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Only the tomb by Mount Zion,
Hewn for the Lord, do we hold
Girdled with harvests of gold !
Wreathing with glory his brow,
Freedom's Jerusalem thou !
ANALYSIS OF THE GRAVE OF LINCOLN. What kind of poetry is this? [See Analysis of Gray Old Man of the Mountain, p. 68.] What is the general sentiment of it? [It is exultation in spite of sorrow; joy shining through tears. Let it be read with ringing tones, softened by a loving sadness.] When and how did Lincoln die ? Where was he buried ? State some interesting facts about his death and burial.
First Stanza. What is the “ Potomac," and why alluded to here? Why called “storied”? What is the “ laurel,” and why here mentioned? Why must the Potomac divide laurels? How has it been heretofore in regard to its laurels? What is the “Sangamon,” and why here mentioned ? Why “fameless”? Is it always to remain so ? Why? Why “century's pride”? What are “prairies”? Is the Sangamon a rapid stream? What expression in the poem bears upon this point? Is it clear or turbid ? Into what does it flow? Meaning of " city of silence"? Whose city of silence? Who "sought his repose” here? In what sense sought? What river is a Washington's”? Why speak of sunrise" on this river, and “sunset” on the other? Why is the sunset fairer?
Etymology and meaning of storied ? [See directions under Gray Old Man of the Mountain.] laurels ? divide? century? prairie? placidly? silence ? repose? river ? sunrise ? martyr ?
Is the first statement a positive one? How many lines does it include ? Point out each of the statements in the first stanza, and show whether it is positive or not. What inflections then at the ends of the lines ?
What is the most important word or group of words in the first statement? Repeat the statement carefully, and determine this point by listening. Take the same course with every other statement. What two pairs of words are set against each other in the three lines preceding the last?
Second Stanza. What are "pyramids”? In what country chiefly do « kings slumber" under them? What are the “ Lybian sands”? Why sands? Why “sealed ” ? What is said of the princes”? What are “gorgeous cathedrals”? Are the princes or the cathedrals “ decked with the spoil, &c."'? What is meant by the “spoil of the lands”? What is the effect of this decking upon the dignity, the princely and kingly character, of the buried ? Which is the stronger word, “kinglier” or “princelier"? Why are the prairies called “serene"? Why is his sleep • kinglier”? In how many and what lines is the reason given? Does the soul really reach heaven any more easily when the body does not lie under artificial structures ? How many of these structures are mentioned here, and what are they? What do 6 column and temple cumber"? How do they do it? Where is “Beth-peor”? Tell the story of the burial of Moses. Where do we find it recorded ? Why is it alluded to here? Was it an honorable burial ? [ See “Burial of Moses," Exercise Lxxxi.]
Meaning and etymology of pyramid ? sealed ? princes? kings ? gorgeous ? cathedrals ? spoils ? couched ? serene? heaven? temple? column ? cumber? verdure? vale ? burial? Determine inflections and emphases as before.
Third Stanza. Why are the prairies directed to " break into blossom ” ? What is it to break into blossom? How many colors aro mentioned, and what are they? Give the mode and person of the verb “heap," and show what its subject is ? Meaning of the line,“ Peers of the Palestine lilies” ? Case of the word peers? Why Palestine lilies? Whose “Glorious Dead” is meant? What is said of “roses as fair as of Sharon”? Case of the word “roses”? Why “ Sharon ” ? Case of the word “branches”? "odors”? "cassia”? What is said of branches ? odors ? cassia ? Are these found on the prairie ? Does the author here call upon the prairies to do anything more than they do every year? What is cassia? aloes? balm? What are they all called here? Who was “Mary”? “Salome"? What “morning" is here referred to in the last line but one? In what part of what book do you find an account of this ? Why“ with a gracious accord”? For what purpoze were these things “ brought to the tomb of the Lord”? Were they used for that purpose ? Meaning of the first glow of the morning”? Meaning of “ere"? What time of day must this have been, then? Read this stanza with the clauses as they would naturally come in prose.
Meaning and etymology of blossoms ? peers ? lilies ? glorious? roses? stately? odors ? spices ? gracious? accord ? tomb ? Determine the inflections and emphases as before.
Fourth Stanza. Meaning of “Wind of the West”? Is it any wind blowing over the western prairies, or a wind blowing from a westerly direction, or a wind blowing towards the west ? What is it to “ breathe around him”? Why is the air on Mount Pisgah spokep of as "saddened”? What qualities does this expression attribute to the air? What is the “ saddened air's sigh"? Meaning of " soft', as attributed to the air or wind? What is the “ summit of Pisgah”? Near what place previously mentioned must it be situated ? Did Moses go up for the purpose of dying? What is to be "clear"? Whose "anthem”? When did it "float”? What does the word "low” modify? For what were the people “wailing”? What was "blending"? How long did this “Wail” continue ? Meaning of “burdened refrain " ? “Rarer” than what is meant in next line? How “rare” and how “divine" is it called upon to be? Meaning of rarer ? diviner? What is a “sweet" wind? Where is “Olivet's mountain"? What event is referred to here? In what part of what book do you find an account of it? In what sense was the Savior "lost” in the sky?
Etymology and meaning of around ? summit? journeyed ? clear? anthem ? floated ? plain ? wail ? refrain ? divine ? breeze? mountain ?
Determine inflections and emphases as before.
Fifth Stanza. What is meant by “sheaves”? “savannas”? Why is Illinois spoken of as “proud”? Why is she “ crowned”? Meaning of the third line? of the fourth line? Why “hewn” in the sixth line-why not“ dug”? In whose “prairies”? Meaning of " girdled”? Why “harvests of gold," — are there gold mines in the region here alluded to ? Are prairies and savannas the same? What shall be “ for the world through the ages”? Who “ wreathing with glory his brow”? Who is to be “liberty's savior”? Why liberty's savior ? Who is to be “Freedom's Jerusalem"? Meaning of this last expression? How important a person does this make of Mr. Lincoln ? Did he deserve so much? To whom is the fifth stanza addressed ?
Etymology and meaning of savannas ? crown ? grandeur ? girdled ? harvest ? ages ? liberty's ? savior ? freedom's?
XVIII.-SYMPATHY FOR GREECE.
HENRY CLAY. 1. But we may not only adopt this measure; we may go further; we may recognize the government in the Morea, if actually independent, and it will be neither war, nor any violation of our neutrality. Beside, sir, what is Greece to the allies? A part of the dominions of any of them? By no means. Suppose the people in one of the Philippine Isles, or any other spot still more insulated and remote,— in Asia or Africa,— were to resist their former rulers, and set up and establish a new government, are we not to recognize them, in dread of the holy allies? If they are going to interfere, from the danger of the contagion of the example, here is the spot, our own favored land, where they must strike. This government, you, Mr. Chairman, and the body over which you preside, are the living and cutting reproach to allied despotism. If we are to offend them, it is not by
passing this resolution. We are daily and hourly giving them cause of war.
2. It is here, and in our free institutions, that they will assail us. They will attack us because you sit beneath that canopy, and we are freely debating and deliberating upon the great interests of freemen, and dispensing the blessings of free government. They will strike because we pass one of those bills on your table. The passage of the least of them, by our free authority, is more galling to despotic powers than would be the adoption of this so much dreaded resolution. Pass it, and what do you do? You exercise an indisputable attribute of sovereignty, for which you are responsible to none of them. You do the same when you perform any other legislative function; no less. If the allies object to this measure, let them forbid us to take a vote in the House; let them strip us of every attribute of independent government; let them disperse us.
3. Will gentlemen attempt to maintain that, on the principles of the law of nations, those allies would have cause of war? If there be any principle which has been settled for ages, any which is founded in the very nature of things, it is, that every independent state has the clear right to judge of the fact of the existence of other sovereign powers. I admit that there may be a state of inchoate initiative sovereignity, in which a new government, just struggling into being, can not be said yet perfectly to exist. But the premature recognition of such new government can give offense justly to no other than its ancient sovereign. The right of recognition comprehends the right to be informed; and the means of information must, of necessity, depend upon the sound discretion of the party seeking it. You may send out a commission of inquiry, and charge it with a provident attention to your own people and your own interests. Such will be