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teacher to read the sentence under consideration several times, placing the emphasis on different words, and to call upon the pupil to decide which, in view of the meaning, is best. Let the pupil be aroused to thinking, and let the responsibility of deciding what is right come upon him. Only thus can he be truly educated.] In the same way, determine the emphatic words in each of the sentences.
Second Stanza. What is meant by the word “full” here? "plan"? What “ features” are meant? What is it to be " profiled forth against the clear, blue sky”? What kind of view of the face is given? Meaning of the expression colossal imagery”? Why is it called a “ fragment”? For what purpose is the fifth line introduced ? What is its relation to the preceding two? What is meant by the " compass of his art”? Whose art? Why" plastic”? What is it to try the compass of an art? What do the pine trees constitute ? Put the words in the sixth, seventh, and first part of the eighth lines in the natural order, placing the subject of the sentence first. What is said to "shoot”? What is meant by this? Why the “expecting" eye in the last line? What are 5 fancied forms of air”?
Etymology and meaning of features ? profiled ? clear? sculptor? chisel ? colossal ? imagery? compass ? plastic ? art? curved ? illusions ? expecting? fancied ? forms ? air ?
What is the first positive statement made in this stanza ? [The falling inflection should come on “ full and plain.” These would naturally come after " displayed.” The second line may be considered as an additional statement.] How many lines in the statement beginning “as though”? Where and what is the next statement after this ? What conditional expression comes before this statement? Inflection then upon “high" ? upon “hair"? upon “perfect”? What word omitted near the close of the eighth line? [The word “there" expresses an important condition. Elsewhere there may be illusions. The last line may be considered either as a part of the condition, or as a distinct statement, On this will depend the inflection at its close.]
Determine the emphases in the second stanza, as already done in the first. Determine in each case the word or group
of words expressing the important thought. [Only repeated trial and careful listening will enable one to reach correct results. It would be easy to point out the emphatic words ; it is much better for the pupil to find them.]
Third Stanza. What is called a " vision”? Why? Why s wondrous”? Meaning of the expression “ broad earth”? Force of the word “broad”? Meaning of “bounds" as here used ? Hath not the broad earth the very object here described ? What word should be inserted, and where, in order to remove the ambiguity ? What is it to “stir the poet's phantasy”? What is the common modern form of the word phantasy ? Meaning of “uprear”? Are the features "lifted up”are they not always in the same place? Why call the clouds a“ wreath"? Meaning of “grand” in the seventh line ? “eternally” ? of “gaze in the eighth line? of the clause, “Thou lookest down”? What kind of "gray” is the color of the image ? Is it one single rock? How high does it appear?
Etymology and meaning of vision ? object? traveler ? recorded ? poet? phantasy ? awfully ? eternally ? austere ?
[ Exclamations and terms of address are sometimes of a positive and sometimes of a negative character. In solemn utterances, and in the proceedings of dignified, deliberative bodies, they are positive announcements of important facts, or truths, or steps in the proceedings. But in colloquial usage, where the object is to ascertain whether the party addressed is attending, or in exclamations expressing a doubt, they assume a questioning or negative character. As examples of the first, take the cases in this stanza, and the expression, “Mr. President,” as uttered by dignified speakers in the United States Senate. Of the second, take as examples the following: “My friend, how do you do”? “Mr. Chairman, am I entitled to the floor?” “What! the President killed !”
[“An object like to thee” constitutes a condition, limiting the word “hath.” Where two clauses are connected by "nor,'' the second usually has the falling inflection.] What inflection then upon vision ? thee? phantasy? Determine the other inflections in this stanza, according to directions already given.
Also determine the emphases as heretofore directed.
[This stanza has more of the sublime in its utterances than the preceding. Hence, in reading it, the voice swells into greater fullness, and moves more slowly and with greater stateliness. The pitch becomes low.]
Fourth Stanza. What are curious travelers"? Meaning of " descried ” ? Is it certain that the face looks like Franklin's ? Meaning of “ trace"? "physiognomy", as here used ? What “face” is meant in the third line ?' Why “grave"? Why “philosophic”? Why is Franklin called “sage"? Why should the Old Man be a "philosopher, wise and staid"? Why is the allusion made to the lightning, in the last line? How many syllables has the word “learned” here? How many has it usually when used as an adjective?
Determine inflections and emphases as before.
II.-ADVENTURE WITH A BUFFALO.
W. J. SNELLING. 1. I wandered far into the bare prairie, which was spread around me like an ocean of snow, the gentle undulations here and there having no small resemblance to the groundswell. When the sun took off his night-cap of mist (for the morning was cloudy), the glare of the landscape, or rather snow
scape, was absolutely painful to my eyes; but a small veil of • *--.: , green crape obviated that difficulty. Toward noon I was
aware of a buffalo, at a long distance, turning up the snow with his nose and feet, and cropping the withered grass beneath. I always thought it a deed of mercy to slay such an
old fellow, he looks so miserable, and discontented with himJawat self. As to the individual in question, I determined to put
. .. an end to his long, turbulent, and evil life.
2. To this effect, I approached him, as a Chinese male. factor approaches a mandarin,—that is to say, prone, like a serpent. But the parity only exists with respect to the posture; for the aforesaid malefactor expects to receive pain, whereas I intended to inflict it. He was a grim-looking barbarian,-and, if a beard be a mark of wisdom, Peter the Hermit was a fool to him. So, when I had attained a suitable proximity, I appealed to his feelings with a bullet. He ran,— and I ran; and I had the best reason to run,—for he ran after me, and I thought that a pair of horns might destroy my usual equanimity and equilibrium. In truth, I did not fly any too fast; for the old bashaw was close behind me, and I could hear him breathe. I threw away my gun; and, as there was no tree at hand, I gained the center of a pond of a few yards area, such as are found all over the prairies in February.
3. Here I stood secure, as though in a magic circle, well knowing that neither pigs nor buffaloes can walk upon ice.no My pursuer was advised of this fact also, and did not venture to trust himself on so slippery a footing. Yet it seemed that he was no gentleman; at least he did not practice forgiveness of injuries. Ho perambulated the periphery of the pond 5 till I was nearly as cold as the ice under me. It was worse than the stone jug, or the black-hole at Calcutta. Ah! thought I, if I only had my gun, I would soon relieve you from your post.
4. But discontent was all in vain. Thus I remained, and thus he remained, for at least four hours. In the mean time I thought of the land of steady habits ; of baked beans and pumpkins, and codfish on Saturdays. “There,” said I to myself, “my neighbor's proceeding would be reckoned unlawful, I guess; for no one can be held in custody without a warrant and sufficient reason. If ever I get back, I won't be caught in such a scrape again?
walked around to que presume ne filia
5. Grief does not last forever, neither does anger; and my janitor, either forgetting his resentment, which, to say the truth, was not altogether groundless, or thinking it was useless, or tired of his self-imposed duty, or for some reason or other, bid me farewell with a loud bellow, and walked away to a little oasis that was just in sight, and left me to my meditations. I picked up my gun and followed. He entered the wood, -and so did I just in time to sce him fall and expire.
6. The sun was setting; and the weather was getting colder and colder. I could hear the ground crack and the trees split, with its intensity. I was at least twenty miles from home; and it behoved me, if I did not wish to “wake in the morning and find myself dead,” to make a fire as speedily as possible. I now first perceived that, in my very natural hurry to escape from my shaggy foe, I had lost the martenskin wherein I carried my flint, steel, and tinder. This was of little consequence; I had often made a fire by the aid of my gun before, and I drew my knife and began. to pick the flint. Death to my hopes,—at the very first blow, I struck it ten yards from the lock, and it was lost forever in the snow.
7. “Well,” said I to myself, “I have cooked a pretty kettle of fish, and brought my calf's head to a fine market. Shall I furnish those dissectors, the wolves, with a subject, or shall cold work the same effect on me that grief did upon Niobe ? Would that I had a skin like a buffalo !”
8. Necessity is the spur, as well as the mother, of invention; and, at these last words, a new idea flashed through my brain like lightning. I verily believe that I took off the skin of my victim in fewer than ten strokes of my knife. Such a hide entire is no trifle; it takes a strong man to lift it; but I rolled the one in question about me, with the hair inward, and lay down to sleep, tolerably sure that neither Jack Frost