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line north, setting temporary posts at 40 chains, 80 chains, and 120 chains, noting the excess or deficiency on the last half mile, and the falling east or west of the newly erected corner.

Calculate a course that will run a true line from В to A, and if the distance by the present measurement be more or less than that stated in the original field notes, plant the permanent quarter section corner b at a proportional distance:

Thus; the original distance from A to B was 161 chains and 20 links: suppose the distance by the resurvey to be 162 chains 10 links, then

As 161-20 162-10 :: 41.20 (B to b, original measurement) = 41.43. The permanent quarter section corner b should therefore be re-established 41 chains 43 links south from B.

The distance by present measurement from 6 to A will of course be (162∙10—41·43 =) 120 chains and 67 links. The remaining corners B and a must likewise be restored at proportionate intervals, but as these intervals were equal in the original survey they will be equal in the resurvey; therefore, by dividing the remaining distance into three equal parts we shall have the correct distance at which these corners should be re-established, to wit: 120.67340-223 the true distance from b to B and also from E to a and a to A.

Proceed in the same manner to restore the corners C, D, d, after which plant the quarter section corner c equidistant between the section corners D E.

In the foregoing example it will be observed that the boundary lines of the sections are of uniform length east and west. Were these lines of various lengths, say from 5 to 75 links, the mode described in the preceding example would not be correct, for it will be remembered that all corners are to be restored at proportional distances. This is as true in regard to east and west lines as it is of north

and south lines; there is no difference in this respect. When, therefore, there is any material difference in the intervals between the section corners east and west, as is frequently the case, the distances must be made proportional east and west as well as north and south, even though at the expense of regularity in the configuration. The mode of proceeding in such cases will be better understood by reference to the following illustration:

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Example 2.-Required to restore the section corners D and E and all the quarter section corners. Fig. 2.

Mode.-It appears from the field notes of the United States survey that the original intervals between these section corners were unequal, therefore they cannot be restored equidistant, but the proportional distances must be preserved. To this end the county surveyor should remeasure the section lines A B, C F, and G H. This done he will have the data from which to make the necessary calculations to enable him to re-establish the lines and corners correctly.

Suppose the result of the remeasurements to be as fol

lows: A B, 162-20 chains; CF, 160-80 chains; and G H, 242.40 chains. Now the distance from A to B is set down in the original field notes at 161 chains 25 links. Therefore,



As 161.25 162.20 :: 80·0080.47 the true length of the line A E, according to present measurement, and 162.20-80-4781.73 chs. from E to B. So also

As 161.20: 160·80:: 80·00: 79-80 chs. Fto D.

And 160-80-79-80 81-00 chs. D to C.

= =

The distance from G to H as indicated in the original field notes, was 240-22 chs. Then,

As 240-22: 242-40 :: 80-20: 80.92 chs. E to G.

240-22: 242.40 :: 80-12: 80-84 chs. D to E. And 242 40-(80-9280.84) 161-7680.631 chs. D to H.

Having provided the above data, proceed to A and remeasure the south boundary of section 12. Having calculated a course that will run from A to E, plant the section corner at 40.86 chs., and the section corner E at 81-73 chs. Then run a random line to G, planting the section corner at 40-463 chs., and correct back on a true line.

The original distance from E to the section corner north of it was, of course, 40 chs. The distance from E to B, by present measurement, is 81-73 chs. Then,

As 81-25 81-73: 40-00: 40.233.

Calculate a course which will run from E to B, and establish the quarter section corner 40-231 chs. north from E.

Return to F and proceed in the same manner to restore the corners on the section line from F to C.

By this mode, the quarter section corners between E B and D C will have been established at proportionate distances between the respective section corners, and all the other section corners equidistant between their respective section corners, in conformity with the law.



June 11th, 1866.

Toulon, Stark Co., Ill.


I am in receipt of your letter of the 25th ultimo, making inquiries in regard to the proper mode of subdividing the north tier of sections in Tp. 14 N., R. 6 E., 4th P.M., Ill.

The following remarks, based upon the laws of Congress, touching the subject, will remove your difficulties, and make your case plain:

1st. All corners of the public surveys established by the government surveyors must stand as the true corners they were intended to represent, and the lengths of lines stated in the field notes of the original survey must be considered as the true lengths thereof.

2d. Missing corners should be restored to the exact position they originally occupied.

3d. All lines subdividing a section, must be straight lines running through the section from the corner in one boundary, to its corresponding corner in the opposite boundary of said section.

Now to establish the line between sections 1 and 2 for instance. If the distance from the corner to sections 1, 2, 11, and 12 to the standard line is three chains less than is stated in the field notes, and the section corner cannot be found, it must be established at a proportionate distance from each section corner. Thus, suppose the distance stated in the field notes is 40+ 33.50 lks. 73.50 lks., but by your measurement is only 70-25 lks., it is evident that in order to restore the corner to its original position according to the field notes, your chain must be reduced so that it will make the distances correspond with those of the original survey. This of course will be accomplished by dividing your excess (3.25 lks.) proportionally between the distances; therefore,

As 73.50 70·25 :: 40=38.23 lks.

Also 73.50 70·25 :: 33·50 = 32.02 lks.

Hence, by your chaining, you should plant the post 38-23 chs. north of the corner to secs. 1, 2, 11, and 12, and 32:02 south from the township line.

The same principle should govern you in establishing each of the other corners, and all other missing corners of the public surveys, ever keeping in mind that existing original corners must stand, and lost corners must be established at proportionate distances between existing original corners.

When the corners shall have been established, the section will be subdivided by running straight lines from corner to corner. Very respectfully, etc.,

JAS. M. EDMUNDS, Commissioner.




Huntington, Ind.

August 30th, 1866.

Your letter of the 22d inst., in regard to the proper mode of subdividing Sec. 17, T. 28 N., R. 10 E., Ind., is received. In reply, I have to state in the first place, that the plat of the township on file in this office does not represent sec. 17 as indicated by Fig. 1 in your letter. A copy of sec. 17, taken from our plat, is inclosed herewith.

For your information, however, and to aid you in dealing with similar cases, we will suppose the facts to be as represented by diagrams 1 and 2 in your letter, and base our instructions upon the premises therein stated.

FIG. 1.


To your first inquiry then, I reply, that the subdivision line between the N. E. and S. E. quarters of the section should be run from the established quarter section corner D, on a due west course, to its intersection with the Reservation line, be the distance more or less than forty chains. Then to establish the line between the S. E. and S. W. fractional quarters of the section it is necessary to first ascertain if the quarter section post, on the north boundary of the section, was established by the U.S. deputy surveyor; if yes, then the subdivision line between said quarter sections should be a straight line, from F projected northward until it intersects the Reservation line, and on a course that will intersect the opposite corresponding original quarter section corner.

FIG. 2.

If no such opposite quarter section corner was established by the U. S. deputy surveyor, which is apparently the case in this instance, said corner should be established at 40 chains proportionate measurement, west to the section corner C, [by proportionate measurement, is here meant a measurement corresponding with the length of the chain used by the U. S. deputy surveyor, as indicated by the original distances stated in the field notes], and said subdivision line should then be run in the same manner as if the opposite corner had been originally established.

If the distances from the section corner west to the Reservation line should be less than 40 chains, so that no quar


ter section corner can be established, then said subdivision line must be run on a north course from F to its intersection with the boundary of the Reservation; and in either or all of the above cases, the point of intersection of the East and West with the North and South subdivision line run as directed, if outside of the Reservation, will be the true north.

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