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IV. The Palatinus, in the Vatican Library.-It obtained its name from the Palatine Library, whither it found its way from that of Heidelberg. It appears to belong to the fourth or fifth century.
V. The Romanus, also in the Vatican, brought thither from one of the monasteries connected with the abbey of St. Denis. It was studied closely by Politian. It is rather carelessly written; still this and the Mediceus are the most trustworthy. It may be assigned to the fourth
VI. The Veronensis, in the chapter library at Verona.
VII. The Augustus, so called by Pertz from his conviction that it belonged to the Augustan period.-Part of it is to be found at Berlin, part at the Vatican.
MODERN DISCOVERIES ON THE SITE OF
As the second book of the Eneid dwells so constantly on the external appearance of Troy as conceived by Vergil after the description of Homer, we add a short summary of the discoveries of Dr. Schliemann.
The site of Troy was on the hill of Hissarlik, which stands about 100 feet above the sea and 60 feet above the plain around it. Remains of seven cities have been discovered lying one above the other from the rock upwards.
The Troy of Homer and Vergil is the third city from the base. It was built on the ruins of the second city after a long period of desertion. One main difference between the third city and the others is that while its predecessors were built of limestone, it was of brick. And this brick bears very distinct traces of a great conflagration. In many cases it is reduced to a shapeless lump; in others the surface is vitrified. On the east side the signs of heat are most apparent, and the smoke has penetrated and discoloured the interstices between the courses of bricks. The ruins after the burning of the city raised the site nearly ten feet, and this in itself is evidence of the magnitude of the conflagration. The bricks were larger than bricks are now,-they were a foot in length and breadth, and four inches thick.
The remains discovered are very numerous, and a few only can be alluded to here. The Trojans were evidently considerable consumers of conchylia. Immense numbers of shell-fish and oyster-shells have been found. The bones, too, of sheep, goats, and horses are very frequent, but not of oxen, strange to say. A quantity of burnt grain was also discovered among the ruins.
At the north-west of the Scæan gate clear trace re mains of Priam's Palace. In front of it lies an open space, probably the Agora. The palace was not so magnificent as Vergil (En. ii. 503), in imitation of Homer, supposes it to have been. In Homer's time the Troy of poetry was under a mass of ruin, and fine buildings of polished stone were probably to be seen in its stead.
A great quantity of owl-faced idols and vases have been found of the former alone seven hundred. They are all crude imitations of the female form, and probably copies of the Palladium, which was supposed to have fallen from heaven. In the same way Hera-idols, with cows' horns, were found at Mycena. Beside these, idols of bone, marble and lead, tripod-vases, goblets, and vases, imitating animals such as a sow, a mole, or a hedgehog, have been discovered.
But the great prize of all was the treasure. This was found on the wall near the palace, and probably fell to the position where it lay from the upper stories of the palace during the conflagration. It consists of twentysix different objects; the principal of which are two gold diadems for female attire, worn on the forehead, with pendants on either side; six gold bracelets, gold necklaces, earrings, fillets, and beads, besides many smaller articles of silver and bronze.
P. VERGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS
1-13.-Eneas, at the request of Dido, promises to relate the
Fracti bello fatisque repulsi Ductores Danaum, tot iam labentibus annis, Instar montis equum divina Palladis arte
13-20.-The Greeks, unsuccessful in the siege, construct the Trojan horse, fill it secretly with men, and give out that it is a votive offering for a safe return home.
Aedificant sectaque intexunt abiete costas:
Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama
Ergo omnis longo solvit se Teucria luctu;
26-39.-The Trojans, believing the Greeks to have gone home, leave the city and examine the horse, and are anxious to drag it within the walls.
40-56. Laocoon in dismay dissuades them.
Primus ibi ante omnis, magna comitante caterva, 40 Laocoon ardens summa decurrit ab arce,