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LESSON IX. How many sounds in the word thin? By what is the first represented ? Name three other words beginning with the same sound? This element is formed by breathing forcibly, while the tip of the tongue is placed against the upper teeth. Do you hear the same sound in the word this? What is the difference? Represent the sonant by th; the non-sonant by th.
The abrupt sound of oo in good, frequently represented also by u, as in full, pulpit, we will represent by ų. This sound must not be mistaken for o. Observe the difference: mood, o; foot,ų. Use "long oo" in food, roof, hoop, truth, brute ; but short oo in book, full, pullet, hook.
Utter abruptly a, e, i, o, u. Now, with smooth tones, utter such of the following as are long; the short, as before : ā, ē, i, o, ā, ô, a, u, ä, a, ô, e, ä, u, e.
Analyze this, that, both, food, thieves, soothe, sooth, puss, buzz, bathe, put, took.
Write the foregoing list, also thenceforth, breathe, truth, beneath (th), with, playful, war-whoop, fulfill.
LESSON X. Study the first element in the word jar; in gem. You find the initial sound the same in the two words. Is it sonant? Represent it by j. Do you have the tongue in the same position in beginning to speak the words jay and day? Try them. [Place the tongue as for speaking one of the words, and then, at the instant of beginning to speak, utter the other.
If, in uttering the word jar, you simply breathe the first element, you pronounce char. The sound of ch is as simple as that of j, and is its cognate. Denote this by ç. In uttering the sonant j, the resonance should be clear and unmistakable.
Pronounce jar, char; chin, gin; large, larch; Jane, chain; rich, ridge; etch, edge.
Observe how you form the first sound in gute. Is it resonant ? If you breathe this element in speaking the word gate, you say Kate.
Pronounce lag, lack; call, gall; cot, got ; brig, brick.
Write charm, liege, ledge, porches, jarred, scorched, engulfed, resonant, bilged, arched, charged, giddy (i), stoical, north, sorrows, badge, lathes, acorn, orthoëpy, ached.
LESSON XI. A vowel sound more frequently met with, perhaps, than any other, is heard before r in her, fir, murmur, word, myrrh. In how many different ways do you here find this sound represented? Some writers have thought that r of itself denotes this sound; but if you will place the tongue in position to say rose, and then, without moving it, attempt to give the initial element in earth, you will perceive that a more open position of the organs is required for commencing the latter word. In the formation of the consonant sound denoted by r, the sonorous breath is driven over the vibrating tip of the tongue, which is raised to the roof of the mouth; but the first sound in earth issues through an open tube. Represent this long vowel by ē. The mark over the e is called a til-de: we will call this vowel “tilde e." It has sometimes been called the neutral vowel, as having “no strongly marked distinctive character.”
Practice sounding ě, r, th. That you may be sure to do it well, recall what has just been said of the position of the tongue in sounding r.
Pronounce and Analyze, with much care, bird, further, birth, turbid, therefore, church, Turk.
Write the foregoing list; also myrrh, journey, fertile, current (not ē), rehearse, mermaid, Herbert, curled, cracker, zenith, nadir, northern, southern.
· LESSON XII. You would write player plāõr, and pray-er, one who prays, prāēr; but prayer, a petition, has a different sound of a. Call this “long fat a, and let â represent it. This sound enters no word except when immediately followed by r, as in air, heir, hair, ere, e'er, care, where, there, their. Although not very much like ā, it is, by some speakers, made to give way to it. We ought to distinguish between layer and lair, stare and stayer, flayer and flare.
Though no English word contains the digraph zh, yet, the sound of the z in glazier, and of the s in leisure, is known
as “the sound of zh.” Its cognate is the sound of sh" as in share, sure. Represent this aspirate by sh, the sonant by zh.
Analyze beget, fourths, scarce, soothed, patter, proceeds, goods, prepare, sharer, perplexed, disturbed, shadowy, devised, chairs, pitchers, excursion (not zhun], thirty, forty, parent, merciful.
Write the foregoing list.
RULE.—A, unaccented and ending a word, or constituting an unaccented syllable at the beginning of a word, has the sound of ah, but briefer.
Thus, America should be pronounced Ah-mer-i-kah, - the first sound and the last, very brief, and, because not accented, both spoken lightly.
Apply the foregoing rule in pronouncing the last syllable of each of the following words: Hannah, Anna, Cuba, Mendota, Pana. Avoid saying āmazed for a(h)mazed, āwry for a(h)wry, and āgain for a(h)gain. Call this sound “short Italian a,” and denote it thus, å.
The words āôrts and āērial, having the initial“ unaccented a” immediately followed by a vowel, are exceptions to the Rule.
Notice that Asa, Ada, āorist, &c., have the initial a accented: the Rule does not pertain to initial a under accent.
Utter, from memory, the following eight non-sonants, in the order here given, and, after each, its sonant, as taught in the foregoing lessons :
p, t, th, k, f, sh, s, ç. Analyze deserve, Martha, pensive, quaked, Noah, Augusta, specie, eightieth, mendicant (i, not i), modification, erysipelas.
Write the foregoing list: also, screened, carriage (i), initial, special, equation, explosion, algebra, gauntlet, gutta percha.
LESSON XIV. The “short Italian a," is frequently found in monosyllables and in accented syllables, as well as in the positions named in Lesson XIII. Speak ah explosively (as in Hannah), and with the falling slide, before each of the following words, and give the same sound to the vowel within the word : ah, task; ah, fast; ah, grass; ah, last; ah, aghast (the same sound twice); ah, bath; ah, command; ah, staff. Review this practice often and attentively, until the correct utterance becomes easy.
The subjoined list contains the most common words in which “the short Italian a” is used with stress.
Advance, advantage, after, alas, amass, ant, ask, asp, bask, basket, blanch, blast, bombast, branch, brass, cask, casket, cast, caste, chaff, chance, chant, clasp, class, contrast, craft, dance, draft, draught, enhance, fast, flask, gasp, ghastly, glance, glass, graft, grass, lance, lass, last, mass, mast, pass, past, pastor, pastime, plaster, prance, quaff, raft, rafter, repast, shaft, slant, staff, task, trance, vast, waft.
The following list of proper names, which might be indefinitely extended, is inserted for convenience in drill. Let it be used until “ final unaccented a" (or ah) is no longer heard as short e, long a, or short i. Say A-så, not A-se; Mendotá, not Mendoti; and I-7-wå, not I-7-wā.
Asa, Ira, Joshua, Micah, Noah, Ada, Amanda, Amelia, Augusta, Celia, Clara, Cora, Deborah, Eliza, Emma, Flora, Hannah, Julia, Huldah, Laura, Martha, Melissa, Nerissa, Rhoda, Sophia, America, Africa, Iowa, Indiana, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Alabama, Louisiana [Say Lo' i, not Lo ē'; then, zi-án-å. Now, with strongest accent on “ån,” say Lo'-i-zi-ån’-å], Georgia, Mendota, Pana, Arabia, Centralia, Canada.
Write grandly, aerial, aloof, polka, steady, acorn, sacred, knows, snare, partly, becomes, artisan, arnica, acid, Africa, Peoria, Alps, Norway, morrow, affair.
LESSON XV. With one impulse pronounce ē ôl; also, ē ūk. Compare these with yawl, yoke. With one impulse pronounce o e t; ooz. Compare these with wet, was. Which represents a more open sound, o or the w in wet? ē or the y in yoke?
Wand y, when initial in a syllable, have been called vowelconsonants, and, by some, semi-vowels. Why?
Which form of the indefinite article is used before the nouns, yard, youth, watch, way? To which class, then, the vowel or the consonant, must w and y be regarded as moro strictly belonging ?
Of what vowel does the vowel-consonant w appear to be a modification ? of what one the vowel-consonant y ?
Review Lesson VII.
Analyze word, yard, worship, yacht (yot), poniard, [I following an accented syllable, and itself followed by a vowel, often represents the vowel-consonant y; sometimes it is recommended to keep the open vowel sound, as in the word Virginia), between, quail, coquette, quadrille [In a few words from the French, u is silent after q], zoology.
Write the foregoing list; also, atheistic, physicists, ig. noramuses (ā), acquaintance, auxiliary (gz), extension, dogma, chance, square, familiar.
LESSON XVI. Pronounce sing. Omit the s, and say ing. Now omit i, and sound only ng. Do this several times. Give the three sounds separately, si ng. The digraph ng denotes a simple sound. Represent this by n.
Sin, sing : which of these words by the addition of k (sin-k, sing-k) forms to the ear the word sink ? Pronounce plan; then, without changing the last sound, add the sound k. If you do not change the n, you do not speak the word plank. Describe the difference in sound between the word fin and the first syllable of finger? What is the last syllable of finger? of singer ? Is the sound denoted by ng in sing composed of the sounds n and g? Show this. In writing, and in analyzing, the following exercises, determine whether n has its own proper sound or that known as “the sound of ng.”
The sonants l, m, n, r and n are called liquids, on account of the freedom which they display in uniting, both among themselves and with other consonants; they have no cognates.
Analyze and Write singer, linger, lynx, English (two i’s), blanket, conquer, yonder, watching, plumb, mongrel (u), congress, half, wreath, anger, farewell, paltry, mother, donkey, quiescent, language.
LESSON XVII. Compare the initial breathings in the words hen, when. The latter breathing, represented in all cases by wh, is usually regarded as compound; viz., as composed of h followed by w. Try this. From breathing the initial element