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1660. dignity. He would not be put off with that: for he could not bear an idle life, nor to see his brother at the head of the fleet, when he himself had neither business nor dependence. But the mirth and entertainments of that time raised his blood so high, that he took the small-pox; of which he died, much lamented by all, but most particularly by the king, who was never in his whole life seen so much troubled, as he was on that occasion. Those who would not believe he had much tenderness in his nature, imputed this rather to his jealousy of the brother that survived, since he had now lost the only person that could balance him. Not long after him, the princess royal died likewise of the small-pox; but was not much lamented. She had lived in her widowhood for some years with great reputation, kept a decent court, and supported her brothers very liberally; and lived within bounds. But her mother, who had the art of making herself believe any thing she had a mind to, upon a conversation with the queen mother of France, fancied the king of France might be inclined to marry her. So she writ to her to come to Paris. In order to that, she made an equipage far above what she could support. So she ran herself into debt, sold all her jewels, and some estates that were in her power as her son's guardian; and was not only disappointed of that vain expectation, but fell into some misfortunes, that lessened the reputation she had formerly lived in k.
k Particularly in relation to was more favoured by king
young Harry Jermin, nephew William than any Roman Ca
to the earl of St. Alban's, who tholic that had been in king
left him his heir, and was after James's service; in regard, as
created lord Dover by king was thought, to the favour he
James. At the revolution he had been in with his mother. Upon her death, it might have been expected, both 1660. in justice and gratitude, that the king would in a most particular manner have taken her son, the young prince of Orange, into his protection. But he fell into better hands: for his grandmother became his guardian, and took care both of his estate and his education.
Thus two of the branches of the royal family The Pro
~ n 1 • » j sped of the were cut off soon after the restoration. And so lit- royal famitle do the events of things answer the first appear- Changed, ances, that a royal family of three princes and two princesses, all young and graceful persons, that promised a numerous issue, did moulder away so fast, that now, while I am writing, all is reduced to the person of the queen, and the duchess of Savoy1. The king had a very numerous issue, though none by his queen. The duke had by both his wives, and some irregular amours, a very numerous issue. And the present queen has had a most fruitful marriage as to issue, though none of them survive. The princess Henriette was so pleased with the diversion of the 172 French court, that she was glad to go thither again to be married to the king's brother, [a poor-spirited and voluptuous prince; monstrous in his vices, and effeminate in his luxury in more senses than one.
who was suspected to have been the private marriages said to married to him; which king have taken place between these William was willing to have be- parties.)
lieved, (rather than worse,) 1 (Namely, queen Anne, and though it was not proper for this duchess, who was daughter her to own the marriage. And of Henrietta, duchess of Or
the late behaviour of her mo- leans, the youngest daughter ther with the earl of St. Alban's, of king Charles the first: the and her aunt with the earl of bishop setting aside the other Craven, seemed to countenance, children then living of the duke if not justify, such a manage- of York, afterwards James the
ment. D. (His lordship means second.)
1660. He had not one good or great quality, but courage: so that he became both odious and contemptible.] Scliomberg As the treaty with Portugal went on, France did through engage in the concerns of that crown, though they port"gi10 had by treaty promised the contrary to the Spaniards. To excuse their perfidy, count Schomberg, a German by birth, and a Calvinist by his religion, was ordered to go thither, as one prevailed with by the Portugal ambassador, and not as sent over by the orders of the court of France. He passed through England to concert with the king the matters of Portugal, and the supply that was to be sent thither from England. He told me, the king had admitted him into great familiarities with him at Paris. He had known him first at the Hague: for he was the prince of Orange's particular favourite; but had so great a share in the last violent actions of his life, seizing the states, and in the attempt upon Amsterdam, that he left the service upon his death; and gained so great a reputation in France, that, after the prince of Conde and Turenne, he was thought the best general they had. He had much free discourse with the king, though he found his mind was so turned to mirth and pleasure, that he seemed scarce capable of laying any thing to heart. He advised him to set up for the head of the protestant religion: for though, he said to him, he knew he had not much religion, yet his interests led him to that. It would keep the princes of Germany in a great dependence on him, and make him the umpire of all their affairs; and would procure him great credit with the Huguenots of France, and keep that crown in perpetual fear of him. He advised the king to employ the military men that had served under Cromwell, whom he thought the best i6Gi. officers he had ever seen: and he was sorry to see, they were dismissed, and that a company of wild young men were those the king relied on. But what he pressed most on the king, as the business then in agitation, was concerning the sale of Dunkirk. The Spaniards pretended it ought to be re-Dunkirk stored to them, since it was taken from them by pI!edn^n.th< Cromwell, when they had the king and his brothers in their armies: but that was not much regarded. The French pretended, that, by their agreement with Cromwell, he was only to hold it, till they had repayed the charge of the war: therefore they, offering to lay that down, ought to have the place delivered to them. The king was in no sort bound by this. So the matter under debate was, whether it ought to be kept or sold? The military men, who were believed to be corrupted by France, said, the place was not tenable; that in time of peace it would put the king to a great charge, and in time of war it would not quit the cost of keeping itm. 173 The earl of Clarendon said, he understood not those matters; but appealed to Monk's judgment, who did positively advise the letting it go for the sum that France offered. To make the business go the easier, the king promised, that he would lay up all the money in the Tower; and that it should not be touched, but upon extraordinary occasions. Schomberg advised, in opposition to all this, that the king
m See D'Estrades's letters; 399, 80. More of this will ap-but see too my lord Claren- pear to the world, wheneverdon's defence of himself, as to my lord Clarendon's history ofthis matter. It is printed in these times shall be published,the 8th vol. of State Trials, p. I have read it in MS. O.
1661. should keep it; for, considering the naval power of England, it could not be taken. He knew, that, though France spoke big, as if they would break with England unless that was delivered up, yet they were far from the thoughts of it. He had considered the place well; and he was sure it could never be taken, as long as England was master of the sea. The holding it would keep both France and Spain in a dependence upon the king. But he was singular in that opinion. So it was sold n: and all the money that was paid for it was immediately squandered away among the mistress's creatures. Tangier a By this the king lost his reputation abroad. The
part of the J 0 r
queen's por- court was believed venal. And because the earl of tlu" Clarendon was in greatest credit, the blame was cast chiefly on him; though his son assured me, he kept himself out of that affair entirely °. The cost bestowed on that place since that time, and the
n There is some reason to they say: Carte, in his second suspect, from some things in vol. p. 250, &c. Oldmixon, in Carte's history of the first duke his History of the Stuarts, p. of Ormonde, that the sale of 490. See also the General DieDunkirk, as well as the Por- tionary, vol. vi. p. 337. and tugal match, were first settled Rennet's History of England, between the king and the p. 224. See also a letter in French king, by the interven- MS. of sir Robert Southwell to tion only of the queen-mother the second earl of Clarendon, of England and the court of at the end of my second vol. Portugal; and my lord Claren- (8vo edition) of the Lord Chandon says, in his Defence above cellor Clarendon's Life. See mentioned, "It is very well also Lord Clarendon's Life, p. "known to his majesty, and to 201, &c. O. "several persons yet alive, that 0 In his opinion and advice, "the parting with Dunkirk was but not in his actings: an un"resolved upon before I ever happy distinction of his, which "heard of it." Carte does not went to other matters, and indeed mention Dunkirk; but made him to be called the auOldmixon does, when he speaks thor of many things he was of the errand of the queen-mo- really averse to. O. ther to England. See what