at Lampsacus, he remarked, “ Nature had long ago passed on the judges, on them, and on myself, the same sentence;” and when some one asked him if he did not regret the loss of Athenian society, he replied, “It is they who have lost me." At length, borne down by sorrow, poverty, and old age, he sickened, and when on his death-bed, the people of Lampsacus, who loved him well, asked if he would like to have his body conveyed to his native Clazomenæ; be replied, " There is no occasion for that; all places are alike near to the world to which I am going.” A few days after, the senate asked how he would wish his memory to be honoured, and he requested that "they would allow the day of his death to be held as a holiday by the schoolboys of Lampsacus.” Shortly after he expired, and another great man was added to the treasure-house of Death.
Aristotle characterizes Anaxagoras as a profound and cautious thinker; and so, indeed, he was; but he was also a man of extensive culture and rare acquirements. He wrote a work on “ The Perspective of the Theatre," and occupied the prison-hours before his trial in writing on “The Quadrature of the Circle." His treatise “ On Nature," of which we have many fragments extant,* seems to have consisted of closely-reasoned and well-compacted aphorisms upon phenomena and their causes, rather disconnected in style, but firmly knit by thought.
EXPOSITION.—The notion of a unique element from which all things forth-formed themselves, or were forth-formed, had hitherto satisfied the wants of speculation. But how from this One can the All proceed? and how does the All become the Many? The orderly evolution of all things from one primal element in different states and modes seems inconceivable, when we reflect upon the infinity of different things which exist. What processes are sufficient to explain the conditions and causes which give origin to them all? For if they all proceed from the same element, and are governed by the same laws, all things must either be similar, or on their way towards similarity, or the laws of their transformation must be very numerous, and their actions intricate and confused. It is more probable, therefore, that there are special and peculiar elements fitted to produce, by proper combinations, each sort of object; different kinds of perfectly similar elementary particles, each sort of which, when combined by the natural attraction of like for like, formed one particular substance; and hence, he says—“in all things there is a part of the
* See Schaubach's “ Anaxagoræ Clazomenii Fragmenta." Leipsic, 1827, which contains all the fragments relating to the life and philosophy of Anaxagoras which are to be found in the classics of Greece and Rome. The matter in inverted commas in the text consists of translations of some of those fragments.