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was sent as minister to Holland, during the war, but was captured by the British, and confined in the Tower of London for 15 months. On his release he was appointed one of the commissioners for negotiating peace. His associates were Franklin and Jay.

Join LAURENS, son of the preceding, was a brave young officer in the Revolutionary war. He was born about 1756, and was killed in battle on the Combahee in 1782, while his father was in the Tower.

John RUTLEDGE, an American statesman and jurist, was born in South Carolina in 1739, and died in 1800. He rendered important services during the war, and in 1795 was appointed Chief Justice of the United States by President Washington, but the Senate, for political reasons, refused to confirm him. He had been one of the judges of the Supreme Court, and Chief Justice of South Carolina.

EDWARD RUTLEDGE was a brother of the foregoing, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.

CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY, an American statesman, and a colonel in the Revolutionary army, was born in South Carolina in 1746, and died in 1825. In 1796 he was appointed minister to France. On his return from that country, he was appointed a major general in the United States army. In 1800 he was an unsuccessful candidate for President. There were other eminent men belonging to the Pinckney family, among whom was Thomas, a brother of Charles, who was governor of South Carolina, minister to Great Britain, &c.

Boston is famous for the spirited and honorable part it played in the Revolutionary war. It was marked out by the British ministry and Parliament for their especial vengeance. In 1770 occurred the Boston massacre, in which three persons were killed and eight wounded by the British soldiery.

John Hancock and Samuel Adams, citizens of Boston, were specially excepted from offers of pardon. By the Boston Port Bill an attempt was made to destroy its commerce.

CONCORD, a town of Massachusetts, is one of the three county towns of Middlesex county. Here, on the 19th of April, 1775, and on the same day at Lexington, the first blood of the Revolutionary war was shed, and the first armed resistance to British power offered.

BUNKER Hill, or more accurately Breed's Hill, in Charlestown, Mass., was the scene of the first regularly fought battle of the American Revolution. The fight occurred on the 17th of June, 1775. Although technically a defeat, it was really a victory to the Americans, inasmuch as it demonstrated their courage and cool steadiness in battle. A plain granite monument, 220 feet high, has been erected on the summit of the hill to commemorate the event. See EXERCISE

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HIPPOCRENE was the fabled fountain made on Mount Helicon when Pegasus struck the ground with his feet. Its waters were therefore thought to be a source of inspiration to poets.

“THE PRAYER OF AJAX” is an allusion to the fight of Ajax Telamon in defense of the dead body of Patroclus, in the seventeenth book of the Iliad. Jupiter covered Mount Ida and the Trojans with darkness so as to make them invisible to Ajax and the Greeks. Ajax prays to him to enable the Greeks to see their foes.

EXERCSE XXVII. ORMSBY M. MITCHEL, an American astronomer and general, was born in Kentucky in 1810, and died at Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1862. Ho was a graduate of West Point, of the class of 1829. In 1834 he was appointed professor of philosophy and astronomy in the Cincinnati college. Here he rendered himself eminent by the enthusiasm and success with which he pursued astronomical investigations, and interested the public, by his lectures, in the science. On the breaking out of the rebellion, he entered the national army, and became, ultimately, a major-general. At the time of his death he was commander of the department of the south. This selection is an extract from a lecture delivered in New York, in 1859.


THOMAS HOOD, an English poet, was born in London in 1798, and died in the same city in 1845. This poet has contributed largely to the amusement and delight of all who speak the English language, but his own life and character were tinged with a gentle melancholy which finds expression in such effusions as The Song of the Shirt, The Bridge of Sighs, &c. This author is largely read, and is in all respects worthy of his great popularity. Several editions of his works have been published in the United States.

SIR John F. W. HERSCHEL, an English astronomer, was born at Slough, near Windsor, in 1790. His father, Sir William Herschel, was an eminent astronomer, and the discoverer of the planet Uranus. Sir John has made many valuable contributions to astronomical science, having visited Southern Africa, and remained there four years, for the purpose of making observations. He is also a gentleman of modesty and worth, and highly respected. He has received the highest scientific honors, and his works on astronomy, optics, and other branches of natural philosophy, are universally reckoned among the highest authorities on those subjects.

VENUS was the goddess of love in the Greek and Roman mythology. The second planet in order from the sun is also called Venus. It appears as the morning star during a part of the year, and as the evening star during the remainder.

CHARLES THE MARTYR is a name given to Charles I. by his admirers. Charles's Wain is really the churl's or countryman's wain or wagon. But the poet, in the selection entitled the Comet, playfully assumes that the constellation was named after Charles I.

EDMUND HALLEY, an English astronomer, was born near London in 1656, and died near Greenwich in 1742. In 1681 he discovered the comet now known by his name, and predicted its return. This was the first prediction of the kind ever made and fulfilled, and its fulfillment was a brilliant triumph of science, which, however, he did not live to see. The comet has appeared twice since his death, viz: in the years 1759 and 1835. Its period is about 75 years. In 1703 he became professor of astronomy in Oxford. In 1720 he was appointed astronomer royal.

Tycho BRAHE, a Danish astronomer, was born in Sweden in 1546, and died in Prague in 1601. He was employed by the Danish king as an astronomer, and the island of Huen was given to him for the erection of an observatory. He was an accurate observer of the heavens, and left extensive data from which Kepler and others drew important inferences.

BERENICE'S HAIR is a cluster of stars in the sign Leo, and so named in compliment to Berenice, daughter of Magas, king of Cyrene, and wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, king of Egypt.

The GREAT BEAR is a well known constellation near the North Pole. Also called the Dipper and Charles's Wain.

VAUXHALL is a suburb of London, and contains Vauxhall gardens, to which the inhabitants of London often resorted for amusement. They were closed in 1859.


PHILIP, king of Macedon, lived in the fourth century before Christ. By skill in council and valor in war, he acquired entire control of the states of Greece, which had previously been independent. He was a man of eminent abilities, great energy, and unscrupulous ambition.

ALEXANDER, the son and successor of Philip, perpetuated his father's power in Greece, and achieved a military reputation, by foreign conquests, which almost obliterates his father's fame. He set out upon his career of conquest in 334 B. C., at 22 years of age, with a small army and a slender treasury, and in less than ten years all the principal nations of the world were at his feet. But as his dominions increased, he became more and more addicted to despotic ways and luxurious living, and at last demanded to be worshiped as a god. His death, which occurred at Babylon 323 B. C., was caused, in part, at least, by his excesses.

CAIUS JULIUS CÆSAR, the final destroyer of the Roman republic, and founder of the empire, was born in 100 B.C., and assassinated 44 B. C. He was a man of extraordinary mental endowments, but deficient in moral principle, and addicted, during a part of his life at least, to vicious courses. He was governor of Gaul, now France, under the Roman senate. But when he was recalled by that body he refused to obey, and, after some slight hesitation, marched his army upon the city of Rome.

The RUBICON was a river forming a part of the boundary of Cæsar's province; and the turning point in his rebellion against the lawful authority of his country was the marching of his army across that stream. He soon overthrew the authority of the Senate by military force, but used the powers thus gained in reforming the government and improving the condition of the people. He was assassinated by a

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