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Such was the end of a man, who, if he had not been born in a free state, would have had a place in history.

Hunc exitum habuit vir, nisi in libera civitate natus esset, memorabilis. Experiment as well as observation is necessary. That is, the student must acquire practical skill and readiness by going through a systematic course of exercises in Latin Syntax. He will do well to use a manual adapted to the Gramniar which he has selected. In any one of the following he will find all he will need : Dr. Kennedy's Curriculum Stili Latini (4s. 6d., Key, 7s. 6d., Longmans) affords “ample practice in the Syntax Rules” of Dr. Kennedy's Grammar, by means of 3,500 sentences for translation “in the style of the best Latin prose authors.” Dr. Smith's Principia Latina, Part IV. (3s. 6d., Key, 6d., Murray), contains the Rules of Syntax, with examples, explanation of synonyms, and abundant exercises. The student could not have a better book. Advanced Latin Exercises (2s. 6d., Key, 2s., Chambers) is a work intended to illustrate the principles of Syntax explained in Dr. Schmitz's Latin Grammar, and it is arranged according to the order of chapters and paragraphs into which that work is divided. Its short sentences of Latin and excellent selection of Latin prose will at the same time afford plenty of practice in the art of translating Latin at sight. Exercises in Latin Prose Composition (28. 6d., Collins) have been compiled by Mr. Sykes on the basis of Dr. Schmitz's “ Elementary Latin Grammarpublished by Collins ; but we have not seen the work and cannot describe its arrangement. Another well-known and suitable manual is Professor Wilkins's Exercises in Latin Prose (4s. 6d., Key, 5s., Longmans); but its references throughout are to the “Public School Latin Primer.” The more advanced student will find a useful “ Table of Comparative Latin and English Idioms,” with instructive remarks on the Subjunctive Mood, and the characteristic differences of composition, in the same author's Manual of Latin Prose Composition (5s. 6d., Key, 2s. 6d., Longmans), which, however, in its long passages for translation, is more suited to the requirements of the Honours student. We have found Abbott's Latin Prose Through English Idiom (2s. 6d., Seeley and Co.) exceedingly suggestive in its interesting comparison of English with Latin. Many points are very freshly and concisely put, and a review of its leading principles would well repay the student. It is a pithy little book and easy to remember.


The few questions set in these subjects may be answered by a careful and systematic reading of any hand-book which gives a full and clear account of Rome in its internal history and its relations with foreign powers. Dr. Merivale's General History of Rome (78. 6d., Longmans)* is remarkably clear and comprehensive, whilst its five excellent maps, and its closing chapters on the history of the city, will help the reader very considerably. Of its 700 pages the candidate will need only 400, for the regulations simply require the History of Rome to the Death of Augustus.” We like also very much Berkley's New History of Rome (58., Laurie, Edinburgh, or Simpkin and Co., London). It is based upon the great work of Mommsen, and it presents the latest results of German research and criticism in a compact form. Not only are facts related, but life and suggestiveness imparted to the story. The course of the history is well marked by marginal notes, and in an Appendix there is a concise account of the chief magistrates of Rome, a note giving the dates when the varied offices were open-d to the plebeians, an analysis of the principal laws marking the progress of the constitutional struggle, a table of the great battles recorded in the history of the republic, an explanation of a few terms connected with the agrarian laws, law of debt, and citizenship, and a chart of Italian History from 510 to 287 B.C., all of which are important points on which questions are frequently asked. For a more detailed and systematic account of the Roman army, religion, political constitution, and official personages at the different periods, the student cannot do better than refer to the distinct chapter on these subjects in Dr. Smith's Smaller History of Rome (3s. 6d., Murray), which, in addition to an admirable summary of events, contains a concise analysis of the whole Roman constitution, and is, in our judgment, complete enough for the Pass Examination without recourse to the larger Student's History, by Dean Liddell. Dr. Schmitz is the author of a History of Rome (7s. 6d., Walton; 6s., Lockwood), but the style is somewhat uninteresting for a work of nearly 700 pages, and we should prefer to read the same author's History of Rome for Junior Classes (1s. 6d., Collins), which, in 170 pages, presents us with a clear and rapid view of all the main events which illustrate the origin, growth, and power of Rome. It contains a good map of the Roman Empire, and an ample chronological table ; but the candidate who uses it should have within reach a more definite account than it presents of the Roman constitution and army—such, for instance, as that in the works of Dr. Smith and Mr. Berkley. Whichever hand-book of history the candidate uses he should keep to one set of chronological tables, for the eye will then assist the memory in remembering the distinct groupings of any one page. Such tables are inserted in the above text-books, but those we have found most useful are in Turner's Heads of an Analysis of the History of Rome (2s. 6d., Longmans), which may be used as a supplement to any of

* See p. 39, Merivale's School History.

the above histories. The dates given are illustrated by notes, quotations, and brief analyses of the principal laws and events. Shuld the student wish to gain a clearer idea of any particular period we can safely recommend him to read one or more of the Epochs of Ancient History Series (23. 6d. per vol., Longmans). They are all written by eminent authors, and for graphic compactness, historic reliability, and general interest, cannot be over praised. In four handy volumes the student will have a complete history of the period required. Their titles are: Early Rome ; Rome and Carthagethe Punic Wars; The Gracchi, Marius, and Sulla ; The Roman Triumvirates. In an examination thoroughness on one point counts more than discursiveness on two or three. What is essential is, that the student should have definite ideas of the true order and relation of the events. This is more important than a bare enumeration of dates. Indeed, should the student have a poor memory for figures we would advise him to let them alone, except half-a-dozen of the main ones, until he has thoroughly interested himself, by constant reading, in the order and connection of the main historical facts, and then to attach the dates to them by a rapid glance at his chronological table a few weeks before the examination.

The history of Roman Literature is not distinctly required in the Regulations, but occasionally a question is asked on the life and literary works of the specified authors; and we would recommend a perusal of the suggestive and critical remarks of Dr. Schmitz on those authors, in his History of Latin Literature (2s. 6d., Collins).

As to Geography, on wbich only one or two questions are asked, the best way to study it is in connection with the candidate's classic and historic reading. Of course he will suffer no harm if he can find time to make a distinct study of it in Butler's Sketch of Ancient Geography, revised (4s., Longmaus); or, better still, in Dr. Smith's Smaller Manual of Ancient Geography (3s. 6d., Murray); but the questions do not imply a more general acquaintance with the subject than can be fairly made in the course of a year's reading of Roman History and of the issic authors of the year, combined with a diligent reference to a map. The candidate should not fail to trace out all geographical allusions, and to make notes of all important places, so that he may retain a vivid impression of everything he reads, and be able to describe the relative positions of the most noted countries, provinces, and towns. Without this practical study of maps in the early part of his career the student will never feel quite sure of his learning, and must always be dependent on others. Among the many good and cheap atlases now issuing from the press, we think the one published by the world-famed geographers, Messrs. W. and A. K. Johnstun, of Edinburgh and London, is especially worthy of mention. It is published in two forms, which are absolutely identical in contents but different in price and arrangement. The Unrivalled Classical Atlas (38. 6d.) is large enough in the size of its pazes to contain an entire map on a page, but is bound only in cardboard, while the World Classical Atlas (58.) is well bound in cloth, and is of handier size, each map occupying two pages. There are 23 well-engraved and well-printed maps, besides an index of 36 pages, containing both the ancient and modern names of places mentioned in the maps, and the proper quantities of the names marked by able classical scholars. The special features of the atlas are : A plan of Rome, with illustrations of ancient sites ; a map of the outer geography of the “Odyssey,” and of the form of the earth according to Homer, with letterpress explaining in brief notes the famous bard's ideas of the world, the notes being based on Mr. Gladstone's Homer and the Homeric Aje. Other maps afford valuable help in the study of Greek and Roman history, by showing, for example, the extent of the Greek and Roman dominion under special aspects and at distinct periods ; by plans of such important places as Athens, Carthage, Syracuse, and Marathon ; by indicating the route of Xenophon and the Ten Thousand, and the general direction of the barbarian inroads on the fall of the Roman Empire. We have entered thus into detail nut to imply that all these points are included in the examination, but to indicate the kind of help which such a comprehensive atlas as this will yield to the thorough-going student. Another cheap and reliable though not so complete and finished work is the Crown Atlas of Classical Geography (28. 6d., Collins), with descriptive letterpress by Dr. Schmitz on each of the 15 maps—a feature which will recommend it to many students. The Student's Atlas (3s., Collins) contains the same letterpress and the same number of maps on a larger scale. Other good classical atlases are those of Butler (78. 6d., or Junior Atlas, 48. 6d., Longmans), and the Library Atlas (7s. 6d., school edition, 58., Bell and Sons).






We believe this subject was not included in the First B.A. Examination up to the year 1870. Since then, however, it has been imperatively required, and presents a stiffer test to the ordinary candidate than a cursory glance at the regulations and the examinationpapers would indicate. “One book either of Homer or of Xenophon, to be selected two years previously by the Senate; together with easy questions in Grammar”—that is all that is said, but it implies, in the case of many private students. years of close and earnest study amidst the intricacies and delicate distinctions of the Greek language and dialects. There is only one paper set in this subject. It consists of two parts - translation into English, and que-tions in Greek Grammar, in both of which the candidate must distinctly succeed. Excellence in translation will not atone for inaccuracy in Grammar, nor will complete and precise answers in Grammar excuse slovenliness and want of discernment in construing the given extracts. We have the impression, but we cannot speak as an oracle, that whilst the candirlate inust satisfy the examiners in every subject, more than ordinary stress is laid on Greek and Latin Grammar, and perhaps more on Greek than Latin. TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH,

PECULIARITIES OF GREEK. The passages set for translation vary in number, but usually there are two from Xenophon or three from Homer. The two passages of prose, however, will often take up as much time as the three of verse. Occasionally a few shorter extracts are given with the request to “translate and explain " them--- requirement which seems to go beyond the letter of the regulations. There is no intimation whether the explanations wanted are to be on Grammar or historical allusions, on the connection of thought or the illustrations of personal character. And, undoubtedly, however unexpected and bewildering it may be, it is a sharp way of testing the mind of the student and of discovering on what aspects of his author's style and subject he has bestowed most attention, and in what respect his knowledge is partial or complete. Every one will at once note down what first strikes him as peculiar or suggestive either in Grammar, meaning, or evident allusion. The only objection to this method of examining is its apparent indefiniteness; and yet a sharp student, well up in his subject, should have no difficulty in detecting the aim of the examiner in selecting such extracts—and that is the main thing after all. Explanations of customs, of obscure allusions and suggestive points, are inore likely to be wished for than rules of syntax and verbal peculiarities ; for in each paper there are distinct

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