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knew the king very well, and loved him little: he seemed confident it was his own work; for he said, he had heard him say a great many of those very periods that he found in that book. Being thus confirmed in that persuasion, I was not a little surprised, when in the year 1673, in which I had a great share of favour and free conversation with the then duke of York, afterwards king James the second, as he suffered me to talk very freely to him about matters of religion, and as I was urging him with somewhat out of his father's book, he told me that book was not of his father's writing, and that the letter to the prince of Wales was never brought to him. He said, Dr. Gawden writ it: after the restoration he brought the duke of Somerset and the earl of Southampton both to the king and to himself, who affirmed that they knew it was his writing; and that it was carried down by the earl of Southampton, and shewed the king during the treaty of Newport, who read it, and approved of it as containing his sense of things. Upon this he told me, that though Sheldon and the other bishops opposed Gawden's promotion, because he had taken the covenant, yet the merits of that service carried it for him, notwithstanding the opposition made to it. There has been a great deal of disputing about this book: some are so zealous for maintaining it to be the king's, that they think a man false to the church that doubts it to be his: yet the evidence since that time brought to the contrary has been so strong, that I must leave that under the same uncertainty under which I found it: only this is certain, that Gawden never writ any thing with that force, his other writings being such, that no man, from a likeness of style, would think him capable of writing so extraordinary a book as that is The Scots Upon the king's death the Scots proclaimed his treat with gon ]£jng, an(j sent over sji. George Wincam, that
chari« married my great auntz, to treat with him while he
the second. » °
was in the isle of Jersey. The king entered into a negociation with them, and sent him back with general assurances of consenting to every reasonable proposition that they should send him. He named the Hague for the place of treaty, he being to go thither in a few days. So the Scots sent over com52 missioners, the chief of whom were the earls of Cassiles and Lothian, the former of these was my first wife's father, a man of great virtue and of a considerable degree of good understanding: [had it not been spoiled with many affectations, and an obstinate stiffness in almost every thing that he did:] he was so sincere, that he would suffer no man to take his words in any other sense than as he meant them: he adhered firmly to his instructions, but
y Notwithstanding all that is not to be disputed: but thehas been said or wrote upon duke of Somerset would readilythis subject, whoever reads the join in promoting Gawden forbook will plainly perceive that the share they knew he had innobody but the king himself publishing a book much to thecould write it: that Gawden honour of their old master, formight transcribe, and put it whom they always professedinto the order it is in at present, the highest respect and duty,and lord Southampton carry it This I know, that my grandfa-to the king for his perusal and ther, who was many years of hiscorrection, is more than likely: bedchamber, and well knownbut that Gawden should furnish to have been much trusted bythe matter is utterly impossible, him, always looked upon it to
That king Charles the second be authentic, and prized it ac
or king James ever (never) ap-cordingly. D.
proved of the contents, or had 1 Was that the reason he
much veneration for their fa- was sent? S.
with so much candour, that king Charles retained very kind impressions of it to his life's end. The man then in the greatest favour with the king was the duke of Buckingham: he was wholly turned to mirth and pleasure: he had the art of turning persons or things into ridicule beyond any man of the age: he possessed the young king with very ill principles, both as to religion and morality, and with a very mean opinion of his father, whose stiffness was with him a frequent subject of raillery. He prevailed with the king to enter into a treaty with the Scots, though that was vehemently opposed by almost all the rest that were about him, who pressed him to adhere steadily to his father's maxims and example.
When the king came to the Hague, William duke Montrose's of Hamilton, and the earl of Lauderdale, who had left Scotland, entered into a great measure of favour and confidence with him. The marquis of Montrose came likewise to him, and undertook, if he would follow his counsels, to restore him to his kingdoms by main force: but when the king desired the prince of Orange to examine the methods which he proposed, he entertained him with a recital of his own performances, and of the credit he was in among the people; and said, the whole nation would rise, if he went over, though accompanied only with a page. [The queen-mother hated him (Montrose) mortally; for when he came over from Scotland to Paris, upon the king's requiring him to lay down his arms, she received him with such extraordinary favour, as his services seemed to deserve, and gave him a large supply in money and in jewels, considering the straits to which she was then reduced.
But she heard that he had talked very indecently of her favours to him; which she herself told the lady Susanna Hamilton, a daughter of duke Hamilton, from whom I had it. So she sent him word to leave Paris, and she would see him no more. He wandered about the courts of Germany, but was not esteemed so much as he thought he deserved.] He desired of the king nothing but power to act in his name, with a supply in money, and a letter recommending him to the king of Denmark for a ship to carry him over, and for such arms as he could spare. With that the king gave him the garter. He got first to Orkney, and from thence into the Highlands of Scotland; but could perform nothing of what he had undertaken. At last he was betrayed by one of those to whom he trusted himself, Mackland of Assin, and was brought over a prisoner to EdenAnd death, burgh. He was carried through the streets with all the infamy that brutal men could contrive: and in a few days he was hanged on a very high gibbet: and his head and quarters were set up in divers places of the kingdom. His behaviour under all that barbarous usage was as great and firm to the last, looking on all that was done to him with a noble scorn, as the fury of his enemies was black and universally detested. This cruelty raised a horror in all sober people against those who could insult over such a man in misfortunes. The triumphs that 53 the preachers made on this occasion rendered them odious, and made lord Montrose to be both more pitied and lamented, than otherwise he could have been. This happened while the Scots commissioners were treating with the king at the Hague. The violent party in Scotland were for breaking off the treaty upon it, though by the date of lord Montrose's commission it appeared to have been granted before the treaty was begun: but it was carried not to recall their commissioners: nor could the king on the other hand be prevailed on by his own court to send them away upon this cruelty to a man who had acted by his commission, and yet was so used. The treaty was quickly concluded: the king was in no condition to struggle with them, but yielded to all their demands, of taking the covenant, and suffering none to be about him but such as took it. He sailed home to Scotland in some Dutch men of war with which the prince of Orange furnished him, with all the stock of money and arms that his credit could raise. That indeed would not have been very great, if the prince of Orange had not joined his own to it. The duke of Hamilton and the earl of Lauderdale were suffered to go home with him: but soon after his landing an order came to put them from him. The king complained of this: but duke Hamilton at parting told him, he must prepare for things of a harder digestion: he said, at present he could do him no service: the marquis of Argile was then in absolute credit: therefore he desired that he would study to gain him, and give him no cause of jealousy on his account. This king Charles told me himself, as a part of duke Hamilton's character. The duke of Buckingham took all the ways possible to gain lord Argile and the ministers: only his dissolute course of life was excessive scandalous; which to their great reproach they connived at, because he advised the king to put himself wholly into their hands. The king wrought himself into as grave a deportment as he could: he heard many prayers