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1660. rendon's [court] enemies after his fall said, these things had been easily obtained, if he had taken any pains in the matter, but that he himself had no mind to it: and they infused this into the king, so that he believed it, and hated him mortally on that account. And in his difficulties afterwards he said often, all those things might have been prevented, if the earl of Clarendon had been true to him °. Vernier's The king had not been many days at Whitehall, fury' when one Venner, a violent fifth-monarchy man, who thought it was not enough to believe that Christ was to reign on earth, and to put the saints in the possession of the kingdom, (an opinion that they were all unspeakably fond of,) but added to this, that the saints were to take the kingdom themselvesP. He gathered some of the most furious of the party to a meeting in Coleman-street. There they concerted the day and the manner of their rising to set Christ on his throne, as they called it. But withal they meant to manage the government in his name; and were so formal, that they had prepared standards and colours with their devices on them, and furnished themselves with very good arms. But when the day came, there was but a small appearance, not exceeding twenty. However 161 they resolved to venture out into the streets, and cry out, No king but Christ. Some of them seemed persuaded that Christ would come down, and head

0 He himself is silent as to this great and lasting service to all this, in the history of his his country, has been, and is, life; but that maybe accounted the universal persuasion. Quifor without having any doubt que sui menwres alios fecere meat its truth. If it is true of rendo. O. him, how much are we all in- P This wants grammar. S. debted to him? That he did

them. They scoured the streets before them, and 1660. made a great progress. Some were afraid, and all were amazed at this piece of extravagance. They killed a great many, but were at last mastered by numbers: and were all either killed, or taken and executed. Upon this some troops of guards were raised. And there was a great talk of a design, as soon as the army was disbanded, to raise a force that should be so chosen and modelled that the king might depend upon it; and that it should be so considerable, that there might be no reason to apprehend new tumults any more. The earl of Southampton looked on a while: and when he saw how this design seemed to be entertained and magnified, he entered into a very free expostulation with the earl of Clarendon about it. He said, they had felt the effects of a military government, though sober and religious, in Cromwell's army: he believed vicious and dissolute troops would be much worse: the king would grow fond of them: and they would quickly become insolent and ungovernable: and then such men as he was must be only instruments to serve their ends. He said he would not look on, and see the ruin of his country begun, and be silent: a white staff should not bribe him. The earl of Clarendon was persuaded he was in the right, and promised he would divert the king from any other force than what might be decent to make a shew with, and what might serve to disperse unruly multitudes. The earl of Southampton said, if it went no farther, he could bear it; but it would not be easy to fix such a number, as would please our princes, and not give jealousy. The earl of Clarendon persuaded the king, that it was necessary for Vol. 1. T

16 him to carry himself with great caution, till the old army should be disbanded: for, if an ill humour got among them, they knew both their courage and their principles, which the present times had for a while a little suppressed: yet upon any just jealousy there might be great cause to fear new and more violent disorders. By these means the king was so wrought on, that there was no great occasion given for jealousy. The army was to be disbanded, but in such a manner, with so much respect, and so exact an account of arrears, and such gratuities, that it looked rather to be the dismissing them to the next opportunity, and a reserving them till there should be occasion for their service, than a breaking of them. They were certainly the bravest, the best disciplined, and the soberest army that had been known in these latter ages: every soldier was able to do the functions of an officer. The court was at great quiet, when they got rid of such a burden, as lay on them from the fear of such a body of men- The guards, and the new troops that were raised, were made up of such of the army as Monk recommended, and answered for. And with that his great interest at court came to a stand. He was . ,little considered afterwards. The trial

and execu- In one thing the temper of the nation appeared

t ion of the .

regicides, to be contrary to severe proceedings: for, though the regicides were at that time odious beyond all expression, and the trials and executions of the first that suffered were run to by vast crowds, and all people seemed pleased with the sight, yet the odiousness of the crime grew at last to be so much flattened by the frequent executions, and most of those who suffered dying with much firmness and shew of piety, justifying all they had done, not without a ]66o. seeming joy for their suffering on that account, that the king was advised not to proceed farther, at least not to have the scene so near the court as Charingcross. It was indeed remarkable that Peters, a sort of an enthusiastical buffoon preacher, though a very vicious man, who had been of great use to Cromwell, and had been outrageous in pressing the king's death with the cruelty and rudeness of an inquisitor, was the man of them all that was the most sunk in his spirit, and could not in any sort bear his punishment. He had neither the honesty to repent of it, nor the strength of mind to suffer for it, as all the rest of them did. He was observed all the while to be drinking some cordial liquors to keep him from fainting. Harrison was the first that suffered. He was a fierce and bloody enthusiast. And it was believed, that while the army was in doubt, whether it was fitter to kill the king privately, or to bring him to an open trial, that he offered, if a private way was settled on, to be the man that should do it. So he was begun with. But, however reasonable this might be in it self, it had a very ill effect: for he was a man of great heat and resolution, fixed in his principles, and so persuaded of them, that he had never looked after any interests of his own, but had opposed Cromwell when he set up for himself. He went through all the indignities and severities of his execution, in which the letter of the law in cases of treason was punctually observed, with a calmness, or rather a cheerfulness, that astonished the spectators. He spoke very positively, that what they had done was the cause and work of God, which he was confident God would own and

1660. raise up again, how much soever it suffered at that time. Upon this a report was spread, and generally believed, that he said he himself should rise again: though the party denied that, and reported the words as I have set them down. One person escaped, as was reported, merely by his vices: Henry Mar163 tin, who had been a most violent enemy to monarchy. But all that he moved for was upon Roman or Greek principles. He never entered into matters of religion, but on design to laugh both at them and all morality; for he was both an impious and vicious man. And now in his imprisonment he delivered himself up to vice and blasphemy. It was said, that this helped him to so many friends, that upon that very account he was spared P. John Goodwin and Milton did also escape all censure, to the surprise of all people. Goodwin had so often not only justified, but magnified the putting the king to death, both in his sermons and books, that few thought he could have been either forgot or excused: for Peters and he were the only preachers that spoke of it in that strain. But Goodwin had been so zealous an Arminian, and had sown such division among all the sectaries upon these heads, that it was said this procured him friends. Upon what account soever it was, he was not censured. Milton had appeared so boldly, though with much wit, and great purity and elegancy of style, against Salmasius and others, upon that argument of the putting the king to death, and had discovered such violence against the late king and all the royal family, and against monarchy, that it was thought a strange

P He censures even mercy. S.

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