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No one will deny that a ready and exact enunciation is a
Tpre-requisite to good reading. Persuaded that such prompt-

ness and accuracy can be best attained by a thorough drill
on what are called the vocal elements, the following Lessons
- for some time tested in the Illinois State Normal University
-are presented for use in other schools.

Every intelligent and unprejudiced mind will welcome any
means by which loose and pernicious habits of enunciation
may be cast off, and correct ones formed in their stead. This
is not an easy task. The pupil of fifteen or eighteen years
of age, who has been accustomed to say givūn for givin,
kitch'n for kitchen, and smort for smart, will not be likely, by
a single effort, to set his speech right. By well directed and
persevering effort he can do it: with proper guidance and
encouragement he will do it.

Most who thus mar the English are unconscious of their
defects. They have either never observed a different style
of pronunciation possibly have heard no other-or they
| have accounted whatever differences they have noticed in
others as peculiarities, worthy only of a smile or a jest. If
the ear, because of dullness, has failed to report the actual,
diversity, it must be quickened ; if the judgment and taste
are false, they are to be corrected: in both cases, the organs,
untrained to the just utterance of the language, are to be
exercised on elements, combinations, syllables, words, and

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collocations of words, until they become loyal to well-spoken

Nor is it to those alone whose enunciation or pronunciation
is excessively bad, that this drill is of use. To the thousands
who speak and read with passable accuracy, the study and
drill upon vocal elements is not less useful. These are often
ready to seize upon the leading principles, as well as the
grosser facts, pertaining to the science of Orthoëpy, and they
find ample compensation for their labor, in the generalizations
suggested by a few weeks' practice in phonetic analysis.

1. This drill, to be of real use, must be thorough. THE ^)
E TEACHER MUST MASTER IT FIRST. Let him, at least, be sure

of this,—that, before calling upon a pupil to utter a given
element, he is prepared to utter it himself.

2. The teacher may need to exercise some care and
patience, before each pupil is prevailed on to abandon the
habit of saying “em” for the first sound in the word make,

and “kay" for the last sound. The aim has been to make in the “Lessons” explicit on this point.

3. ALLOW NO FEEBLE WORK. In recitation, the pupil 1 3 should stand erect, have the lungs well supplied with air, and utter each element forcibly. Repetition is all-important; but o repetition with inaccuracy is almost an unmixed evil. Before, as well as after, analyzing a word, the pupil should pronounce it with all the clearness and precision he can command. If it be a polysyllable, still more repetition is recommended; thus,—"melody; měl mel To melod i di melody.”

4. The manner of beginning with a class, and especially where the exercise is a novelty, must be left to the judgment of the teacher. A concert exercise may be judicious, as tending to remove the feeling of awkwardness and to beget confidence. After a lesson or two, however, there should be



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already established in every pupil's mind a feeling of personal
accountability for the work assigned; and concert drill should
thereafter occupy none of the time. needful to the teacher in
determining the degree of thoroughness with which each pupil
has prepared his lesson.

5. Phonic writing is a valuable aid to both teacher and
pupil. When a vocal element is recognized by the ear, there
are striking advantages in having a character by which uni-
formly to represent it: First, the pupil's progress is acceler-
ated by his being compelled to submit each doubtful sound
of every word assigned, to a discriminating study, in order
properly to represent it on the paper to be passed in for the
teacher's inspection; and, secondly, a class may be set to
write a lesson" by sound,” whether at school or at their
homes, thus enabling the teacher to get more work done, and,
by means of the thoroughness of this mode of examination,
to acquaint himself with the care and proficiency of each
member of his class.

6. To use the characters proposed involves a mastery of
nearly the entire Pronouncing Key of Webster's Dictionary
- in itself a very valuable acquisition. We use Webster's
rather than Pitman's or any other strictly phonetic notation,
because we suppose that fewer teachers will be repelled by

whatever of novelty and uncouthness it may present to the
$ common eye; and Webster's rather than Worcester's, because !

we have reason to think that more teachers are already some-
what familiar with the former than with the latter. Comki,

7. No good teacher will omit to give explicit directions in
regard to the paper which is to be passed in to him. The fol-
lowing points are certainly worthy of attention: 1. The form
and size of the paper. 2. The place for the pupil's name.
3. The arrangement of words—whether in horizontal line,
or in column. 4. Neatness.

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8. While marking the errors found in a written classexercise, the teacher will do well to make a list of such as are most frequent or most important, in order that to these he may call the attention of the entire class. After reasonable time has been allowed, every pupil will be called on to state how each word that he finds marked by the teacher should have been written.

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REMARKS UPON THE CHART.-The foregoing Chart is not strictly phonetic. T, c, s, h, and have each at least two offices. The imperfection thus existing is fairly shown by giving, as we ought to do in phonetic writing, to each of the letters, t and h, in the word nevertheless, its appropriate value, nev-ert-he-less; or how shall it be known whether b-r-e-a-t-h-e-d is to be pronounced breathed or breat-hed. This evident ambiguity may be removed by separating every word not a monosyllable into its syllabic elements. To avoid this labor, as well as the writing of digraphs (double forms), single characters may be substituted.

This suggestion is acted upon in Lesson X., where is placed for ch. Substitutes for th, th, sh, and zh can readily be devised, thus lessening the time and space required for the phonetic writing.

Though the compound elements oi and ou are not correctly represented by the component parts of these digraphs, yet, as it is found that no ambiguity can arise from the use of these forms, when once the power of each is known, they have been suffered to stand.

ERRATUM.— The principal statement made in the fourth paragraph of Lesson XXI. is not without exceptions, chiefly derivatives from words ending in r or re; thus, pouring, paring, parent, deploring, etc., have r preceded by a long vowel

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