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the points of intersection with said standard or base line, and the distances of said corners from the corresponding standard corners previously set, are measured and noted in the field book. The corners so established are called Closing Corners, and will of course be common to two townships or sections south of said base or stand ard line. No closing quarter section corners are estab lished. (Fig. 4.) (See Quar. Sec. Cor., p. 38.)
FIG. 4. Standard and Closing Corners.
Township corners are established at intervals of 6 miles each, and are perpetuated by the following modes, tc wit:
1. TOWNSHIP CORNER POSTS.—The post is placed first in order because circumstances render its use most commor in practice. Corner posts are required to be 4 feet in length, and at least 5 inches in diameter, and are to be planted to the depth of 2 feet, the part projecting above the ground being squared to receive the marks required to be cut upon them.
When the corner is common to four townships, the post is set cornerwise to the lines, presenting the angles to the
cardinal points, and on each flattened side must be marked
the number of the township, range and section which it faces. Thus, if the post be common to townships one and two south of the base line, and one and two west of the meridian, it should be set and marked as indicated by Fig. 5. Six notches will also be cut on each of the four edges. (Fig. 6.)
(a) Standard Township Corners.— If the post is on a standard parallel or base line, and is common to only two townships on the north side thereof, six notches will be cut in the east, north, and west edges, and the letters "S. C." (Standard corner) will be cut on the flattened surface, but no notches will be cut in the south edge. (See Standard Corners, p. 33.)
T. 1 S.
R. 2 W.
T. 2 S.
(b) Closing Township Corners.-If the post is common to two townships south of the parallel or base line, six notches will be cut in the east, south, and west edges, but none in the north edge, and the letters "C. C." (Closing corner) must be cut upon the flattened surface. The manner of establishing standard and closing corners is explained on page 33.
The position of all township corner posts must be witnessed by four bearing one in each of the adjoining marked in the manner prescribed under the head of "Bearing trees," or by "pits," where trees cannot be found.
2. TOWNSHIP CORNER STONES.-Township corner stones must be inserted in the
2 feet above ground.
24 inches in ground.
T. 1 S.
R. 1 W.
T. 2 S.
R. 1 W.
5 inches through.
4 inches square.
6 notches on each angle.
ground not less than eight inches, with their sides to the cardinal points, and small mounds of stones should be constructed against the sides of them.
The notches on the edges are the only marks required, and the directions for notching township posts are to be followed in notching corner stones in like circumstances. (Fig. 7.)
3. TOWNSHIP CORNER TREES. A tree in place, when employed to perpetuate a township corner, must be marked and witnessed in the same manner as a township post.
4. TOWNSHIP CORNER MOUNDS. The post and mound is a common method of marking corners. The manner of constructing the mound is explained on page 31. Mounds at township corners must be 5 feet in diameter at their base, and 21 feet in perpendicular height. Posts in township mounds, therefore, require to be 4 feet in length, so as to be planted 12 inches in the ground, and allow 12 inches to project above the mound.
The pits for a township mound will be 18 inches wide, 2 feet in length, and at least 12 inches deep, located 6 feet from the post, and on opposite sides.
At corners common to four townships, the pits will be placed on the lines and lengthwise to them. On base and parallel lines, where the corners are common to only two townships, three pits only will be dug-two in line on either side of the post, and one on the line north or south of the corner, as the case may be. By this means the standard and closing corners can be readily distinguished from each other.
Posts in mounds should be notched, marked, and faced precisely as directed for posts without the mound.
Section corners are established at intervals of 1 mile or 80 chains, and the four modes of perpetuating corners already described, are employed to mark them, to wit:
1. SECTION CORNER POSTS. -Posts for section corners must be 4 feet in length and 4 inches in diameter, firmly planted or driven into the ground to the depth of 2 feet, the part projecting being squared to receive the required marks. (Fig. 8.)
When the corner is common to four sections, the post will be set cornerwise to the lines, and on each flattened surface will be marked the number of the section which it faces; also, on the northeast face, the number of the township and range will be cut.
All mile posts on township lines will have as many notches on the two corresponding edges as they are miles distant from the respective township corners. Section posts in the interior of a township will have as many notches on the south and east
2 notches, if 2 miles from Township Line.
24 inches above ground.
24 inches in ground.
3 inches square.
4 notches, if 4-miles from Township Line.
4 inches through.
edges as they are miles from the south
and east boundaries of the township, but no notches on the north and west edges. By this plan the corner can be identified thereafter, if the post be found lying upon the ground.
All section posts, whether in the interior of a township or on a township line, must be witnessed by four bearing trees, one in each of the adjoining sections, to be marked in the manner described under the head of "Bearing trees."
When the requisite number of bearing trees cannot be found, the deficiency will be supplied by substituting pits 18 inches square, and not less than 12 inches in depth.
2. SECTION CORNER MOUND.-Mounds at section corners will be 4 feet in diameter at their base, and 2 feet in perpendicular height; the post being 4 feet in length and inserted 12 inches in the ground. The post must be not less than 3 inches square, and is to be marked and witnessed the same as the post without the mound.
At corners common to four sections, the post in mound will be set with the edges to the cardinal points; at corners common to only two sections, the flattened sides of the post will face the cardinal points.
3. SECTION CORNER STONES.-When stones are used for section corners on township lines, they will be set with their edges in the direction of the line; but when standing for interior
section corners they will be planted facing the north, and should be notched the same as section posts similarly situated. No marks except the notches are required, but they will be witnessed by trees or pits as required where posts are used. The requisite dimensions of corner stones are given under the appropriate head. (Fig. 9.)
4. SECTION CORNER TREE.-A tree in place at a section. corner is marked according to the direction for marking section posts.
QUARTER SECTION CORNERS.
Quarter section corners are established at intervals of half a mile or 40 chains, except in the north and west tiers of sections in a township. Where the section lines exceed or fall short of 80 chains, in subdividing these sections, the quarter post is established just 40 chains from the interior section corner, throwing the excess or