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but not performed. And so without any struggle he withdrew, and became a private man. And as he had done hurt to nobody, so nobody did ever study to hurt him; by a rare instance of the instability of human greatness, and of the security of innocence. His brother had been made by the father lieutenant of Ireland, and had the most spirit of the two; but he could not stand his ground, when his brother quitted his. One of Cromwell's daughters was married to Claypole, and died a little before himself: another was married to the earl of Falconbridge, a wise and worthy woman, more likely to have maintained the post than either of her brothers; according to a saying that went of her, that those who wore breeches deserved petticoats better, but if those in petticoats had been in breeches they would have held faster v. The other daughter was married, first to the earl of Warwick's heir, and afterwards to one Russel. [I knew both lady Falconberg and that sister.] They were both very worthy persons.
Upon Richard's leaving the stage, the commonwealth was again set up: and the parliament which Cromwell had broke was brought together: but the army and they fell into new disputes: so they were
v She outlived the earl of Falconbridge, who, by her prudent management, (as it was generally thought,) was a privy counsellor to Oliver, Richard, king Charles the second, king James the second, and king William the third. After his death she desired sir Harry Sheers to write an inscription for his monument, and would have it inserted, that in such a
year he married his highness the then lord protector of England's daughter; which sir Harry told her, he feared might give offence: she answered, that nobody could dispute matters of fact, therefore insisted that it should be inserted. I do not know if it were ever erected, but sir Harry told me the story, with some encomiums upon the spirit of the lady. D.
again broke by the army: and upon that the nation was like to fall into great convulsions. The enthusiasts became very fierce, and talked of nothing but the destroying all the records and the law, which, they said, had been all made by a succession of tyrants and papists: so they resolved to model all anew by a levelling and a spiritual government of the saints. There was so little sense in this, that Nevil and Harrington, with some others, set up in Westminster a meeting to consider of a form of government that should secure liberty, and yet preserve the nation. They ran chiefly on having a parliament elected by ballot, in which the nation should be represented according to the proportion of what was paid in taxes towards the public expense: and by this parliament a council of twentyfour was to be chosen by ballot: and every year eight of these were to be changed, and might not 84 again be brought into it, but after an interval of three years: by these the nation was to be governed: and they were to give an account of the administration to the parliament every year. This meeting was a matter of diversion and scorn, to see a few persons take upon them to form a scheme of government: and it made many conclude, it was necessary to call home the king, that so matters might again fall into their old channel. Lambert became the man on whom the army depended most. Upon his forcing the parliament, great applications were made to Monk to declare for the parliament: but under this the declaring for the king was generally understood. Yet he kept himself under such a reserve, that he declared all the while in the most solemn manner for a commonwealth, and against a
single person, in particular against the king: so that none had any ground from him to believe he had any design that way. Some have thought that he intended to try, if it was possible, to set up for himself: others rather believed, that he had no settled design any way, and resolved to do as occasion should be offered to him. The Scotish nation did certainly hope he would bring home the king. He drew the greatest part of the army towards the borders, where Lambert advanced towards him with seven thousand horse. Monk was stronger in foot: but being apprehensive of engaging on disadvantage, he sent Clarges to the lord Fairfax for his advice and assistance, who returned answer by Dr. Fairfax, afterwards secretary to the archbishop of Canterbury, and assured him he would raise Yorkshire on the first of January. And he desired him to press upon Lambert, in case that he should send a detachment into Yorkshire. On the first of January, Fairfax appeared with about one hundred gentlemen and their servants. But so much did he still maintain his great credit with the army, that the night after, the Irish brigade, that consisted of one thousand two hundred horse, and was the rear of Lambert's army, came over to him. Upon that Lambert retreated, finding his army was so little sure to him, and resolved to march back to London. He was followed by Monk, who when he came to Yorkshire met with Fairfax, and offered to resign the chief command to him. The lord Fairfax refused it, but pressed Monk to declare for a free parliament: yet in that he was so reserved to him, that Fairfax knew not how to depend on him. But as Lambert was making haste up, his army mouldered away, and he himself was brought up a prisoner, and was put in the tower of London. Yet not long after he made his escape, and gathered a few troops about him in Northamptonshire. But these were soon scattered: for Ingoldsby, though85 one of the king's judges, raised Buckinghamshire against him. And so little force seemed now in that party, that with very little opposition Ingoldsby took him prisoner, and brought him into Northampton: where Lambert, as Ingoldsby told me, entertained him with a pleasant reflection for all his misfortunes. The people were in great crowds applauding and rejoicing for the success. So Lambert put Ingoldsby in mind of what Cromwell had said to them both, near that very place, in the year 1650, when they, with a body of the officers, were going down after their army that was marching to Scotland, the people all the while shouting and wishing them success: Lambert upon that said to Cromwell, he was glad to see they had the nation on their side: Cromwell answered, do not trust to that; for these very persons would shout as much if you and I were going to be hanged. Lambert said, he looked on himself as in a fair way to that, and began to think Cromwell prophesied.
Upon the dispersing Lambert's army, Monk marched southward, and was now the object of all men's hope. At London all sorts of people began to cabal together, royalists, presbyterians, and republicans. Hollis told me, the presbyterians pressed the royalists to be quiet, and to leave the game in their hands; for their appearing would give jealousy, and hurt that which they meant to promote. He and Ashly Cooper, Grimstone and Annesly, met
VOL. I. L
often with Manchester, Roberts, and the rest of the presbyterian party: and the ministers of London were very active in the city: so that when Monk came up, he was pressed to declare himself. At first he would only declare for the parliament that Lambert had forced. But there was then a great fermentation all over the nation. Monk and the parliament grew jealous of one another, even while they tried who could give the best words, and express their confidence in the highest terms of one another. I will pursue the relation of this transaction no farther: for this matter is well known. Ah turn to The king had gone in autumn 1659 to the meeting tickings a^ ^e Pyrenees, where cardinal Mazarin and Don Lewis de Haro were negotiating a peace. He applied himself to both sides, to try what assistance he might expect upon their concluding the peace. It was then known, that he went to mass sometimes, that so he might recommend himself the more effectually to both courts; yet this was carried secretly, and was confidently denied. Mazarin still talked to Lockhart upon the foot of the old confidence: for he went thither to watch over the treaty; though England was now in such convulsions, that no minister from thence could be much considered, 86 unless it was upon his own account. But matters were ripening so fast towards a revolution in England, that the king came back to Flanders in all haste, and went from thence to Breda. Lockhart had it in his power to have made a great fortune, if he had begun first, and had brought the king to Dunkirk. As soon as the peace of the Pyrenees was made, he came over, and found Monk at London, and took all the pains he could to penetrate