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I feel the old convivial glow (unaided) o'er me stealing,— The warm, champagny, old-particular, brandy-punchy feel
ing. 18. We're all alike; Vesuvius flings the scoriæ from his
fountain, But down they come in volleying rain back to the burning
mountain; We leave, like those volcanic stones, our precious Alma Mater, But will keep dropping in again to see the dear old crater.
Questions. Why does the author call fleas “mediæval gentlemen”? What is meant by “smalls ” ? By their being “semi-lunar”? Explain the double meaning of “change” in the last line of the sixth stanza. Meaning of “one great mahogany”? Why does he mention Columbus's feat with the egg ? Show what he means to assert by mentioning "Solomon and Salmon”? What pun in the word “bore”? "gammon”? Explain the allusion to “a pair of visual diaphragms.” What were the poet's " native shades "? What is meant by 6 Alma Mater"? What pun in the word “ crater”?
XXV.-REPLY TO HAYNE.
D. WEBSTER. 1. The eulogium pronounced on the character of the state of South Carolina, by the honorable gentleman, for her Revolutionary and other merits, meets my hearty concurrence. I shall not acknowledge that the honorable member goes before me in regard for whatever of distinguished talent or distinguished character, South Carolina has produced. I claim part of the honor; I partake in the pride of her great names. I claim them for countrymen, one and all, — the Laurenses, the Rutledges, the Pinckneys, the Sumpters, the Marions —
Americans all — whose fame is no more to be hemmed in by; state lines than their talents and patriotism were capable of being circumscribed within the same narrow limits.
2. In their day and generation, they served and honored the country, and the whole country; and their renown is of the treasures of the whole country. Him whose honored name the gentleman himself bears — does he deem me less capable of gratitude for his patriotism, or sympathy for his sufferings, than if his eyes had first opened upon the light in Massachusetts instead of South Carolina ? Sir, does he suppose it in his power to exhibit a Carolina name so bright as to produce envy in my bosom? No, Sir; increased gratification and delight, rather.
3. I thank God that, if I am gifted with little of the spirit which is able to raise mortals to the skies, I have yet none, as I trust, of that other spirit, which would drag angels down. When I shall be found, sir, in my place here in the Senate, or elsewhere, to sneer at public merit, because it happens to spring up beyond the little limits of my own state or neighborhood; when I refuse, for any such cause, or for any cause, the homage due to American talent, to elevated patriotism, to sincere devotion to liberty and the country; or if I see an uncommon endowment of Heaven, if I see extraordinary capacity and virtue in any son of the South, and if, moved by local prejudice, or gangrened by state jealousy, I get up here to abate the tithe of a hair from his just character and just fame, - may my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth!
4. Sir, let me recur to pleasing recollections; let me indulge in refreshing remembrances of the past; let me remind you that, in early times, no states cherished greater harmony, both of principle and feeling, than Massachusetts and South Carolina. Would to God that harmony might again return.
Shoulder to shoulder they went through the Revolution ; hand in hand they stood around the administration of Washington, and felt his own great arm lean on them for support. Unkind feeling, if it exists, alienation, and distrust are the growth, unnatural to such soils, of false principles since sown. They are weeds, the seeds of which that same great arm never scattered.
5. Mr. President, I will enter on no encomium upon Massachusetts; she needs none. There she is. Behold her, and judge for yourselves. There is her history; the world knows it by heart. The past, at least, is secure. There is Boston, and Concord, and Lexington, and Bunker Hill; and there they will remain forever. The bones of her sons, fallen in the great struggle for independence, now lie mingled with the soil of every state, from New England to Georgia; and there they will lie forever.
6. And, Sir, where American liberty raised its first voice, and where its youth was nurtured and sustained, there it still lives, in the strength of its manhood, and full of its original spirit. If discord and disunion shall wound it; if party strife and blind ambition shall hawk at and tear it; if folly and madness, if uneasiness under salutary and necessary restraint, shall succeed in separating it from that union by which alone its existence is made sure,- it will stand, in the end, by the side of that cradle in which its infancy was rocked; it will stretch forth its arm, with whatever of vigor it may still retain, over the friends who gather around it; and it will fall at last, if fall it must, amid the proudest monuments of its own glory, and on the very spot of its origin. .
ANALYSIS OF WEBSTER's REPLY TO HAYNE. Was this selection originally spoken or written ? When and where? State the most important circumstances. How came such a speech to be made ? Is it amusing or serious ? About important or trifling matters? Name some of the things talked about here. Does the speaker appear to have been much in earnest ? Was it a passionate or dignified earnestness ? Are the sentiments here expressed noble or mcan? Point out some of them and show their character. [Appreciation of patriotism in persons unconnected with the speaker. Desire for a kindly feeling between different portions of the country. Patriotic love of the speaker for his own state, &c.] With what tone of voice, then, should it be read? speed ? pitch? [With full, clear, dignified, sonorous tones, as of a man earnestly urging important and lofty principles, and also tones befitting the place of the debate.] Who constitute the Senate of the United States ? To what state did the speaker belong? How have Massachusetts and South Carolina differed from each other? Mention as many particulars as you can. Give the principal facts in Mr. Webster's biography. What kind of man was he?
First Paragraph. What is meant by a “eulogium”? Give the etymology. Who pronounced this one? Why should the speaker call Mr. Hayne “the honorable gentleman”? Had there been any intimation that he was dishonorable? What is meant by “Revolutionary merits”? Etymology of both words? What is meant by the phrase "goes before”? Was it a merit or demerit in Mr. Webster to “ claim part of the honor” ? Why? Had he any right to it? What is meant by “their talents and patriotism being circumscribed within the same narrow limits”? What narrow limits? Why parrow ? Meaning and etymology of " circumscribed” ? “ patriotism” ? « distinguished”? " concurrence"? " character”? Tell something about each person mentioned in this paragraph. Why are these names in the plural ?
What is the first sentence about? What is said about it? What words are emphatic,—that is, what words ought to be spoken with most force ? Suppose the speaker in this case had had only opportunity to say one word, which of them would best express the thought? [Other things being equal, the word, or group of words, expressing the new thought in the sentence should receive the main emphasis; in this sentence there are two, "eulogium” and “meets my concurrence.”
Which thought is new?] In the second sentence, what group of words contains at once the new and most important thought? Should the voice rise or fall at the end of the first sentence ? What is the natural way, in most cases, of making direct and positive statements ? Try this sentence thoughtfully with both rising and falling inflections, and determine which is the better. [Most pupils will decide correctly upon such a question, but some will fail. These must be directed.] Take the same course with the second sentence. Emphatic words in the third sentence? Inflection of the voice at the word “honor”? “ pride”? At the close of the sentence? Emphatic word in the fourth sentence? [Here again it is the word containing the new and important thought.] What inflection of the voice at the word “countrymen”? At the word “all” in the next sentence? At the proper names respectively? At the word “lines ” ? [Expressing contempt.] At the word “limits "? [The chief fall is on “same ;” hence “limits” is not prominent.] Emphatic words in the sentence? [In a comparison, the second member, and sometimes the first, also, is emphatic.]
Second Paragraph. What is meant by their day and generation”? Why called “ day and generation”? Meaning of the clause, “and their renown is of the treasures of the whole country"? Meaning of the word “of” in this clause? "treasures ?” Why is this last word used? Who is referred to in the second sentence? What does the speaker seem to take for granted about him? What must have been his name? To whom does “he” refer? “his”? Meaning of "esteem” here? To whom is this speech addressed? Who is called “Sir”? Who filled this office at this time?
Meaning and etymology of “generation"? "country"? “ renown"? "treasures”? "capable”? " gratitude"? "sympathy"? "sufferings”? “exhibit” ? "produce"? "envy”? What other word, in the paragraph, of the same origin with “gratitude"? Define these words. Meaning and etymology of " delight”?
What group of words is emphatic in the first clause of the first sentence? What adjective very emphatic? In the second clause what words emphatic? Inflection upon the (first) word "country"? Does the voice fall most on “whole" or