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of bird to observe a particular plan in the structure of its nest, and directs all of the same species to work after the same model?
4. It cannot be imitation; for though you hatch a crow under a hen, and never let it see any of the works of its own kind, the nest it makes will be the same, to the laying of a stick, with all the nests of the same species. It cannot be reason; for were animals endued with it to as great a degree as man, their buildings would be as different as ours, as their conveniences might require.
5. Is it not remarkable that the same temperature of weather which raises this general warmth in animals, should cover the trees with leaves and the fields with grass for their security and concealment, and produce such infinite swarms of such creatures as are the support and sustenance of others.
6. But notwithstanding that natural love in brutes is much more violent than in rational creatures, Providence has taken care that it should be no longer troublesome, to the parents, than it is useful to the young; for so soon as the wants of the latter cease, the mother withdraws her fondness, and leaves them to provide for themselves.
7. And, what is a very remarkable circumstance, we find that the love of the parent may be lengthened out beyond its usual time, if the preservation of the species requires it; as we may see in birds who drive away their young as soon as they are able to get their livelihood, but continue to feed them if they are tied to the nest, or confined within a cage.
8. This natural love is not observed in animals to ascend from the young to the parent, which is not at all necessary for the continuance of the species. Take a brute out of his instinct, and you find him wholly deprived of understanding. We will give an instance which comes under the observation of every one, and will show the distinction between reason and instinct.
9. With what caution does the hen provide herself a nest in places free from noise and disturbance. When she has laid her eggs in such a manner that she can cover them, what care does she take in turning them frequently, that all parts may partake of the vital warmth.
10. When she leaves them to provide for her necessary sustenance, how punctually does she return before they have time to cool, and become incapable of producing an animal. In the summer you see her giving herself greater freedoms, and quitting her care for above two hours together; but in winter, when the cold would chill the principle of life, she is more constant in her attendance, and stays away but half the time.
11. When the birth approaches, with how much nicety and attention does she help the chick to break its prison. How does she cover it from the weather, provide it proper nourishment, and teach it to help itself, not to mention her forsaking the nest, if after the usual time of sitting, the young one does not make its appearance.
12. But at the same time, the hen with all this seeming ingenuity is, considered in other respects, without the least glimmerings of thought or common sense. She mistakes a piece of chalk for an egg, and sits upon it in the same manner, and she is insensible of any increase or diminution in the number of those she lays.
13. She even does not distinguish between her own and those of another species; and when the birth of ever .so different a bird appears, she will cherish it as her own. In all these circumstances, which do not carry an immediate regard to the subsistence of herself or her species, she is a
14. There is not in my opinion, any thing more mysterious in nature, than this instinct in animals, which thus rises above reason, and falls very far short of it. It cannot be accounted for by any properties in matter, and at the same time, works after so odd a manner, that one cannot think it the faculty of an intellectual being.
15. For my own part 1 look upon it as upon the principle nf gravitation in bodies, which is not 10 be explained by any known qualities inherent in the bodies themselves, nor by any laws of mechanism, but according to the best notions of the greatest philosophers, is an immediate impression from the first Mover, and the divine energy acting in the creatures.
INGENIOUS VILLAINY FINALLY PUNISHED.
A STRANGER, well mounted, and attended by a servant in rich livery, entered a market town in Somersetshire, where the court was then sitting, and having put up at one of the principal inns, inquired of the landlord as to the curiosities and amusements of the place.
2. The landlord, who was extremely well qualified to answer these inquiries, answered with a low bow, that there was no want of entertainment, as the players were in town and the court sitting, accompanying his remarks with a recommendation that the gentleman should by all means go to hear the trial that morning, as a highwayman was to be brought up.
3. The stranger made some objection to this invitation, upon the ground of his being unknown, and the little chance he stood of being properly accommodated. This difficulty was, however, removed by the landlord's assuring him that a gentleman of his appearance would be readily admitted.
4. Indeed to make it more certain, he attended him to the court house, and represented him in such a way to his friends the constables, that he obtained a seat at a little distance from the judge. The appearance of the stranger, who was of elegant person and polished manners, arrested for a moment the attention of the court.
5. The witnesses were not numerous, and the evidence was only circumstantial; but although no person saw the atrocious murder and robbery committed, yet the circumstances which fixed the guilt upon the prisoner were very numerous, and his being unable to give any satisfa tory account of himself increased the suspicion. The judge then, for the last time, asked the prisoner if he had any thing to say in his defence.
6. The poor culprit assured the judge that he was not guilty of the robbery, and there were people, if he had time to find them, who could prove that at the time it was committed he was in another part of the country. At this mo
decalogue is, to labour six days in the week? and an inspired apostle has commanded us to work, under the express penalty of not eating in default of it?"This we commanded you," says he, that if any would not work, neither should he eat." "Train up a child," says king Solomon, "in the way he should go; and when he is old he will not depart from it.
4. But if you intend him for the gallows, train him up in the way he would go; and before he is old, he will probably be hanged. In the age of vanity, restrain him not from the follies and allurements of it. In the age proper for learning and instruction, give him neither. As to catechising him, it is an old fashioned, puritanical, useless formality. Never heed it, lest his mind be unhappily biassed by the influence of a religious education.
5. Moses, indeed, after saying to the children of Israel, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might," thought proper to subjoin, "and those words which I command thee this day, thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children." But we know that Moses did not intend those children to be trained up for the gallows. His advice therefore is not to the purpose.
6. Mine, which is immediately directed to the object in view, must consequently be very different. And, paramount to any other direction which I can possibly give, I would particularly advise, as an essential part of the course of this education, by which a child, when he arrives to manhood, is intended to make so exalted a figure, that his parents should suffer him every Sabbath day, during summer and autumn, to patrol about the neighbourhood, and to steal as much fruit as he can carry off.
7. To encourage him more in this branch of his education, in case the poor scrupulous lad should show any compunctions of conscience about it, I would have his mother partake of the stolen fruit, and eat it with keener appetite than she does any of her own, or her husband's lawfully acquired earnings. For his further encouragement, both his parents should always take his part whenever the proprietor of the stolen fruit prefers to them his complaint against him; and by all means refuse to chastise him for his thievery.
8. They should say, “Where is the harm of taking a little fruit ? The gentleman does not want it all for his own
He doubtless raised part of it for poor people.” This will greatly smooth his way to more extensive, and more profitable robberies.
9. He will soon persuade himself that many rich men have more wealth than they really want; and as they owe part of their affluence to the poor, upon the principle of charity, why should not the poor take their share without the formality of asking consent ? He will now become a thief in good earnest ; and finding it easier, at least as he imagines, to support himself by theft, than by honest industry, he will continue the practice until he is detected, apprehended. convicted, condemned and gibbeted.
10. Then he will have exactly accomplished the destined end of his education, and proved himself to have been an apt scholar. Under the gallows, and in his last, dying speech, he will say, “ Had my father whipped me for breaking the sabbath ; and had not my mother encouraged me to rob orchards, and gardens, and hen roosts on that holy day, I should not have been brought to this ignominious punishment.
11. “But they have been the cause, by encouraging me in my early youth, in the ways of sin, of this my awful catastrophe, and probably, of the eternal ruin of my immortal soul.”
Parents believe and tremble! and resolve to educate your children in opposition to the gallows.
SKETCH OF JERUSALEM AND PALESTINE.
PALESTINE, or Holy Land, is a tract of country bordering on the east of the Mediterranean Sea, and is celebrated as the residence of the Hebrews, who, in an early period, were conducted thither from Egypt, where they had been slaves. To Moses, their leader, who is the oldest historian whose writings have been preserved, we are indebted not only for their early history, but for the history of the creation and first settlement of the world itself.