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of Zug, one of those exquisite mountain lakes so numerous in Switzerland. The scenery all the way was beautiful. At Zurich we saw all that was to be seen,—not a great deal; but among other things, the Zeughaus, as they call it, or collection of ancient and Mediæval arms, some of them curious and valuable as memorials of the early wars of Switzerland against the Burgundians. Many complete suits of armor from the old battle-fields were there, — spears, battleaxes, and a peculiarly heavy lance, with a heavy head set all over with spikes, and called a morning star - a singular name for such a bloody and destructive instrument.
2. The place is not much visited; nobody else was there with us. I always try to vivify an idea, by embodying it in some manner. I had often tried to imagine how a knight of the Middle Ages would feel, buckled up in his "complete steel,” on a hot day. Being a middle-aged man myself, and the day being very hot, I asked permission of the keeper to try the experiment of equipping myself in one of those old Burgundian panoplies. He willingly complied with the request, looking, however, a little amused and surprised. I selected one of the two largest in the collection, and, the keeper acting as squire, I was soon encased from head to foot, like the ghost of Hamlet's father, “ armed cap-a-pie.”.
3. I could, however, just squeeze myself into it; it pinched in many places; and as this belonged to one of the stoutest knights of the Burgundian host, it is very evident that the notion of the greater size of the warriors of the Middle Ages as compared with our own, is, like that of the greater size of Englishmen as compared with Americans, a mere superstition. I had the most difficulty in getting the helmet on; but at last pushed my head into it, buckled it securely, took off my spectacles, and drew the visor down. Next, I seized a
huge battle-ax, and then marched across the hall, while G- and the girls were sitting down and laughing.
4. I could walk well enough, except that I seemed to be a little stiff in the joints; there was also a slight difficulty in breathing through the visor, and a little hardness of hearing through the iron side-pieces. I could not see much, except directly in front, and there only in spots. Add to this, the heat was excessive, and the weight of the armor was rather more than one wants in a summer day. The battle-ax was something of a load too - about as much as Satan's spear in Milton, taller than “the mast of some great ammiral.”
5. With these exceptions, the armor was comfortable enough; and I think our ancestors must have had a cosy time, after they got used to it. I walked about in it for several minutes, swinging the ax in the most formidable manner, and could have borne it a good while longer. But having satisfied my wish to embody an idea, I requested my squire to help me out of the harness, and I must confess I breathed more freely. It was easier walking, seeing, hearing, talking ; I could wear my spectacles, which I could not under the visor; and, upon the whole, I congratulate myself on having been born in the present age, rather than in the time of Charles the Bold of Burgundy.
CIV. - MORAL RECTITUDE ESSENTIAL TO THE
NEWTON BATEMAN. 1. Moral rectitude is also an essential attribute of a good citizen,-one that must be kept steadily in view, or our public schools will assuredly fail of their high end. It is not adversity, but prosperity, that tries most severely the moral strength of individuals and nations. The man who has passed through the ordeal of wealth and influence and honor and power, for a long series of years, without deteriorating in character, without so much as the smell of fire upon his garments, has given the highest proof of the rectitude and stability of his principles of which the case is susceptible.
2. So of nations. In the moral battle-fields of earth, where defeat slays its thousands, success slays its tens of thousands. This is lamentable, but it is true. Great prosperity begets pride, presumption, audacity, vice. Why should the strong and well think of a physician, or trouble themselves about the laws of health? It is when the grasp of mortal disease is upon them that they turn for refuge to those blessed laws of physical economy, a more timely regard for which would have averted the blow.
3. And why should men and states pause to think of moral questions while all seems to be well enough without such troublesome and disagreeable reflections — while trade and commerce thrive-while gold pours into their coffers -- while their ships and trains come and go, and not a ripple disturbs the surface to remind them of the whirlpools that boil below? Not till commerce dies, and the golden streams cease to flow, and the gulf of bankruptcy yawns, and the wolf is at the door, and the roar of the tempest is heard, and public virtue perishes, and fraud, peculation and profligacy are the order of the day, and universal shipwreck and ruin impend, and the avalanche of retribution begins to descend, and society itself with all its treasures, and all government and all law and all order and all faith and hope and truth seem ready to sink into one abyss of irretrievable perdition, -not till then will the mass of men bethink them, that, having sown the wind, it is meet and inevitable that they should reap the whirlwind, and that the only refuge from destruction is in a general return to those immutable principles of rectitude and justice
which are the stability alike of all divine and human governments.
4. During the infancy of this nation, the divine law, more generally and reverently than now, was acknowledged as the only standard of public virtue, and its Author solemnly recognized as the almighty and beneficent Arbiter of human events. Poor and feeble, menaced by powerful enemies and purified by terrible sufferings and sacrifices, our fathers leaned upon the arm of Jehovah, and devoutly laid the beams of the great temple of civil and religious liberty: In their weakness they were strong. For generations, the nascent empire of the West presented the grandest spectacle of integrity and rectitude that the world ever saw.
5. But alas ! history must have another victim. Enemies more formidable than foreign fleets and armies assailed the fortresses of the Republic. Wealth, luxury, selfishness, greed, have done their fell work. The outposts of public virtue have crumbled, one by one, till the citadel itself is tottering to its fall. The picture of moral ruin which I have drawn fails to portray the sad reality. It is not extravagant to say that the annals of civilization will be searched in vain for examples of public wickedness and profligacy so stupendous and appalling as those which preceded and have attended the revolt of the Southern States. The fearful truth can only be epitomized by the terrible words, “Sin when it is finished bringeth forth death."
6. But such colossal crimes are not the growth of a dayslowly, insidiously, for years, the moral cancer has been gnawing at the vitals of the nation. In our effort to escape from the imaginary danger of puritan rigor, we have drifted steadily towards the real peril of unbridled license. Where is the simple truthfulness, the tender conscientiousness, that should make beautiful the lives of our children? What precociousness in vice, what defiant spurning of moral restraints do we find at the fireside and in the school-room. What eye now moistens at the touching story of George Washington and his little hatchet ?
7. What are our public schools doing to arrest this destructive tendency? Are educational men sensible of their responsibility in this matter? Can that culture be complete
- can it be safe, which ignores the moral nature? Is it not practicable to bring the school children of the state more directly and powerfully under the influence of right moral ideas and principles ? Is it not a necessity ? Have we any security at all, without this, that they will become upright and virtuous citizens ?
8. Let it not be said that what is here recommended would conflict with the undoubted right of each individual to prescribe what sentiments shall be imparted to his children in matters of religious faith. Nothing sectarian should find a place in the instruction of our public schools. But the moral and preceptive parts of the Gospel are not sectarian. If they are, then charity is sectarian, purity is sectarian, forgiveness is sectarian, forbearance is sectarian, all things lovely and of good report are sectarian; earth, air, fire, water, sun, moon, stars, and heaven itself are sectarian, and nothing is left for humanity at large, but the devil !
CV.-OUR SCHOOLS MUST IMPART MORAL CUL
NEWTON BATEMAN. 1. It should be proclaimed in every school that there are original, immutable, and indestructible maxims of moral rectitude, -great lights in the firmament of the soul, — which no circumstances can affect, no sophistry obliterate. That to