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26. Barbara Frietchie's work is o'er,
27. Honor to her !—and let a tear
28. Over Barbara Frietchie's grave,
XLVI.-TRIAL OF WARREN HASTINGS.
T. B. MACAULAY. 1. The place was worthy of such a trial. It was the great hall of William Rufus; the hall which had resounded with acclamations at the inauguration of thirty kings; the hall which had witnessed the just sentence of Bacon, and the just absolution of Somers; the hall where the eloquence of Strafford had for a moment awed and melted a victorious party inflamed with just resentment; the hall where Charles had confronted the high court of justice with the placid courage which has half redeemed his fame.
2. Neither military nor civil pomp was wanting. The avenues were lined with grenadiers. The streets were kept clear by cavalry. The peers, robed in gold and ermine, were marshaled by the heralds under the garter king-at-arms. The judges, in their vestments of state, attended to give advice on points of law. Near a hundred and seventy lords, threefourths of the upper house, as the upper house then was, walked in solemn order from their usual place of assembling to the tribunal. The junior baron present led the way–Lord Heathfield, recently ennobled for his memorable defense of Gibraltar against the fleets and armies of France and Spain. The long procession was closed by the Duke of Norfolk, earl marshal of the realm, by the great dignitaries, and by the brothers and sons of the king. Last of all came the Prince of Wales, conspicuous by his fine person and noble bearing
3. The gray old walls were hung with scarlet. The long galleries were crowded by such an audience as has rarely excited the fears or the emulation of an orator. There were gathered together from all parts of a great, free, enlightened, and prosperous realm, grace and female loveliness, wit and learning, the representatives of every science and of every art.
4. There were seated around the queen the fair-haired young daughters of the house of Brunswick. There the ambassadors of great kings and commonwealths gazed with admiration on a spectacle which no other country in the world could present. There Siddons, in the prime of her majestic beauty, looked with emotion on a scene surpassing all the imitations of the stage. There the historian of the Roman empire thought of the days when Cicero pleaded the cause of Sicily against Verres ; and when, before a senate which had still retained some show of freedom, Tacitus thundered against the oppressor of Africa.
5. There were seen, side by side, the greatest painter and the greatest scholar of the age. The spectacle had allured Reynolds from that easel which has preserved to us the thoughtful foreheads of so many writers and statesmen, and the sweet smiles of so many noble matrons. It had induced Parr to suspend his labors in that dark and profound mine from which he had extracted a vast treasure of crudition--a treasure too often buried in the earth, too often paraded with injudicious and inelegant ostentation, but still precious, massive and splendid.
6. There appeared the voluptuous charms of her to whom the heir of the throne had in secret plighted his faith. There, too, was she, the beautiful mother of a beautiful race, the St. Cecilia, whose delicate features, lighted up by love and music, art has rescued from the common decay. And there the ladies whose lips, more persuasive than those of Fox himself, had carried the Westminster election against palace and treasury, shone round Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire.
7. The sergeants made proclamation. Hastings advanced to the bar, and bent his knee. The culprit was indeed not unworthy of that great presence. He had ruled an extensive and populous country, had made laws and treaties, had sent forth armies, had set up and pulled down princes. And in his high place he had so borne himself that all had feared him, that most had loved him, and that hatred itself could deny him no title to glory, except virtue.
8. He looked like a great man, and not like a bad man. A person small and emaciated, yet deriving dignity from a carriage which, while it indicated deference to the court, indicated also habitual self-possession and self-respect, a high and intellectual forehead, a brow pensive, but not gloomy, a mouth of inflexible decision, a face pale and worn, but serene, on which was written, as legibly as under the great picture in the council-chamber at Calcutta, “a mind calm amid difficulties."* Such was the aspect with which the great proconsul presented himself to his judges.
9. The charges, and the answers of Hastings were first read. This ceremony occupied two whole days, and was rendered
* The inscription under the painting is in Latin ;-Mens aequa in arduis. The phrase in quotations gives the meaning.
less tedious than it otherwise would have been, by the silver voice and just emphasis of Cowper, the clerk of the court, a near relation of the amiable poet.
10. On the third day Burke rose. Four sittings of the court were occupied by his opening speech, which was intended to be a general introduction to all the charges. With an exuberance of thought and a splendor of diction which more than satisfied the highly-raised expectation of the andience, he described the character and institutions of the natives of India, recounted the circumstances in which the Asiatic empire of Britain had originated, and set forth the constitution of the company and of the English presidencies.
11. Having thus attempted to communicate to his hearers an idea of eastern society as vivid as that which existed in his own mind, he proceeded to arraign the administration of Hastings, as systematically conducted in defiance of morality and public law. The energy and pathos of the great orator extorted expressions of unwonted admiration even from the stern and hostile chancellor, and for a moment, seemed to pierce even the resolute heart of the defendant. The ladies in the galleries, unaccustomed to such displays of eloquence, excited by the solemnity of the occasion, and perhaps not unwilling to display their taste and sensibility, were in a state of uncontrollable emotion. Handkerchiefs were pulled out; smelling bottles were handed round; hysterical sobs and screams were heard ; and Mrs, Sheridan was carried out in a fit.
11. At length the orator concluded. Raising his voice till the old arches of Irish oak resounded, “ Therefore,” said he, “ hath it with all confidence been ordered by the Commons of Great Britain, that I impeach Warron Hastings of high crimes and misdemeanors. I impeach him in the name of the Commons' House of Parliament, whose trust he has betrayed. I impeach him in the name of the English nation,
stern and espressions of nergy and pat
name of the people of India, whose rights he has trodden under foot, and whose country be has turned into a desert, Lastly, in the name of human nature itself, in the name of both sexes, in the name of every age, in the name of every rank, I impeach the common enemy and oppressor of all.”
ANALYSIS OF THE TRIAL OF WARREN HASTINGS.
Where did this piece first appear? Give its general character. Is it grave? comic? didactic? historic? imaginative? joyous ? sad ? pathetic? earnest ? impassioned ? How many and which of these characteristics belong to it? Is it dignified or otherwise ? Does it deal with important or trivial matters? With what tone then should it be read ? [This is an example of grave and dignified historical description, animated by a vigorous and glowing earnestness. The author's mind is stirred by the magnificence of the scene he describes. English literature, contains few passages more brilliant than this. It requires, therefore, as a whole, a full, sonorous, and vigorous utterance, with medium pitch and speed.]
First Paragraph. What is meant by being “worthy of such a trial”? Whose trial was it ? For what was he tried ? Before what tribunal ? What place” is here meant ? When was the building erected ? Who was “ William Rufus”? Had this structure been long built then? Is it now standing ? Explain the expression, "resounded with acclamations at the inauguration of thirty kings.” Name the thirty kings. What is the inauguration of a king? What is it to resound ? What are acclamations ? When and for what was Bacon " sentenced”? For what was Bacon famous ? In what sense had the hall “ witnessed” the trial ? What is a sentence? When was Somers "absolved," and on what charge? What is absolution”? Who was "Strafford”? What had he done and what became of him? What party was “awed and melted by his eloquence”? What is it to be awed ? melted ? o inflamed”? Wherein was this party “victorious”? What is meant by “a just resentment”? What