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Ch has three values in English, as exemplified in the three lists below :

1. Child, chaff, chalk, chap, char, check, cherry, chest, chicken, church, churl, charm [from the Anglo Saxon 7; chain, chair, chalice, challenge, chamber, champion, chance, chancel, chancery [from the French, but modified]

2. Chaise, chagrin, challis (s silent), chamois (s silent), champagne, charade, chenille, chevalier, chicanery, chute [from the French, and still retaining the French sound of ch).

3. Character, chameleon, chalybeate, chaos, parochial, archetype, bronchitis, chirography, magna charta, choral, chronicle, chyle [from the Greek or Latin].

Write and Analyze dost, tertiary, apothegm, apothegmatic, February, cosmetic, elongate, humor, humble, hospital, herb, hostage.

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PRINCIPLES

AND

GENERAL DIRECTIONS.

1. Reading is the adequate expression in vocal utterances; of the thoughts and emotions of a written or printed composition.

2. These thoughts and emotions are exceedingly various,
and hence there will be great variety in the tones of voice
expressing them.

3. Some thoughts are vigorous, energetic, betokening that
the mind is thoroughly aroused and ready to put forth its
powers forcibly. Others are indicative of a cool and deliberate
state of mind, in which it is prepared to deal with every- ...
day matters of fact. Again, the mind may be borne down
by sorrow, animated with joy, distracted with fear, or softened
with pity, and each of these states may be adequately
expressed by the tones of the human voice.

4. Tones may differ from each other in several ways, as in
pitch, in volume, in rapidity of utterance, and in force; and
it is by a judicious adjustment of these differences that the
voice is made expressive.

5. It is convenient to consider about three degrees each,
of Force, Speed, Pitch, and Volume of Voice.si

Force may be moderate, soft, or loud.
Speed may be moderate, slow, or fast.
Pitch may be medium, low, or high.
Volume may be moderate, slight, or full.

6. When the mind is in an unexcited state, it expresses
itself with moderate force. When borne down by sorrow, or

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filled with pity or affection, it uses soft tones. When aroused to resistance or indignation or defiance_or denunciation or joy, it speaks in loud tones.

7. The same state of mind that requires moderate force requires also moderate speed. Joy, animated cheerfulness, sport, &c., require fast utterance. If the thoughts are "solemn, sad, dignified, or noble, the utterance is slow.

8. The same state of mind that requires moderate force and speed, usually requires medium pitch. Solemnity, sad

ness, despair, require a low pitch. Joy, lively description, 1 fear, hilarity, are expressed in high tones.

9. Moderate volume is usually required where moderate force, speed, and pitch are demanded. All grand and noble thoughts require full round tones. Trifling utterances need but slight volume of voice.

10. Another difference in tones is usually called Quality. In respect to this, tones may be pure or impure. Impure tones are accompanied, more or less, by unvocalized breath. In pure tones, all the breath emitted is vocalized. Aspirate sounds, as of f, p, s, occur in all compositions, and, so far as they go, always interfere with purity of tone. But the amount of these is never sufficient to destroy the entire effect in a sentence that requires to be uttered in pure tone. Pure tones are used to express elevated and pure thoughts. Impure tones are used in the expression of fear, disgust, hatred, and other evil and unpleasant feelings.

11. Force must not be confounded with volume. A full volume of voice may be heard at only short distances, when a voice of less volume and more force would be heard at much greater distances. Volume is quantity; force is intensity.

EXAMPLES

An example of full volume is found in the twelfth paragraph, page 220,-". Therefore,' said he, &c."

Of great force, tenth stanza, page 176,-"Fly! &c.

Of unexcited expression, first paragraph, page 74; or any piece of simple narrative or description.

Of the expression of sorrow, sixth stanza, page 143,—“It never thrilled with anguish more, &c.”

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ANALYTICAL SERIES.

Of pity, ninth paragraph, page 101, and eleventh stanza,
page 157.

Of affection, second stanza, page 113, and Exercise LVII.
Of indignation, sixth paragraph, page 128.
Of defiance, sixteenth and seventeenth stanzas, page 216.
Of denunciation, Exercise LXXXVII, page 323.

Of joy, we have an example in the eighth stanza, page 201,
-“Hurrah, they run !-the field is won!”

Of animated cheerfulness, in the fifth stanza, page 86.

Of dignified and noble thoughts, in the Exercise on page 147.

Of solemnity, in Exercise LXXIX, page 304.

Of fear, in the thirteenth stanza, page 176, also the seventeenth, page 177.

Examples requiring pure tone are found in the Exercises on pages 120, 141, 112, and many others; for impure tone, take the examples of fear, given above.

STRESS AND EMPHASIS.
[Under Force we may consider Stress and Emphasis.]

STRESS.
1. Stress is the application of force to a particular part of an
accented syllable. It differs from emphasis and accent, in
that it distinguishes the different parts of a single syllable,
while emphasis discriminates between the words of a sentence,
and accent between the syllables of a word.

2. Anger, defiance, command, call for an explosive utterance
of words. The accented syllable is abruptly spoken, the full
force coming upon the very beginning of it. Dr. Rush and
Prof. Russell call this the radical stress, or the force given
to the radical, or opening, part of a syllable. For examples
take the two last(lines of poetry on page 186.

3. All noble thoughts,-patriotism, reverence, affection, &c., require a flowing and smooth utterance, with a force gradually increasing to the middle of the accented syllable, and then gradually diminishing. Force thus applied is called the median stress, because it comes upon the median or middle part of the syllable. The following pages furnish beautiful illustrations of the median stress. Among them may be

mentioned the poem on page 120. Also the article on page

147.

4. Contempt, scorn, impatience, revenge, &c., require the force to be thrown upon the very last of the accented syllable. It begins gently, swells on towards the close, and ends with a sudden burst or jerk. This is called the vanishing stress, because the force is applied to the vanishing, or closing, part of the syllable. An example occurs on page 99 of the book, fourth paragraph: “Confound your baskets and balls, &c.”

5. In irony, sarcasm, and generally when the circumflex is used, we may hear both the radical and vanishing stress upon the same syllable. That is, both the very beginning and the very close of the syllable are uttered with marked force. This mode of utterance is called the compound stress.

6. In calling to persons at a distance or in military command the same high degree of force is continued through the syllable. This is called the thorough stress, because the force is applied through the entire length of the syllable. One of the best examples of this is Satan's address to his hosts, in Paradise Lost: " Awake! arise! or be forever fallen!”

7. Feeble old age, or excessive grief, joy, tenderness, or admiration, expresses itself in a tremulous succession of swells. This kind of stress is called the tremor.

EMPHASIS. 1. In reading, some words,—those expressing new or important thoughts, -are spoken louder, and are more prolonged than other words. Sometimes this is on account of the absolute importance of the thought, considered by itself; and sometimes on account of some relation that subsists between it and another thought. Examples of the first: "I assure you that the charge is false." "The great object of life is to form a true character." Here the words “false" and

true character” express thoughts in themselves important, and ought, on that account, to be read with more force than the other parts of the sentences. Examples of the second : 66 Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?Were it not for the relation of "mote” to “beam" and of “brother” to "own,” none of these words would require any unusual degree of force. This mode of distinguishing words by loudness and length of sound is called Emphasis.

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