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But she was a woman of a great spirit. She said, she 1662. was his wife, and would have it known that she was so, let him use her afterwards as he pleased. Many discourses were set about upon this occasion. But the king ordered some bishops and judges to peruse the proofs she had to produce: and they reported that, according to the doctrine of the Gospel, and the law of England, it was a good marriage. So it was not possible to break it, but by trying how far the matter could be carried against her, for marrying a person so near the king without his leave. The king would not break with the earl of Clarendon: and so he told his brother, he must drink as he brewed, and live with her whom he had made his wife. All the earl of Clarendon's enemies rejoiced at this: for they reckoned, how much soever it seemed to raise him at present, yet it would raise envy so high against him, and make the king so jealous of him, as being more in his brother's interests than in his own, that they looked on it as that which would end in his ruin. And he himself thought so, as his son told me: for, as soon as he knew of it, and when he saw his son lifted up with it, he protested to him, that he knew nothing of the matter, till it broke out; but added, that he looked on it, as that which must be all their ruin sooner or later.
Upon this I will digress a little, to give an ac- The duke's count of the duke's character, whom I knew for some years so particularly, that I can say much
bury that now is, (1748,) and king, his ministers, and court,
found in it great confirmations O. (This work was first pub-
of what is in this history within lished by the university of Ox
that period, which relate to the ford, in 1759.)
1660. upon my own knowledge. He was very brave in his youth, and so much magnified by monsieur Turenne, that, till his marriage lessened him, he really clouded the king, and passed for the superior genius. He was naturally candid and sincere, and a firm friend, till affairs and his religion wore out all his first principles and inclinations. He had a great desire to understand affairs: and in order to that he kept a constant journal of all that passed, of 169 which he shewed me a great deal. The duke of Buckingham gave me once a short but severe character of the two brothers. It was the more severe, because it was true: the king (he said) could see things if he would, and the duke would see things if he could. He had no true judgment, and was soon determined by those whom he trusted: but he was obstinate against all other advices. He was bred with high notions of the kingly authority, and laid it down for a maxim, that all who opposed the king were rebels in their hearts. He was perpetually in one amour or other, without being very nice in his choice: upon which the king said once, he believed his brother had his mistresses given him by his priests for penance. He gave me this account of his changing his religion: when he escaped out of the hands of the earl of Northumberland, who had the charge of his education trusted to him by the parliament, and had used him with great respect, all due care was taken, as soon as he got beyond sea, to form him to a strict adherence to the church of England: among other things, much was said of the authority of the church, and of the tradition from the apostles in support of episcopacy: so that, when he came to observe that there was more reason to submit to the catholic church than to one 1660. particular church, and that other traditions might' be taken on her word, as well as episcopacy was received among us, he thought the step was not great, but that it was very reasonable to go over to the church of Rome: and doctor Steward having taught him to believe a real but inconceivable presence of Christ in the sacrament, he thought this went more than half way to transubstantiation. He said, that a nun's advice to him to pray every day, that, if he was not in the right way, God would set him right, did make a great impression on him. But he never told me when or where he was reconciled. He suffered me to say a great deal to him on all these heads. I shewed the difference between submission and obedience in matters of order and indifferent things, and an implicit submission from the belief of infallibility. I also shewed him the difference between a speculation of a mode of Christ's presence, when it rested in an opinion, and an adoration founded on it: though the opinion of such a presence was wrong, there was no great harm in that alone: but the adoration of an undue object was idolatry. He suffered me to talk much and often to him on these heads. But I plainly saw, it made no impression: and all that he seemed to intend by it was, to make use of me as an instrument to soften the aversion that people began to be possessed with to him. He was naturally eager and revengeful: and was against the taking off any that set up in an opposition to the measures of the court, 170 and who by that means grew popular in the house of commons. He was for rougher methods. He continued for many years dissembling his religion, Vol. 1. u
1660. and seemed zealous for the church of England: but it was chiefly on design to hinder all propositions that tended to unite us among ourselves. He was a frugal prince, and brought his court into method and magnificence: for he had 100,000/. a year allowed him. He was made high admiral: and he came to understand all the concerns of the sea very particularly. He had a very able secretary about him, sir William Coventry: a man of great notions and eminent virtues, the best speaker in the house of commons, and capable of bearing the chief ministry, as it was once thought he was very near it. The duke found all the great seamen had a deep tincture from their education: they both hated popery and loved liberty: they were men of severe tempers, and kept good discipline. But in order to the putting the fleet into more confident hands, the duke began a method of sending pages of honour, and other young persons of quality, to be bred to the sea. And these were put in command, as soon as they were capable of it, if not sooner. This discouraged many of the old seamen, when they saw in what a channel advancement was like to go; who upon that left the service, and went and commanded merchantmen. By this means the virtue and discipline of the navy is much lost. It is true, we have a breed of many gallant men, who do distinguish themselves in action. But it is thought, the nation has suffered much by the vices and disorders of those captains, who have risen by their quality more than by merit or service. The du- duchess of York was a very extraordinary
chess s cha- »'
meter. woman. She had great knowledge, and a lively sense of things. She soon understood what belonged to a princess; and took state on her rather too 1660. much h. She writ well; and had begun the duke's life, of which she shewed me a volume. It was all drawn from his journal: and he intended to have employed me in carrying it on. She was bred to great strictness in religion, and practised secret confession. Morley' told me, he was her confessor. She began at twelve years old, and continued under his direction, till, upon her father's disgrace, he was put from the court. She was generous and friendly; but was too severe an enemy.
The king's third brother, the duke of Glocester, The duke of
f ,./»• n • mi Glocester's
was 01 a temper different from his two brothers. character. He was active, and loved business, was apt to have particular friendships; and had an insinuating temper, which was generally very acceptable. The king loved him much better than the duke of York. But he was uneasy, when he saw there was no post 171 left for him, since Monk was general. So he spoke to the earl of Clarendon, that he might be made lord treasurer. But he told him, it was a post below his
h Her marriage with the duke created great uneasiness in the royal family. The princess royal could little bear the giving place to one she thought she had honoured very much in having admitted into her service, and avoided being in a room with her as much as she could; and the duke of Gloucester could never be prevailed upon to shew her any sort of civility. My grandfather (who loved him the best of all his old master's children) told him he feared it might prove prejudicial to him if the king should die without chil
dren: the duke said he believed