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1660. the end subvert all justice and good government. The infection has spread since that time, and crossed the sea. And the danger of being ruined by false witnesses has become so terrible, that there is no security against it, but from the sincerity of juries. And if these come to be packed, then all men may be soon at mercy, if a wicked government should set on a violent prosecution, as has happened oftener than once. I am not instructed enough in the affairs of Ireland, to carry this matter into more particularsp. The English interest was managed chiefly by two men of a very indifferent reputation: the earls of Anglesey and Orrery. The chief manager of the Irish interest was Richard Talbot, one of the duke's bedchamber men, who had much cunning, and had the secret both of his master's pleasures and of his religion, for some years, and was afterwards raised by him to be earl and duke of Tirconnel. Thus I have gone over the several branches of the settlement of matters after the restoration. I have reserved the affairs of the church last, as those about which I have taken the most pains to be well informed; and which I do therefore offer to the reader with some assurance, and on which I hope due reflection will be made, bishops At the restoration, Juxon, the ancientest and ,the most eminent of the former bishops, who had assisted the late king in his last hours, was promoted

i There is a large account, in wrote from good materials; and

Carte's History before men- as far as they go, his history is

tioned, of the acts of settle- of use. It is the same with re

ment for these lands, and of gard to his other historical per

the execution of them, which, formances. See lord Claren

and of other transactions in don's account, in the History

Ireland after the restoration, he of his Life. O.


to Canterbury, more out of decency, than that he l66°was then capable to fill that post; for as he was never a great divine, so he was now superannuated. Though others have assured me, that after some discourses with the king, he was so much struck 177 with what he observed in him, that upon that he lost both heart and hope. The king treated him with outward respect, but had no great regard to him. Sheldon and Morley were the men that had the greatest credit. Sheldon was esteemed a learned man before the wars: but he was now engaged so deep in politics, that scarce any prints of what he had been remained. He was a very dexterous man in business, had a great quickness of apprehension, and a very true judgment. He was a generous and charitable man. He had a great pleasantness of conversation, perhaps too great. He had an art, that was peculiar to him, of treating all that came to him in a most obliging manner: but few depended much on his professions of friendship. He seemed not to have a deep sense of religion, if any at all: and spoke of it most commonly as of an engine of government, and a matter of policy. By this means the king came to look on him as a wise and honest clergyman, [though he had little virtue, and less religion'.] Sheldon was at first made bishop of London, and was, upon Juxon's death, promoted to Canterbury. Morley had been first known to the world as a friend of the lord Falkland's: and that was enough to raise a man's character. He had

r (Echard, in his History of "learning and piety, he is parEngland, under the year 1677, "ticularly distinguished by his in which year the archbishop "munificent benefactions." See died, says of him, "Besides his further a note at p. 243.)

1660. continued for many years in the lord Clarendon's family, and was his particular friend. He was a Calvinist with relation to the Arminian points, and was thought a friend to the puritans before the wars: but he took care after his promotion to free himself from all suspicions of that kind. He was a pious and charitable man, of a very exemplary life, but extreme passionate, and very obstinate. He was first made bishop of Worcester. Doctor Hammond, for whom that see was designed, died a little before the restoration, which was an unspeakable loss to the church: for, as he was a man of great learning, and of most eminent merit, he having been the person that, during the bad times, had maintained the cause of the church in a very singular manner, so he was a very moderate man in his temper, though with a high principle; and probably he would have fallen into healing counsels. He was also much set on reforming abuses, and for raising in the clergy a due sense of the obligations they lay under. But by his death Morley was advanced to Worcester: and not long after he was removed to Winchester, void by Duppa's death, who had been the king's tutor, though no way fit for that post; but he was a meek and humble man, and much loved for the sweetness of his temper; and would have been more esteemed, if he had died before the restoration; for he made not that use of the great wealth that flowed in upon him that was expected. Morley was thought always the honester man of the 17g.two, as Sheldon was certainly the abler man. Debates The first point in debate was, whether concessions

concerning #

the uniting should be made and pains taken to gain the dispresbyteri- senters, or not; especially the presbyterians. The earl of Clarendon was much for it; and got the 1660. king to publish a declarations, soon after his restoration, concerning ecclesiastical affairs, to which if he had stood, very probably the greatest part of them might have been gained. But the bishops did not approve of this: and after the service they did that lord in the duke of York's marriage, he would not put any hardship on those who had so signally obliged him. This disgusted the lord Southampton, who was for carrying on the design that had been much talked of during the wars, of moderating matters, both with relation to the government of the church, and the worship and ceremonies: which created some coldness between him and the earl of Clarendon, when the lord chancellor went off from those designs. The consideration that those bishops and their party had in the matter was this: the presbyterians were possessed of most of the great benefices in the church, chiefly in the city of London, and in the two universities. It is true, all that had come into the room of those who were turned out by the parliament, or the visitors sent by them, were removed by the course of law, as men that were illegally possessed of other men's rights: and that even where the former incumbents were dead, because a title originally wrong was still wrong in law. But there were a great many of them in very

"The house of commons See Journal of the House of thanked the king for this decla- Commons, 6. 28 Nov. 1660. ration, and ordered in a bill, at See also the latter part of the the motion of sergeant Hales, lord chancellor's speech to the (afterwards the famous chief parliament, on the 13 th of

justice,) as may be gathered Sept. 1660. It is best to be from the journal, for making it seen in the printed Journal of effectual; but the bill was the House of Commons. O. dashed after the first reading.


\66o. eminent posts, who were legally possessed of them. Many of these, chiefly in the city of London, had gone into the design of the restoration in so signal a manner, and with such success, that they had great merit, and a just title to very high preferment. Now, as there remained a great deal of the old animosity against them, for what they had done during the wars, so it was said, it was better to have a schism out of the church than within it; and that the half conformity of the puritans before the war had set up a faction in every city and town between the lecturers and the incumbents; that the former took all methods to render themselves popular, and to raise the benevolence of their people, which was their chief subsistence, by disparaging the government both in church and state. They had also many stories among them, of the credit they had in the elections of parliament men, which they infused in the king, to possess him with the necessity of having none to serve in the church, but persons that should be firmly tied to his interest, both by principle, and by subscriptions and oaths. It is true, the joy then spread through the nation had got at this time a new parliament to be elected of men so high 179 and so hot, that, unless the court had restrained them, they would have carried things much farther than they did, against all that had been concerned in the late wars: but they were not to expect such success at all times: therefore they thought it was necessary to make sure work at this time: and, instead of using methods to bring in the sectaries, they resolved rather to seek the most effectual ones for casting them out, and bringing a new set of men into the church. This took with the king, at least

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