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King Edward IV.

Edward, Prince of Wales, after-
wards Edward V.

Richard, Duke of York,


Sons to Edward IV.

George, Duke of Clarence, Brother to Edward IV.
A young Son of Clarence.

Richard, Duke of Glofter, Brother to Edward IV.
afterwards King Richard III.

Cardinal Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Archbishop of York.

Bishop of Ely.

Duke of Buckingham.

Duke of Norfolk. Earl of Surrey.

Earl Rivers, brother to K. Edward's Queen.
Marquis of Dorset, } ber fons.

Lord Grey,

Earl of Richmond, afterwards King Henry VII.
Lord Haftings.

Sir Thomas Vaughan.

Sir Richard Ratcliff.
Lord Lovel.

Sir William Catesby.

Sir James Tyrrel.

Lord Stanley.
Earl of Oxford.

Sir James Blount.

Sir Walter Herbert.

Sir Robert Brakenbury, Lieutenant of the Tower.
Christopher Urfwick, a Prieft. Another Priest.
Lord Mayor.

Elizabeth, Queen of Edward IV.

Queen Margaret, Widow of Henry VI.

Anne, Widow of Edward Prince of Wales, Son to Henry VI. afterwards married to the Duke of Glofter. Dutchess of York, Mother to Edward IV. Clarence, and Richard III.

Sheriff, Purfuivant, Scrivener, Citizens, Ghofts, Soldiers, and other Attendants.

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Glo. Now is the winter of our discontent Made glorious fummer by this fun of York*;



Life and Death of King Richard III.] This tragedy, though it is called the Life and Death of this prince, comprizes, at moft, but the laft eight years of his time; for it opens with George duke of Clarence being clapped up in the Tower, which happened in the beginning of the year 1477 and clofes with the death of Richard at Bofworthfield, which battle was fought on the 22d of Auguft, in the year 1485. THEOBALD.

It appears that feveral dramas on the prefent fubject had been written before Shakspeare attempted it. See the notes at the conclufion of this play, which was firft enter'd at Stationers' Hall by Andrew Wife, Oct. 20, 1597, under the title of The Tragedie of King Richard the Third, with the Death of the Duke of Clarence. Before this, viz. Aug. 15th, 1586, was entered, A Tragical report of King Richard the Third, a Baliad. It may be neceffary to remark that the words, fong, ballad, book, enterlude and play, were often fynonymously used. STEEVENS.


-this fun of York ;] Alluding to the cognizance of Edward IV. which was a fun, in memory of the three funs, which are faid to have appeared at the battle which he gained over the Lancaftrians at Mortimer's Crofs.

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And all the clouds, that lowr'd upon our house,
In the deep bofom of the ocean bury'd.

Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths;
Our bruised arms hung up for monuments;
Our stern alarums chang'd to merry meetings',
Our dreadful marches to delightful measures.
4 Grim-vifag'd war hath smooth'd his wrinkled front;

So, in Drayton's Miferies of Queen Margaret:

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Three funs were feen that inftant to appear, "Which foon again fhut themselves up in one, Ready to buckle as the armies were,


"Which this brave duke took to himself alone, &c.

Again, in the 22d Song of the Polyolbion:

"And thankful to high heaven which of his cause had


"Three funs for his device ftill in his enfign bare." Again, in the Wrighte's Play in the Chester Collection. M. S. Harl. 1013, the fame prodigy is introduced as attending on a more folemn event:


"That day was feene veramente

"Three fonnes in the firmament,
"And wonderly together went
"And torned into one."


-merry meetings,] So, in The tragical Life and Death of King Richard the Third, which is one of the metrical monologues in a collection entitled, The Mirrour of Magiftrates. The first edition of it appeared in 1575, but the lines quoted on the prefent as well as future occafions throughout this play, are not found in any copy before that of 1610, fo that the author was more probably indebted to Shakspeare than Shakspeare to him : -the battles jought in fields before

Were turn'd to meetings of fweet amitie;
The war-god's thundring cannons dreadful rore,
And rattling drum-founds' warlike harmonie,
To fweet-tun'd noise of pleasing minstrelfie.

God Mars laid by his launce, and tooke his lute,
And turn'd his rugged frownes to fmiling lookes;
Inftead of crimson fields, war's fatal fruit,
He bath'd his limbes in Cypris warbling brooks,

And fet his thoughts upon her wanton lookes. STEEVENS. ▲ Grim-vifag'd war, &c.] Shakspeare feems to have had the following paffage from Lyly's Alexander and Campafpe, 1584, before him, when he wrote thefe lines: "Is the warlike found "of drum and trump turn'd to the foft noise of lyre and lute?


And now, instead of mounting barbed steeds ',
To fright the fouls of fearful adverfaries,-


He capers nimbly in a lady's chamber,

To the lascivious pleafing of a lute.

But I,-that am not fhap'd for fportive tricks,
Nor made to court an amorous looking-glafs;

I, that am rudely ftamp'd, and want love's majesty,

To ftrut before a wanton ambling nymph;

I, that am curtail'd of this fair proportion,

"The neighing of barbed feeds, whofe loudnefs filled the air "with terror, and whose breaths dimned the fun with smoak, "converted to delicate tunes and amorous glances? &c."


5 barbed feeds,] I. Haywarde, in his Life and Raigne of Henry IV. 1599, fays,-The duke of Hereford came to the barriers, mounted upon a white courfer, barbed with blew and green velvet, &c.

So, in Jarvis Markham's English Arcadia, 1607:

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armed in a black armour, curiously damafk'd with interwinding wreaths of cyprefs and ewe, his barbe upon his horse, all of black abrofetta, cut in broken hoopes upon curled cyprefs."

Again, in the 2d Part of K. Edward IV. by Heywood, 1626: "With barbed horse, and valiant armed foot." Barbed, however, may be no more than a corruption of barded. Equus bardatus, in the Latin of the middle ages, was a horfe adorned with military trappings. I have met with the word barded many times in our ancient chronicles and romances, An inftance or two may fuffice. They mounted him furely upon a good and mighty courfer, well barded, &c."

Hift. of Helyas Knight of the Swanne, bl. 1. no date, Again, in Barrett's Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580: "Bardes or trappers of horses. Phalera, Lat," Again, Hollinfhed fpeaking of the preparations for the battle of Agincourt: " to the intent that if the barded horfes ran fiercely upon them, &c." Again, p. 8oz, he fays, that bards and trappers had the fame meaning.

It is obferved in the Turkish Spy, that the German cuiraffiers, though armed and barbed, man and horfe, were not able to ftand against the French cavalry. STEEVENS.

6 He capers- -] ] War capers. This is poetical, though a

little harsh; if it be York that capers, the antecedent is at fuch a distance, that it is almoft forgotten. JOHNSON.

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7 Cheated of feature by diffembling nature,
Deform'd, unfinish'd, fent before my time
Into this breathing world, fcarce half made up,
And that fo lamely and unfashionably,
That dogs bark at me, as I halt by them;-
Why I, in this weak piping time of peace,
Have no delight to pafs away the time;
Unless to spy my fhadow in the fun,
And defcant on mine own deformity:
And therefore,-fince I cannot prove a lover',
To entertain these fair well-fpoken days,→→→
I am determined to prove a villain,


And hate the idle pleasures of these days.
Plots have I laid, inductions dangerous,


7 Cheated of feature by diffembling nature,] By diffembling is not meant hypocritical nature, that pretends one thing and does another: but nature that puts together things of a diffimilar kind, as a brave foul and a deformed body. WARBURTON. Diffembling is here put very licentiously for fraudful, deceitful. JOHNSON.

Dr. Johnson hath certainly mistaken, and Dr. Warburton rightly explained the word diffembling; as is evident from the following extract: "Whyle thinges toode in this case, and "that the manner of addyng was fometime too fhort and fometime too long, els diffembled and let flip together." Arthur Golding's tranflation of Julius Solinus, 1587. HENLEY.

And defcant on mine own deformity:] Defcant is a term in mufic, fignifying in general that kind of harmony wherein one part is broken and formed into a kind of paraphrafe on the other. The propriety and elegance of the above figure, without fuch an idea of the nature of defcant, could not be difcerned.


And therefore, fince I cannot prove a lover,] Shakspeare very diligently inculcates, that the wickedness of Richard proceeded from his deformity, from the envy that rofe at the comparison of his own perfon with others, and which incited him to disturb the pleafures that he could not partake. JOHNSON.

▾ And hate the idle pleafures-] Perhaps we might read And bate the idle pleasures JOHNSON. 2-inductions dangerous,] Preparations for mischief. The Induction is preparatory to the action of the play. JOHNSON. Marston has put this line, with little variation, into the mouth of Fame':

"Plots ha' you laid ? inductions dangerous?"



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