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the systems prevailing in other countries, measures is absolutely essential ; and not a and adapt their good points to our own; and few will be surprised that the inconsistencies we have drawn a comparison between the we have pointed out have been allowed so French and the English systems, not from long to exist. We know of no plan of simany belief that it would be wise in us to plification so thoroughly effective as the deoverthrow all our old associations and wed cimal system-the regular progression of ourselves to the French system, but more tens. If the decimal system be serviceable especially for the purpose of keeping promi- in connection with our coinage, it seems to be nently before us the one great characteristic | even more so with respect to weights and of that system, viz., that in its vocabulary measures, because in the latter instance the “there is one specific, definite, significant subdivisions are necessarily more numerous word to denote the limit of lineal measure; as well as in some cases more minute; thereone for superficial, and one for solid measure; fore, the facilities of calculation should be one for the unit of measures of capacity, proportionably great, and we should no longer and for the units of weights. The word be reproached with fostering a system affordis exclusively appropriated to the thing, and 'ing the perpetual paradox of a whole, not the thing to the word. The metre is a de- equal to all its parts, or numbers losing the finite measure of length; it is nothing else. definite character which is essential to their It cannot be a measure of length in one nature-a dozen becoming sixteen, twentycounty, and of another length in another. eight signifying twenty-five, or one hundred The gramme is a specific weight; and the and twelve meaning a hundred.* litre a vessel of specific cubic contents, con-| By far the most ingenious and intelligible taining a specific weight of water.” Here, suggestion which we have seen for decimal. then, is an example to fall back upon izing our weights has proceeded from Mr.
We presume our readers will be fully pre- Taylor, to whom we have previously repared to agree with us, that some adjust- ferred. The following is his table:ment and simplification of our weights and
* Vide Adams' Report. Grain, or Minim.
1 Pound. 10,000 1,000
100 10 1 Stone. 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 Cwt. Ton, 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 or Quintal. 10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1
Here are eight denominations of weights, This is a great practical advantage. Such a the first or lowest in the scale—the grain weight as 7 tons 4 cwt. 5 stone and 6 lbs., or minim, being the ten-thousandth part of a may much simpler, and just as accurately, pound-the pound being the thousandth part be called 7,456 pounds, or by adding a cypher, of the new ton, of ten cwt. The present it would be 74,560 ounces, and so on down pound, avoirdupois, is, in fact, the unit of this to the lowest denomination. system—all smaller weights being decimal Mr. Taylor also suggests the following parts of a pound, and all larger weights being table of imperial measures of capacity, liquid capable of decimal reduction into pounds. I or dry:Cubic inches. I minim
28 / 10 minims of water are l scruple-metre. 277 10 scruples
1 drachm-metre. 2,773 | 10 drachms
1 ounce-metre. 27,727 10 ounces
1 pound-metre. 277,274 10 pounds
1 gallon. 2,772,740 10 gallons
1 hundred-metre (or firkin).
Here, then, we have not only the same cubic measures ; and it is only necessary number of denominations as in the table of here to remark, that whilst everyone is inweights, but in the first four divisions of the juriously affected by the want of uniformity table the same names, with the affis metre in our weights, and measures of capacity, but to indicate that “capacity and not weight comparatively few persons are interested in is intended." There is one very great advan- | the number of yards or furlongs constituting tage in this table which must not be over- a mile. Moreover, our surface and cubic looked. Its gallon is identical with the measures are consistent in themselves : a imperial gallon of 277,274 cubic inches foot does not mean twelve inches at one time capacity, and in weight ten pounds, avoir- or place, and fifteen at another; and still dupois, of distilled water, as is now used in further, we may state, on the authority of conformity with the Act 5 George IV., c. 74. Mr. Adams, that the English foot rule is The gallon is thus constituted the unit of “universally known throughout the world.” measures, as the pound avoirdupois is the The English foot, however, represents no unit of weights. All the lower divisions are decimal division of the English mile. Our decimal parts of the gallon, and all the larger charts for navigation, &c., and the calcudenominations are multiples of the gallon. lations of our astronomers, are for the most Thus, instead of expressing a quantity as 5 part based upon the English mile. If we butts 9 firkins and 4 gallons, it is simpler alter our mile to correspond with the decimal for all practical purposes to say, 594 gallons. multiples of the foot, the confusion is endless. The “pint," our " old familiar pint,” is If we alter our foot to constitute it a decimal reduced to a smaller portion under the sys- division of the mile, the world will lose one tem here proposed. It is to be one-tenth of its most familiar appliances. Surely this instead of one-eighth of a gallon, and it is is a just reward for commencing on a wrong also to undergo a change of name, and be basis. Let us reform where we can reform, called a pound. We fear, with those having for fear of finding ourselves in another similar large dealings in pints, the change of quan- dilemma; and let us no longer culpably overtity, if not of name, will meet with a decided look the declaration that there should be “one objection.
weight and one measure,” which, as we have We have at present said nothing of the seen, was so wisely incorporated in the great decimal system as applied to surface and charter of our English liberties.
QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS.
i just suits me. I am a pertinacious inquirer. “I
espondents of the hope," therefore, “I pertinacious inquirer. “I
251. Will one of the correspondents of the the" following “ question," viz.:-In the Rev. R. British Controversialist kindly inform me the A. Willmott's “Pleasures, Objects, and Advanmeaning of the word “Hyperion," used by Pro tages of Literature," chap. xi., I find it stated that fessor Longfellow as the title to one of his prose “St. Paul uses one word twenty-six times, and it poems? Also the signification of a name spoken occurs in no other part of the New Testament of by E. A. Poe, in his poem of “The Raven," as except in the parable of the barren figtree." What "A rare and radiant maiden whom the angels word is this? I bethink me, that did I know that Dame Lenore;
word it would surely afford a latchkey by which Nameless here for ever:nore"?-FANNY.
I might see something more of the character of 22. Being a young man engaged in commer- the revered apostle. Can and will you oblige ? cial pursuits, I am desirous of obtaining & more | Yours, &c.--PAUL PRY. extended and philosophical acquaintance with the principles, laws, &c., of commerce than I now
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. possess, I shall therefore feel obliged to any of your readers who will furnish me with a list of Cambridge Examinations.-Note questhe best works on commerce, banking, and mone- tious are frequently asked respecting Cambridge tary science in general, together with the order in examinations, it may not be out of place, in a secWhich they should be studied.-GIRARD ASton. tion devoted to satisfying inquirers, especially
233. My dear Mr. Editor, everybody knows that students, to draw attention to a work which has I am insatiably curious, and that I will do or say now been established several years, and which anything rather than leave my curiosity ungrati- while it is only one-fourth or less in price than ded. I know you have a page in your magazine, other works bearing on the university examina for I have had a peep" into it before now, which tions, contains far more practical information with
respect to them. I mean the “ Cambridge Alma-1 J. M. S., unitedly form the groundwork of mathenack and Register;" in which will be found, in matics, he ought to have shown how it was addition to an almanack for each year (the one possible for the highest part of the edifice to have lately published for 1855), a list of the officers of been erected before there was any under buildthe university, the voluntary theological papers, ing or groundwork. Perhaps it did not occur to the examination papers for honours and ordinary J. M. S. to contemplate these difficulties, or be B. A. degree, the previous or little-go examina- may yet find a solution for them; meanwhile, we tion and classical tripos papers, programme of state it as an undeniable fact, that the matheprofessors' lectures, of the officers and crews of matics can at any time be as well comprehended the college boat clubs, register of boat races and and developed without the knowledge of physical, cricket matches, &c. &c; price Is. 6d., published chemical, vital, and mental science as with it, by Wallis, Sidney-street, Cambridge ; and by G. while none of these sciences can be understood Bell, 186, Fleet-street, London. On the subject without the previous acquisition of mathematical which is generally of deepest interest to those knowledge. There are no physical, chemical, about to matriculate at Cambridge, viz., the ex. vital, nor mental truisms inculcated in simple aminations, this work contains more real inform- mathematical propositions, while mathematical ation than any other. It has been customary for truth is essentially concerned in the laws and many of the examination papers contained herein, facts of all the other sciences. These consideras the classical and mathematical tripos papers, ations, therefore, necessitate the conclusion that and the previous and ordinary degree examina the mathematics form the real fundamental and tions, to be published and sold separately at 6d. or primary science. 1s. each. But it will be found of great use, not | The true order and number of the abstract only by students, but by all engaged in tuition, by sciences, as held by M. Comte, and almost every masters especially of classical and commercial eminent philosopher at the present day, stands schools, who have to examine or prepare examin- thus:-Mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, ation papers. For the latter, all the papers here and sociology. The first sciences are the least given may be taken as models, having been framed dependent and the most general, the last are the by men selected by the university as best quali most dependent and special. According to these fied for the task.-F.J. L.
characteristics, their tiue vertical arrangement 220. The Division of the Sciences. The com would therefore resolve themselves into a pyra. munication that appeared in the last volume, midical form. In proceeding from the bottom to p. 356, of this magazine, respecting the division the top, we pass from the most simple and of the sciences, contains a few essential errors; it universal properties and laws to those that are is therefore necessary that they should be noticed more complex and limited. Each one is depenand corrected. J. M. S., the author of this com-dent on all that lie below it, and is a basis for all munication, has in his arrangement of the sciences that lie above it. He who is versant in all the stated, that the four great departments, physics, laws and properties of these five abstract sciences, chemistry, life, and mind, unitedly form the is prepared to understand every event that can groundwork of the very curious, refined, difficult, possibly occur in the world, aud to exhibit truth and important science of mathematics; and that and nature in their real, unsophisticated character; they ought to be studied according to this order. there being no fact, process, or operation, that This we purpose to show is the inversion of the does not, as far as we can know, fall within the true natural order and succession of these sciences, scope of some or other of these five sciences, a and of the proper consecutive course in which perfect knowledge of which constitutes the inost they ought to be studied. The science of ma. glorious of all possessions--the truth or the phi. thematics, instead of being placed on the apex of losophy of nature, which enables its possessor the pyramid, constitutes the fundamental basis of clearly to perceive the line of demarcation betwixt the whole, as it treats of matter in its simplest all that is known and the unknowable, giving him universal and essential conditions or qualities, also the power to wield the invincible weaponswhich first meet our observation. The pheno- the logic of facts, instead of the barren, futile mena of all the other sciences depend entirely husks,-the logic of mere unqualified assumpupon mathematical laws, while these laws exist tions. Mathematics treat of quantity, figure, independently of any other science. Matter itself magnitude, and number, and therefore necessarily could not exist without those properties which apply to everything that exists, as existence with constitute the basis of mathematics, but the pro- out these properties would be an impossibility. perties of no other science are strictly essential to Mathematics is related to physics by general the simple existence of matter. Were it even mechanics, or motion, which is expressed by possible that any change or alteration could occur space and time. Physics comprehend the laws in mathematical laws, the laws of all the other of solids, liquids, and gases, astronomy, mesciences would then immediately be upset, while chanics, acoustics, heat, light, electricity, statics, the greatest revolutions might take place in any and dynamics ; physical properties are super subsequent department of science without mathe-added to quantity, form, and number, and are matical doctrines being in the slightest degree regulated by these attributes, while they (phy. affeeted. It is therefore evident that mathematics sical properties) exist uninfluenced by chemical must exclusively be the primary science in a true qualities, which are a subsequent addition; phy. and natural arrangement, and to this chrono- sies are also related to chemistry through heat, logical order or development will also be found light, and electricity, these being both physical exactly to correspond. Mathematics were first and chemical agents or powers. It was formerly brought to a high state of perfection by Euclid, doubted whether light possessed any chemical in. 300 years B.C., when the other sciences were com- fluence or not, but modern experiments, both in paratively unknown. If, therefore, physical, vegetation and crystallization, and also the inven. chemical, vital, and mental science, according to I tion of daguerreotype, have fully established this
chemdwork of the very cumathematics; and that there being no fac
They ought to be sence of mathematiced, difficult, posprepared to understa
fact, Cher combination and decompoertained to of the precedin Xhich is still a desidera
fact. Chemistry is the science which investigates most important and complex of all the others, the laws of combination and decomposition, and involving, as it does, all the laws and phenomena the various simple elements, now ascertained to of the preceding sciences. The proper solution be sixty-three in number, of which every body or of this science (which is still a desideratum desubstauce around us is composed; showing also pends upon a comprehensive knowledge of the the properties of these different elements, both in properties and nature of the inorganic and of the their simple and combined state. It also teaches organic world, and their natural and due relations the endlessly diversified conditions and combi- to each other. The ultimate and complete devel. nations in which it is possible for matter to exist, opment of this science will produce, in its highest and the peculiar properties and phenomena that perfection, the order and progress of society, as are presented with every condition aud combina ascertained by its tendencies to produce happiness, tion. Chemistry is unrivalled by any other and perpetuate itself. This science, though the science for uulity, and, we might also add, interest. latest to blossom, is conceived by many to proBiology (the science of life) investigates the vital mise golden fruits of happiness to mankind; its properties of matter, which depend upon the pro- proper comprehension and application will doubtperties of the preceding sciences, without reacting less constitute the true millennium. But these upon them so as to alter their character. By it fruits will not appear until the tree of knowledge the vital principle, though not fully explained by has become fully and universally developed. an accurate knowledge of the foregoing sciences, Knowledge, which means truth itself, must ever, has its mysteries very considerably diminished, according to the nature of things, precede indiThis knowledge is also the more essential, in vidual or universal virtue, and universal virtue order to perceive precisely how far it does ex
must also precede universal happiness, Error, plain the vital process, that by investigation and vice, and misery are, in all times and places, experimentation upon that which still lies beyond mutually dependent upon each other; so is it its solution, the science of life may be fully under with truth, virtue, and happiness.-HALKET. stood. Some writers believe psychology to be a 236. George Sand.-F. S. will have an erronedistinct science from biology, and consequently ous impression of the personal appearance of the allege that it occupies an individual position in celebrated George Sand, alias Madame Dudethe classification between biology and sociology : vant, if he imagines her accoutred in "a pointed but this distinction cannot logically be established, cocked hat, mustachios, boots, and spurs," and as the organ by which mental phenomena are pro- “an inveterate cigar smoker." She is, doubtless, duced is in reality a portion of the living system. an eccentric character; but she has not been It is easy for speculators to divide these two sci- fairly represented by all who have attempted to ences in their own minds, but in nature they appear delineate her personal appearance, or trace her invariably and indissolubly associated together. moral habits. The following sketch is by the late Psychology is not, therefore, a distinct science lamented and talented Sarah Margaret Fuller:in itself, but purely a dependent branch of biology, “I have seen George Sand--Madame Sand, as one of the manifestations of life. A knowledge, the Parisians call her. . . . She is large, but however, of mind has in all ages been partially well formed. She was dressed in a robe of dark acquired without the aid of the previous sciences. violet silk, with a black mantle on her shoulders, This is evidently the only noticeable exception to her beautiful hair dressed with the greatest taste; the strict successive dependence of these five her whole appearance and attitude, in its simple abstract sciences. The sources of this indepen- and lady-like dignity, presented an almost ludi. dent knowledge are the external manifestations, crous contrast to the vulgar, caricature idea of and the internal consciousness, of the mind itself; George Sand. Her face is a very little like the but as the most essential source is the anatomy portraits, but much finer; the upper part of the and physiology of the mental organ, and the forehead and eyes are beautiful, the lower strong anterior sciences being uninvestigated, the specu. and masculine, expressive of a hardy temperalations and theories formed by the ancients, and ment and strong passions, but not in the least even by many of our moderns, respecting the coarse ; the complexion olive, and the air of the human mind, are therefore fallacious. The recent whole head Spanish (as, indeed, she was born at discoveries of anatomy, and the experiments of ani. Madrid, and is only on one side of French blood). mal magnetism, have already diffused a flood of light All these details I saw at a glance; but what concerning the true order and constitution of the fixed my attention was the expression of goodness, human mind. A true science of mind must there. nobleness, and power that pervaded the wholefore be deduced from the facts of anatomy, physio- the truly human heart and nature that shone in logy, external manifestations, and consciousness. the eyes."_"Memoires," pp. 112, 113.-GEORGE. Sociology, or the science of society, is the last, the Earith,
The Young Student and Writer's Assistant.
GRAMMAR CLASS. Perform the Exercise for the Senior Division in the April No., 1854, Vol. V., page 156.
MODEL EXERCISE, No. XXIII.
Vide March No., 1854, p. 116. I. That paper is too good TO BE USED for such | a purpose. Many boys think themselves too old
TO ATTEND Sunday school. Charles is old 29. Divide £64 among 3 persons, so that the
of cloth did he buy? II. 1. London is larger than Paris. Of the two (c) 31. Required the area of an octagon, the cities London is the larger. 2. George is more side of which is 20 feet. learned than his brother William. George is the 32. Required the side of a decagon, the area of more learned of the two brothers. 3. The tiger which is 16 square feet. is fiercer than the lion. Of the lion and tiger the 33. A circular pleasure ground is to be laid out tiger is the more fierce. 4. The Amazon is a to contain exactly an acre; required the length of larger river than the Mississippi. Of the two the cord with which the circle must be traced. rivers the Amazon is the larger. 5. The govern- ! 34. How many square feet does a circle conment of America is more democratic than that of tain, the circumference being 10-9956 yards? England. Of the governments of England and America, the latter is the more democratic. 6.
GEOGRAPHICAL CLASS. The commissariat of the French army is more effective than that of the English army. Of the
Junior Division. commissariats of the French and English armies, Perform Exercise 3, in the April No., 1854 : that of the former is the more effective.
Vol. V., p. 156. III. Jesus went up an exceedingly high moun. tain. The people are miserably poor. The men
Senior Division. behaved nobly. He acts agreeably with his pro. fession. James was extremely prodigal, therefore
EXERCISE No. XIII. his property is now nearly exhausted. The 1. Give the names of the chief lakes of England. clergyman speaks fluently, but he does not read 2. Their size compared with those of the conexactly correctly. Sarah has come agreeably to tinent; absolute size of the largest. promise. The Turks have not acted indepen- 3. What makes the lakes of Cumberland interdently of England and France. The teacher esting? Explain the term Mere. reads properly, writes neatly, and composes cor 4. Describe the climate. rectly. He conducted himself suitably to the 5. Does much more rain fall than in other parts occasion.
in the same latitude ?
6. How then is it humid? MATHEMATICAL CLASS.
7. A consequence of this humidity as compared
with other countries. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.—I.
8. Is the east or west of England more humid? (a) 1. 15 cwt. 7 lbs. 8 oz. 2. 353,571 tons 8 cwt. 9. Some consequence of this, as seen in culti2 qrs. 8 lbs. 3. £33 2s. 6 d. 4. 57. 5. 1008. vation, fruits, and tender plants. (6) 6. 12. 7. 9. 8. 15. 9. 35, 13.
10. The proof of the healthiness of the climate. (c) 10. 141.4 yards. 11. 302-9703 feet.
11. The most trying winds.
12. Describe the soil. QUESTIONS FOR SOLUTION.-III. 13. The county most abounding in heaths. (a) 22. What must be the length of a plot of
14. The use made of the cultivated hills. ground, if the breadth be 15 feet, that its area
15. The chief wild animals. may contain 46 square yards ?
16. Others once found here. 23. Express 25 ells as a part of a yard.
17. Are the forests extensive ? 24. Multiply 3 ft. 7} in. by 24 in.'
18. Name the chief. 25. Add the sum and difference of of 3 guineas
19. What gives a somewhat woody appearance and of £4.
to almost all parts ? 26. To of a dozen add 1 of 300, and divide this sum by the difference of 3 of 100 and 43%.
LOGIC CLASS. (6) 27. A market woman being asked how many
Perform the Exercise on the “ Art of Reason. eggs she had, replied, If I had as many more, hal
ing," No. 3., in the March No., 1851, Vol. II. as many more, and one egg and a half, I should have 104 eggs : how many had she?
PHONETIC SHORT-HAND CLASS. 28. A is twice as old as B; twenty-two years ago he was three times as old. Required A's Go through the 3rd lesson, as directed in the present age.
No. for March, 1854, Vol. V., p. 117.
The Societies' Section.
REPORTS OF MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT SOCIETIES.
Monkton Young Men's Mutual Improvement pied by the Rev. Dr. Lawrie, minister of the Society.--The third annual soirée lately came off parish, supported by Lieutenant-Colonel Shaw, in the parish schoolroom. The chair was occu- | from Ayr, the Rev. A. Fleming, of Fullarton, Ir.