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IV. The Palatinus, in the Vatican Library.-It obtained its name from the Palatine Library, whither it found its way from that of Heidelberg. It appears to belong to the fourth or fifth century.

V. The Romanus, also in the Vatican, brought thither from one of the monasteries connected with the abbey of St. Denis. It was studied closely by Politian. It is rather carelessly written; still this and the Mediceus are the most trustworthy. It may be assigned to the fourth


VI. The Veronensis, in the chapter library at Verona.

VII. The Augustus, so called by Pertz from his conviction that it belonged to the Augustan period.-Part of it is to be found at Berlin, part at the Vatican.



As the second book of the Eneid dwells so constantly on the external appearance of Troy as conceived by Vergil after the description of Homer, we add a short summary of the discoveries of Dr. Schliemann.

The site of Troy was on the hill of Hissarlik, which stands about 100 feet above the sea and 60 feet above the plain around it. Remains of seven cities have been discovered lying one above the other from the rock upwards.

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The Troy of Homer and Vergil is the third city from the base. It was built on the ruins of the second city after a long period of desertion. One main difference between the third city and the others is that while its predecessors were built of limestone, it was of brick. And this brick bears very distinct traces of a great conflagration. In many cases it is reduced to a shapeless lump; in others the surface is vitrified. On the east side the signs of heat are most apparent, and the smoke has penetrated and discoloured the interstices between the courses of bricks. The ruins after the burning of the city raised the site nearly ten feet, and this in itself is evidence of the magnitude of the conflagration. The bricks were larger than bricks are now,-they were a foot in length and breadth, and four inches thick.

The remains discovered are very numerous, and a few only can be alluded to here. The Trojans were evidently considerable consumers of conchylia. Immense numbers of shell-fish and oyster-shells have been found. The bones, too, of sheep, goats, and horses are very frequent, but not of oxen, strange to say. A quantity of burnt grain was also discovered among the ruins.


At the north-west of the Scæan gate clear trace re mains of Priam's Palace. In front of it lies an open space, probably the Agora. The palace was not so magnificent as Vergil (En. ii. 503), in imitation of Homer, supposes it to have been. In Homer's time the Troy of poetry was under a mass of ruin, and fine buildings of polished stone were probably to be seen in its stead.

A great quantity of owl-faced idols and vases have been found of the former alone seven hundred. They are all crude imitations of the female form, and probably copies of the Palladium, which was supposed to have fallen from heaven. In the same way Hera-idols, with cows' horns, were found at Mycena. Beside these, idols of bone, marble and lead, tripod-vases, goblets, and vases, imitating animals such as a sow, a mole, or a hedgehog, have been discovered.

But the great prize of all was the treasure. This was found on the wall near the palace, and probably fell to the position where it lay from the upper stories of the palace during the conflagration. It consists of twentysix different objects; the principal of which are two gold diadems for female attire, worn on the forehead, with pendants on either side; six gold bracelets, gold necklaces, earrings, fillets, and beads, besides many smaller articles of silver and bronze.



1-13.-Eneas, at the request of Dido, promises to relate the
capture of Troy, and his wanderings thereafter.
CONTICUERE omnes intentique ora tenebant :
Inde toro pater Aeneas sic orsus ab alto:
'Infandum, Regina, iubes renovare dolorem,
Troianas ut opes et lamentabile regnum
Eruerint Danai, quaeque ipse miserrima vidi,
Et quorum pars magna fui. Quis talia fando
Myrmidonum Dolopumve aut duri miles Ulixi
Temperet a lacrimis? et iam nox umida caelo
Praecipitat suadentque cadentia sidera somnos.
Sed si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros
Et breviter Troiae supremum audire laborem,
Quamquam animus meminisse horret luctuque refugit,


Fracti bello fatisque repulsi Ductores Danaum, tot iam labentibus annis, Instar montis equum divina Palladis arte



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13-20.-The Greeks, unsuccessful in the siege, construct the Trojan horse, fill it secretly with men, and give out that it is a votive offering for a safe return home.


Aedificant sectaque intexunt abiete costas:
Votum pro reditu simulant, ea fama vagatur.
Huc delecta virum sortiti corpora furtim
Includunt caeco lateri, penitusque cavernas
Ingentis uterumque armato milite complent.
21-25.-This done, they retire to Tenedos.

Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama
Insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant,
Nunc tantum sinus et statio male fida carinis:
Huc se provecti deserto in litore condunt.
Nos abiisse rati et vento petiisse Mycenas:


Ergo omnis longo solvit se Teucria luctu;
Panduntur portae; iuvat ire et Dorica castra
Desertosque videre locos litusque relictum./
Hic Dolopum manus, hic saevus tendebat Achilles ;
Classibus hic locus; hic acie certare solebant.
Pars stupet innuptae donum exitiale Minervae,
Et molem mirantur equi; primusque Thymoetes
Duci intra muros hortatur et arce locari,
Sive dolo seu iam Troiae sic fata ferebant.
At Capys et quorum melior sententia menti
Aut pelago Danaum insidias suspectaque dona
Praecipitare iubent subiectisque urere flammis,
Aut terebrare cavas uteri et temptare latebras.
Scinditur incertum studia in contraria volgus.


26-39.-The Trojans, believing the Greeks to have gone home, leave the city and examine the horse, and are anxious to drag it within the walls.



40-56. Laocoon in dismay dissuades them.

Primus ibi ante omnis, magna comitante caterva, 40 Laocoon ardens summa decurrit ab arce,

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