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The SANGAMON is a river in Illinois, flowing in a direction a little south of west, and emptying into the Illinois. It passes near the city of Springfield, and the burial place of Lincoln.

Mount Zion is a hill on which was built the southwest part of the city of Jerusalem. The tomb of the Savior, now called the Holy Sepulcher, is near it.

JERUSALEM was the capital of the Jewish commonwealth and kingdom, the seat of their temple, and therefore the great center of all that interests the Jews.

BETH-PEOR was a town in the ancient land of Moab, near the northern extremity of the Dead Sea, and in the vicinity of the mountains Nebo and Pisgah.


HENRY CLAY, an American statesman, was born in Virginia in 1777, and died at Washington in 1852. He was in public life, in one capacity or another, for fifty years, having been elected to the legislature of Kentucky about the year 1802. In 1806 he was elected to the Senate of the United States, for a brief term. In every position he occupied, he distinguished himself, whether as a member of the legislature or of Congress; as the presiding officer of the Kentucky house of representatives or of that at Washington; or as the American minister in forming the treaty of Ghent;

-in every office and every place, his shining qualities made him conspicuous, and his genial, hearty manners, gallant bearing, and fervid eloquence, always magnetized men, and secured for him hosts of friends. Mr. Clay was urged for the Presidency by a large and enthusiastic party, and his great talents and brilliant reputation certainly pointed him out as eminently fitted for that exalted position. But political events defeated his aspirations in this direction. Tinis extract from a generous and eloquent speech in behalf of a feeble people, fighting for their liberties, is a good illustration of Mr. Clay's character.

In 1821, the people of Greece, after long and cruel oppression by the Turks, broke out into rebellion. The struggle was long and arduous, and the war was conducted by the Turks with the most cruel bloodshed. Generous men everywhere sympathized with the Greeks, and among other eloquent appeals in their behalf was this of Mr. Clay, delivered in the American House of Representatives, Jan. 20, 1824. Greece was declared independent in 1827.

THE “ HOLY ALLIES” were Alexander I. of Russia, Francis I. of Austria, and Frederick William III. of Prussia. The ostensible object of the alliance was to regulate the political relations of European states on Christian principles, but the real object was to maintain their own power.

The “gentleman from Massachusetts” was Mr. Webster, who had introduced a resolution in favor of appointing a commissioner to Greece.


HORACE GREELEY, an American editor and author, was born in New Hampshire in 1811. He is remarkable for his minute and extended knowledge of political affairs, for his untiring industry, his persistence in adhering to what he considers right, his devotion to the interests of the working classes, and his advocacy of schemes for their elevation. His pen has been a very prolific one, and most of his works are certainly creditable to both his head and his heart. He was the founder of the New York Tribune, and has been its chief editor from its commencement in 1841. His last great work, is The American Conflict-a history of the strifes that have agitated the United States on the slavery question, and it is

chiefly devoted to the great rebellion. Mr. Greeley was a member of Congress for a brief period in 1848-9, and distinguished himself by his opposition to the abuses of the mileage system.

EXERCISE XXI. GEORGIUS SECUNDUS, or George the Second of England, belonged to the German family known as the house of Brunswick. German families have, by intermarriage, given princes to many European thrones.

THE LISBON EARTHQUAKE of 1755 was very destructive to that city. About sixty thousand persons lost their lives by it.

BRADDOCK'S DEFEAT was a memorable event in the French and Indian war, preceding the American Revolution. General Braddock, an English officer, unacquainted with the country and the people, was sent against the French at Fort Du Quesne, with a force of colonial militia and two regiments of British regulars, and by his arrogant self-conceit and con- • tempt for the colonies, and for Col. (afterwards Gen.) Washington, caused the utter destruction of the whole army. The defeat occurred near the present site of Pittsburgh, Pa., July 9th, 1755.


CARTE DU PAYS (Kärt du pâ), a French phrase, signifying a map.

VALET DE PLACE (Valâ dě pläs), a French phrase, meaning a stranger's guide.

MELROSE ABBEY, a celebrated ruin, on the Tweed, in Scotland, 37 miles southeast of Edinburgh. Sir Walter Scott has described its appearance by moonlight, in the second canto of the Lay of the Last Minstrel. It is a fitting description of a scene almost unequaled for its sad beauty.

EXERCISE XXIV. Doctor Faustus, a character in the popular tales of Ger. many, is represented as having lived about the time of Luther, from 1580 to 1638. The legends say that he agreed with the Evil One, in consideration of receiving demoniac aid in securing worldly honor and sensual enjoyments for twenty-four years, that his soul should be given up at the end of that time to eternal torments. The contract was signed with his blood, and was fully carried out, although, near the close of the allotted period, he was seized by remorse, and sought to annul the bargain.

MONTGOMERY PLACE was the place of the poet's residence in Boston.

There is a story that COLUMBUS at one time evinced his superiority over a large company of savants by making an egg stand on its end when none of the others could do it. This was accomplished by striking it gently against the table.

Join Milton (See Note on EXERCISE XLVII.) was one of the most learned and gifted men of his time.

SOLOMON, king of Israel, came to the throne about 1015 B. C., and has ever since been famous for his wisdom.

Salmon is a fish much esteemed as an article of food, and regarded as an attractive dish at a feast.

Roger Bacon, an English monk of the thirteenth century, was famous for his knowledge of mathematics and natural science, and was supposed to be skilled in magic. He anticipated much of the learning of modern times, but was in advance of his own age. He spent most, if not all, of the last ten years of his life in prison in Paris, on a charge of heresy and magic.

For FRANCIS Bacon, see Note on EXERCISE XLVI.

Locuintar is a character in a song by Sir Walter Scott. On being informed that the lady he loved was to be

married to another, that was unworthy of her, the hero came to the wedding, ostensibly to “tread one more measure” with his “lost love,” but, really, to carry her away with him.

EXERCISE Xxy. DANIEL WEBSTER, an American statesman and jurist, was born in New Hampshire in 1782, and died at Marshfield, Mass., in 1852. He was a man of great intellectual power, and this power was particularly conspicuous in his use of language. No man ever wrote or spoke the English with more force and effect than he. He occupied the very highest position as a lawyer, an orator, and a writer. He was long employed in the public service. He was first elected to the national House of Representatives from New Hampshire in 1812, and continued a member until 1816. In 1822 he was again elected to the same House from Boston. In 1827 he was elected to the Senate of the United States from Massachusetts, and during the remainder of his life was either a member of that body, or of the cabinet as secretary of state.

THOMAS SUMTER, a general in the Revolutionary war, was born in South Carolina in 1734, and died in the same state in 1832. He exhibited great bravery, endurance, and much cheerful patience under severe trials. He was afterwards a member of the national House of Representatives, and still later of the U. S. Senate.

FRANCIS MARION was also a Revolutionary general, born in South Carolina in 1732, and died in 1795. His military career was a remarkable one. He accomplished great results with slender means, conducted for years a partisan warfare against the British army, attacking them in unlooked-for places, and subsisting his men in a manner that seemed miraculous. ,

HENRY LAURENS, an American Revolutionary statesman, was born in South Carolina in 1724, and died in 1792. He

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