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viz. after the resurrection ; for it will be 1,000 years in a city of divine workmanship, viz. Jerusalem brought down from Heaven ; and this city Ezekiel knew, and the apostle John saw,"* &c. “This is the city provided of God to receive the saints in the resurrection, wherein to refresh them with an abundance of all spiritual good things, in recompense of those which, in the world, we have either despised or lost. For it is both just and worthy of God, that his servants should there triumph and rejoice where they have been afflicted for his name's sake. This is the manner of the heavenly kingdom.”+ Again he says, "After the 1,000 years, in which is included the resurrection of the saints, rising earlier or later according to their merits, then we, being changed in a moment into angelic matter, shall be transported to the heavenly kingdom.”! Moreover, he says, that it was customary
* Nam et confitemur in terra nobis regnum repromissum 'sed ante cælum, sed alio statu, utpote post resurrectionem in mille annos in civitate divini operis Jerusalem cælo delata, quam et apostolus matrem nostram sursum designat, et todetevua nostrum, id est, municipatum in cælis esse pronuntians, alicui utique cælesti civitati eum deputat. Hanc et Ezechiel novit, et Apostolus Joannes vidit, et qui apud fidem nostram est novæ Prophetiæ sermo testatur, ut etiam effigiem civitatis ante repræsentationem ejus conspectui futuram in signum prædicant-Tertullian adv. Marcionem, liber iii. page 680.
† Hunc dicimus excipiendis resurrectione sanctis, et refovendis omnium bonorum utique spiritualium copiâ in compensationem eorum quæ in seculo vel despeximus vel amisimus, a Deo prospectam, siquidem et justum et Deo dignum illis quoque exsultare famulos ejus, ubi sunt et afflicti in nomine ipsius.—Adv. Merc. lib. iü. cap. 24, on which Mede remarks (N. B. hic vocat quod in terris futurum asserit, utpote de cælo sine cælitis, vel in quo cælestis e angelica vivetur vita.) B. iii. p. 618.
† Post cujus mille annos, intra quam ætatem concluditur sanclorum resurrectio, pro meritis maturiùs vel tardiùs resurgentium,
for Christians in his times to pray " that they might have part in the first resurrection;" and it is confessed by Cyprian, of the following century, that it was the belief that those who suffered martyrdom for Christ, should have their part in the first resurrection, which made them to glory in their persecutions, and even ambitious of suffering and dying for Christ.
The literal interpretation of the prophecies was, obviously, that adopted by Tertullian,* who stands acknowledged to have been the great defender of the Christian faith in the second century.
The last writer of note in this century, was Clement, of Alexandria. He was, by his own confession, a scholar of Pantænus, who, although professing Christianity, and the first master of whom we have information in the Christian school at Alexandria, said to be established by Mark, nevertheless retained the title of the stoic philosopher. “This sect of stoic philosophers," Milner says, “were a sort of romantic pretenders to perfection, which doctrine flattered human pride,
tunc et mundi destructione et judicii conflagratione commissa, demutati in atomo; in angelicam substantiam, scilicet per illud incorruptelæ superindumentum transferemur in cæleste regnum.Tertullian adv. Marcionem, lib. iii. ch. 24. page 680.
* We give some further testimony from Tertullian. “ Etiam in* Apocalypsi Joannis ordo temporum sternitur, quem Martyrum quoque animæ sub altari ultionem et judicium flagitantes sustinere didicernnt; ut prius et orbist de pateris angelorum plagas suas ebibat, et prostituta illaț civitas a decem regibus dignos exitus referat, ets Bestia Antichristus cum suo Pseudopropheta certamen. Ecclesiæ Dei inferat, atque ita Diabolo in || abyssum interim relegato, PRIMÆ RESURRECTIONIS prærogativa de soliis ordinetur ; dehinc et igni dato, universalis resurrectionis censura de libris judicetur.—De Resurrectione Carnis. Cap. 25.
Ap. 6. † Ap. 15, 16. | Ap. 17. § Ap. 19. || Ap. 20. See also, adv. Hermogenem, cap. 11 ; quoted by Mede,
but was surely ill adapted to our natural imbecility, and the views of innate depravity. The combination of this with Christianity must have debased the divine doctrine very much, in the system of Pantænus; and although his instructions clouded the light of the gospel, among those who were disposed implicitly to follow his dictates, yet it is not improbable but that many of the simple illiterate Christians there, might happily escape the infection, and preserve, unadulterated, the genuine simplicity of the faith of Christ. The bait of reasoning pride lies more in the way of the learned, and in all ages they are more prone to snatch at it."*
Clemens was of the same philosophical cast of mind with his master. Justin Martyr, as we have observed, though essentially orthodox in his faith, was among the first to sanction a philosophizing spirit, and was commended for his learning. However innocent it proved in him, it did not remain so in others. Clement avowed that the Gentile philosophy was important to prepare the way, and lay the foundation for Christianity.
Dr. Murdock, in his notes to his translation of Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, says, “Clement had vast learning, a lively imagination, great fluency, considerable discrimination, and was a bold and independent speculator. No one of the fathers, except Origen, has been more censured in modern times for an excessive attachment to philosophy, or metaphysical theology His education,' and the atmosphere in which he lived, led him towards Platonism and Stoi. cism. His great error was, that he overrated the value of philosophy or human reason, as a guide in matters of religion.
He also indulged his imagination, as all the learned of his age did, to excess, and construed the Bible allegorically and fancifully."*
* Milner's Eccl. Hist., vol. i. p. 276.
We need not, therefore, expect to find much in his writings, nor anything very distinct, on the subject of the coming and kingdom of Christ ; for the simplicity of faith on these themes, is and has always been im• paired by human philosophy. A modern author says of him, “ This writer seems to me the most vapid of the fathers, having no salt in him; and though quoting the pure word, yet losing it again instantly as a man does the fashion of his face—the moment he turns from the glass. I have no pleasure in his pages. He
says much more of Plato than of Christ, and takes notice, neither of the Millenium nor of the coming of Christ, nor of the judgment, nor scarcely of the king. dom of heaven.”+ Yet even this author, in his address to the heathen, betrays the influence of what we have seen was the general belief of the Christian church in the first and second centuries, viz. that the kingdom of heaven had not yet arrived." Therefore Jesus cries aloud, personally urging us, because the kingdom of heaven is at hand; he converts men by fear.” This remark proves that he regarded the kingdom of heaven, as we have seen the prophets and tra. ditions testify, to be introduced by judgment, so that the prospect of its approach to mankind generally, was more an object of terror than joy, and therefore an efficient means of exciting their fears, and, through fear, of converting them from the error of their ways. The doctrine of the kingdom of heaven, as advocated by the spiritualists, can in no sense be said to appeal directly to men's fears, and, therefore, notwithstanding
Murdock's Translation of Mosheim, vol. i. pp. 121, 122. † Ward's History and Doctrine of the Millenium, p. 17.
all Clement's philosophy and mystification, his ideas of that kingdom must have been radically different. His language is perfectly intelligible and forcible, however, according to the views of the literalists, who apprehend the Scriptures to teach that the kingdom of heaven is to be introduced by the personal, visible coming of Christ, and terrible visitations of divine judgment on the wicked. It is the very argument of Peter when he says, “ The end of all things is at hand; be ye therefore sober and watch unto prayer:* and if ye call on the Father, who, without respect of persons, judgeth according to every man's work, pass the time of your sojourning here in fear.”+
The other writers of this century, whose works are extant, are few, and the object of their writings seems to have been, either to offer an apology for the Christian religion in opposition to pagan infidelity, or to confute some particular heresy. Of this description were the Apologies of Quadratus, bishop of Athens, and of Aristides, his cotemporary, an eloquent Christian philosopher of that city, which made such an impression on the Emperor Adrian, to whom they were presented, that Lampridius says he intended to have built a temple for Christ.
To these may be added the names of Agrippa Castor, of Athanagoras, Pantænus, Melito, Claudius Apollinarius, Theophilus, Serapion of Antioch, and perhaps Hermias, Philip of Gortyra, Modestus, Miltiades, and Apollonius, most of whose writings are lost, and whose testimony, therefore, cannot be obtained.
In closing up the testimony of this period, it is worthy of notice, as Mr. Brooks has stated, that,