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into his designs. But Monk continued still to protest to him in the solemnest manner possible, that he would be true to the commonwealth, and against the royal family. Lockhart went away, persuaded that matters would continue still in the same state: so that when his old friend Middletoun writ to him to make his own terms, if he would invite the king to Dunkirk, he said, he was trusted by the commonwealth, and could not betray it.

The house of commons put Monk on breaking the gates of the city of London, not doubting but that would render him so odious to them, that it would force him to depend wholly on themselves. He did it: and soon after he saw how odious he was become by it. So conceiving a high indignation at those who had put him on such an ungracious piece of service, he sent about all that night to the ministers and other active citizens, assuring them that he would quickly repair that error, if they would forgive it. So the turn was sudden: for the city sent and invited him to dine the next day at Guildhall: and there he declared for the members whom the army had forced away in the year forty-seven and forty-eight, who were known by the name of secluded members. And some happening to call the body that then sat at Westminster, the rump of a parliament, a sudden humour run like a madness through the whole city, of roasting the rumps of all sorts of animals. And thus the city expressed themselves sufficiently. Those at Westminster had no support: so they fell unpitied and unregarded. The secluded members came, and sat down among them. But all they could do was to give orders for the summoning a new parliament to meet the first of May: and so they declared themselves dissolved. c»re taken There was still a murmuring in the army. So

to manage . .

the army, great care was taken to scatter them in wide quarters, and not to suffer too many of those who were still for the old cause to lie near one another. The well and the ill affected were so mixed, that in case of any insurrection some might be ready at hand to assist them. They changed the officers that were ill affected, who were not thought fit to be trusted with the commanding those of their own stamp: and so created a mistrust between the officers and the soldiers. And above all they took care to have 87 no more troops than was necessary about the city: and these were the best affected. This was managed with great diligence and skill: and by this conduct it was, that the great turn was brought about without the least tumult or bloodshed, which was beyond what any person could have imagined. Of all this Monk had both the praise and the reward; though I have been told a very small share of it belonged to himu. Admiral Montague was then in chief command at sea, newly returned from the Sound, where he and De Ruyter, upon the orders they received from their masters, had brought the two northern kings to a peace; the king of Sweden dying as it was a making up. He was soon gained to be for the king; and dealt so effectually with the whole fleet, that the turn there was as silently brought about, without any revolt or opposition, as it had been in the army. The republicans went about like madmen, to rouse up their party. But

"Malice. S.

their time was past. All were either as men amazed or asleep. They had neither the skill nor the courage to make any opposition. The elections of parliament men run all the other way. So they saw their business was quite lost, and they felt themselves struck as with a spirit of giddiness. And then every man thought only how to save or secure himself. And now they saw how deceitful the argument from success was, which they had used so oft, and triumphed so much upon. For whereas success in the field, which was the foundation of their argument, depended much upon the conduct and courage of armies, in which the will of man had a large share, here was a thing of another nature: a nation, that had run on long in such a fierce opposition to the royal family, was now turned as one man to call home the king.

The nation had one great happiness during the long course of the civil war, that no foreigners had got footing among them. Spain was sinking to nothing: France was under a base spirited minister: and both were in war all the while. Now a peace was made between them. And very probably, according to what is in Mazarin's letters, they would have joined forces to have restored the king. The nation was by this means entirely in its own hands: and now returning to its wits, was in a condition to put every thing in joint again: whereas, if foreigners had been possessed of any important place, they might have had a large share of the management, and would have been sure of taking care of themselves. Enthusiasm was now languid: for that, owing its mechanical force to the liveliness of the blood and spirits, men in disorder, and depressed,

could not raise in themselves those heats, with 88 which they were formerly wont to transport both themselves and others. Chancellor Hide was all this while very busy: he sent over Dr. Morley, who talked much with the presbyterians of moderation in general, but would enter into no particulars: only he took care to let them know he was a Calvinist: and they had the best opinion of such of the church of England as were of that persuasion. Hide wrote in the king's name to all the leading men, and got the king to write a great many letters in a very obliging manner. Some that had been faulty sent over considerable presents, with assurances that they would redeem all that was past with their zeal for the future. These were all accepted of. Their money was also very welcome; for the king needed money when his matters were on that crisis, and he had so many tools at work. The management of all this was so entirely the chancellor's single performance, that there was scarce any other that had so much as a share in it with him. He kept a register of all the king's promises, and of his own; and did all that lay in his power afterwards to get them all to be performed. He was also all that while giving the king many wise and good advices. But he did it too much with the air of a governor, or of a lawyer. Yet then the king was wholly in his hands x .

x When the earl of Claren- ther to Breda, gave him strict don's history was first publish- charge not to trust Hide with ed, the lord Grandville, second any thing that related to his son to the earl of Bath, told me own concerns, and desired the that Monk had always a very same caution might be given particular dislike to chancellor the king; and his father told Hide, and when he sent his fa- him, the chief thing that stag

I need not open the scene of the new parliament, A new par(or convention, as it came afterwards to be called,liame,,t' because it was not summoned by the king's writ:) such unanimity appeared in their proceedings, that there was not the least dispute among them, but upon one single point: yet that was a very important one. Hale, afterwards the famous chief justice, moved that a committee might be appointed to look into the propositions that had been made, and the concessions that had been offered by the late king during the war, particularly at the treaty of Newport, that from thence they might digest such propositions as they should think fit to be sent over to the king. This was seconded, but I do not remember by whom. It was foreseen, that such a motion might be set on foot: so Monk was instructed how to answer it, whensoever it should be proposed. He told the house, that there was yet, beyond all men's hope, an universal quiet all over the nation; but there were many incendiaries still on the watch, trying where they could first raise the flame. He said, he had such copious informations sent him of these things, that it was not fit they should be generally known: he could not answer for the peace, either of the nation or of the army, if any delay was put to the sending for the king: what need was there of sending propositions to him? Might they not as well prepare them, and offer them to him, when he should come over? He89 was to bring neither army nor treasure with him,

gered Monk in the whole trans- out, and endeavoured ever after action was the necessity of to lessen Monk's merits as having any thing to do with much as he could, and lord

him; which Hide soon found Bath's for the same reason. D.

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