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Daily exercises are to be conducted byFor these they have a profound respect. I her; the furniture of the small sanctuary, bought a copy from them, but they would that forms a part of the convent, must be not part with it until they had strongly looked after and kept clean and orderly; urged me to give it an elevated place on those women, or men, who come to worship my book-shelves. The rapidity with which at the altars, and to seek guidance or com- the pages and sections of the books are fort, must be cared for and assisted. When hurried off at their religious services, is there is leisure, the sick and the poor are amazing. Both the young and the old nuns to be visited ; and all, who have placed seem equally expert at their recitations. themselves under her special direction and But there is nothing of a devotional spirit spiritual instruction, have a strong claim about them. Their demeanor is any thing upon her regard. That she may live the but devout. When a choir of juvenile nuns life of seclusion and self-denial, she must meet together, it is shocking to see the levvow perpetual virginity. The thought of ity with which they pay religious homage to marriage should never enter her head, and the stock before them. They are as merry the society of men must be shunned. On and tricky, as flirting and frolicksome, as her death she will be swallowed up in any party of girls met to keep the birthday nihility!
of one of their schoolmates. As much time In the Kwányin nunnery, there are alto- is spent in reading and reciting prayers, gether seven inmates. The head nun is cantics, &c., &c., the candidate, before she about forty years of age, and is more mas- can be admitted into full orders, must unculine in her temper than any Chinese dergo an educational training. She is woman I have met with. Her passions taught to read, and many of them pursue are violent, and when her anger is roused, the same elementary course that is adopted it rises to a fearful pitch. She is a thor- throughout the empire. They learn the ough scold, and keeps her pupils in perpet- Trimetrical Classic, the Four Books, &c., ual awe of her. But what must be the hard- and are taught the ready use of the pencil. ened depravity of her heart, that, under a Some of the sisterhood, I have been told, cloak of sanctity, seeks to hide those scenes are very well read in the lore of the country. of vice and debauchery which, with her It would appear, from what I have seen and sanction and encouragement, are acted un- heard, that the training of the novice is inder her roof! Her avarice is voracious. Her trusted to that inmate who was last admitdeceit is dark and deep. She is a wolf in ted. sheep's clothing. Her disciples are six in Those among the laity, who have put number, their ages running between seven themselves under the spiritual direction of and twenty-five. Four of them, notwith-a nun, are expected to confide in her as a standing their spare diet, look fat and hale. teacher, and to submit to her as a priestess. The two younger are in a bad state of health. Whether the devotee be a man or a woman, The abbess always pretended to be very the nun who is the chosen preceptress gives fastidious in avoiding animal food, and to the individual a new name. Each nun is every thing having a strong flavor. Yet on the alert to cultivate the acquaintance she used to drink the ardent spirits distilled of the disciple she has already made, and from rice, and appeared at timer to be to swell her list of friends, because her supmuch under its influence.
port principally depends upon them. BeTheir daily services are conducted morn-hind the shrine of Kwányin, in that nunneing and evening. At the usual exercises, ry to which I have throughout been making however, I have rarely seen more than two a special reference, there is a slab erected officiate. On special occasions, that are with the names of subscribers, or donors, occuring every month, there are services who for the maintenance of the order had which occupy the whole day. At some of promised or paid down small sums of money. these, they are aided by sisters from other To each of the female contributors there is convents in the city or the country; and, a new name prefixed. Visitors from town not unfrequently, priests are called in to join and country are very frequent. These genthe sacred concerts, in which case the erally contribute a little in money or in kind, priests and priestesses occupy separate so that with the subscriptions of steady apartments, but proceed with the chants in friends and the donations of occasional visunison.
itors, the means of subsistence are not lackTheir sacred books consist of many vol. ing. Besides, there is property invested in umes, printed in large text on fine paper. houses and in land. That wing of the convent which I occupied is entirely appropri-ing a good deal from ulceration of the bowated to lodgings, let out at a moderate rate, els. On the abbess hearing that an English and capable of being made very comforta- physician had reached Ningpo, she applied ble, if one were not perpetually subject to to me for his assistance. Dr. Johnstone of annoyance from the boisterous money-seek- the Madras Rifles, who was then on a visit ing landlady.
of a few days, cheerfully consented, and The extra services I have above alluded prescribed for the sufferer from his private to are got up by the patrons of the order stock of medicines. This was in the end on occasions of calamity, or prosperity, or of last month. But the child was already when the abbess is successful enough to beyond remedy, and death had fastened work upon the superstitious feelings of a upon her vitals. On the morning of the husband, through the agency of a priest- 29th of December, while the elder nuns ridden wise. The person, who sends re- were rejoicing that the poor child was sleep questing the services of the nuns, appoints ing so soundly, they were not aware that the number of books to be recited at the the sleep of death had stolen upon her, until shrine of the nunnery, for which he must they perceived she was insensible to sound pay a certain remuneration. At each ser- and to touch. It was breathing its last. vice the nuns are said to receive respect- When they ascertained this fact, the body ively the small premium of 100 cash a day. was removed out of the room, and put into
According to the statement of the superi- the wood-house, there to expire unattended. or to this convent, there are, in the district Aluh, her senior in age, although devotedly of Ningpo alone, thirty nunneries and above attached to this dying companion, was not 300 inmates, the largest number in a single allowed by her superior to watch over the building not exceeding twenty. But the closing moments of the poor girl. When it estimation in which the religious order is was laid in its rude coffin, the servant was held is exceedingly low. They are describ- ordered to throw in the doll with which she ed by all to be a class of women almost on had played; and, after a sorcerer of the Táu the same footing with those who are lost to sect had performed his incantations to quiet all the finest and most delicate feelings that the spirit of the departed, and to bribe are peculiarly the glory and the protection away from the spot any demons that might of the sex.
be lurking about, the coffin was placed unLike the male priests of the same reli- der the city walls. gion, and like the popish priesthood in the Aluh, her senior, is a girl thirteen years Philippines,—they are not only not respect- of age. Her father, who is dead, used to go ed by the populace, but are detested for about Ningpo hawking turnips and greens. their profligacies, and dreaded for the in- On his death, the mother sold this poor girl fluence, which they are supposed to exert to the nuns at the tender age of four. Beon one's destiny by familiar intercourse with ing the sixth of eight sisters, (the seventh the spirits of the invisible world; hence, it having in like manner been given over to is a common saying, that' to meet with a a convent in the neighborhood,) she is nun in the street will be unlucky to your named Aluh (the sixth); but her priestly errand.' Indeed such was the profligacy name is Tsáhshen, 'Collected Virtues' As of the dressy, small-footed, opiun-smoking she has not yet reached the age when she nuns of Súchau-the capital of Kiángsú can be fully inducted, her head is not quite province,—that the notorious Yü Kien, shaven. Her countenance is peculiarly (who in 1841 hastened down to Chinhái as striking, to which her present sickness adds imperial commissioner invested with full a mournful interest, as it cannot fail to crepowers to destroy the barbarian English by ate serious apprehensions that she will not fire and by sword,) when he held the office long be a survivor in this world.* And truly of lieut.-governor in that province, broke up how deplorable, how cruel, is the mistake their establishments and disbanded the by which so many of the female youth of sisterhood.
China are at an early age made over to a To complete this notice of Chinese nuns system, the influence of which is only to and nunneries, I will refer to the two junior render their minds more corrupted, and to inmates of the Kwányin convent. The aggravate their future woes ! younger of the two dïed only a week ago, at the early age of seven years,
She had * She died on the 13th of the following May. been bought when six years old. When I came into the neighborhood, she was suffer
BY H. MACNAMARA.
A MOTHER'S LOVE.
the sad truth be established, she still feels that he has not thrown off every claim; and it an object of blame, he is also one of pity.
Her heart may break, but it cannot cease to From the Metropolitan.
love him. In the moments of sickness, when There does not exist a more perfect feature stretched on the bed of pain, dying perhaps from in human nature than that affection which a
a contagious disease, he is deserted by his promother bears towards her children. Love, in fessed friends, who dare not, and care not to ap. its true character, is of divine origin, and an proach him--one nurse will be seen attending emanation from that Spirit, who Himself is him; she will not leave his precious existence Love," and though often degraded on earth, stant in his presence seems an hour of agony:
to the care of hirelings, though now every inwe yet find it pure, sublime, and lasting within the maternal breast. Man is frequently cap- not let him hear the sad response; she weeps,
groans penetrate her heart, but she will tivated by mere external graces, and he digni- but turns away, lest he should see ber tears. fies that pleasure, which all experience in the contemplation of the beautiful, by the title of She guards his slumbers, presses his feverish love; but a mother makes no distinction, she lips to hers, pours the balm of religion on his caresses the ugly and deformed with kindness, conscience, and points out to him the mercy of equal to, if not surpassing, that she bestows that Judge before whom he may shortly apon the more favored. Too frequently are in-pear. When all is silent, she prays for his terested motives the basis of apparent affec- life; and if that may not be, for his happiness
in the life to come. tion, but it is not so with her, who clings more fondly to her children in their poverty, their of life, or, if not, she lives as one desolate and
He dies. The shock perhaps deprives her missortunes, ay, and their disgrace. The silken chains by which we are bound one to the alone, anxiously looking forward to that world other are sometimes broken with facility ; a
where she may meet her darling child, never word, a look, may snap the links, never to be to part again. re-united; friendship decays or proves false
With equal simplicity and eloquence, the in the hour of need; we almost doubt the ex- tender affection of Hagar for her child is existence of constancy-away with this doubt, pressed in the Old Testament.* In a wilderwhile the maternal heart continues, as a temple, ness, herself parched with thirst and fainting for the dwelling of God's holiest atıribute.
from fatigue, she beholds her insanı-her only She has waiched her infant from the cradle; companion - dying from want of nourishment. she will not desert him until separated by the The water-bottle was empty. Placing her grave. How anxiously she observes the boy beneath a shrub, and moving to some disbudding faculties, the expansion of mind, the tance, she cried, “Let me not see the death of
“Let me not behold the sever. increasing strength of body! She lives for my child!" her child more than for herself, and so en
ance of those ties, which nature compels me twined has her nature become with his, that to support and cherish; let not mine eyes witshe shares in all his joys, and alas! in all his ness ihe gradual departure of that angel spirit, "Not because it is lovely," says and consolation in my declining years." which I had hoped would afford me comfort
And Herder, “ does the mother love her child, but because it is a living part of
"she lift up her voice and wept."
But she rself-the child of her heart, a fraction of her own nature.
was noi left childless, "for God was with the
lad.” Therefore does she sympathize with his sufferings; her heart beats quicker at his joys; this parent, we can appreciate the beauty of
If we reflect upon the inestimable value of her blood flows more sofily through her veins, the psalmist's expression, when he compares when the breast at which he drinks knits him
, laboring under the extreme of grief, closer to her."* Say that her son falls into poverty; a bank- to one " who mournelh for his mother.” And
was it not in accordance with the perfect charrupt in fortune, he is shunned by former acquaintances and despised by most of his fel- acter of our Saviour, that some of his last
thoughts should be for the welfare of her who low-beings, but one will there be found, like a ministering angel at his side, cheering his de
* Genesis xx spondency, encouraging him to renewed ex
14, &c. ertions, and réady herself to become a slave | A very fine picture of maternal suffering is for his sake.
exhibited in the fable of Niobe, (Ovid's MetaSay that he is exposed to censure, whether morph. lib. 6, fab. 5,) after the destruction of her merited or unmerited, -all men rush to heap their virtuous indignation on his head; they
“ Heu! quantum hæc Niobe, Niobe distabat ab
illâ ! have no pity for a fallen brother, they shun or they curse him. How different is the conduct
Invidiosa suis, at nunc miseranda vel hosti! of that being who gave him life! She cannot
Corporibus gelidis incumbit: et ordine nullo believe the charge; she will not rank herself
Oscula dispensat natos suprema per omnes. among the foes of her child. And if at length and after the death of her daughters, how appro
priate was her change into a lifeless marble sta * Mrs. Austin's fragments from German writers. I tue, paralyzed yet weeping! Avgust, 1844. 36
followed him through all his trials? When | centuries kept Turkey in a constant state of extended on the cross, pointing to the disciple active or slumbering hostility with Christenwhom he loved, he said to Mary, "Woman, dom, and the adoption by the Turkish govercbehold thy son, and to the disciple, “ Behold | ment and people of many of our habits and thy mother.” And from that hour the disciple modes of thinking, seem to have invited this took her to his own home.
encroachment (for such we deem it) upon their Among the greatest and the best of our peculiar laws, and in a matter which, a few fellow-creatures,* we shall find that they never years ago, would have thrown the whole Ottoforgot the duty owing to her from whom they man empire into combustion. not only received life, but frequently inherited The short and simple facts of the case are as superior powers of mind. We are all too apt follows. By the Mahomedan law, as adminis. to disregard blessings to which we have long tered in Turkey, persons who, having embraced been accustomed, and to appreciate them only Islamism, afterwards abandon that faith, are when it is too late. Many of us have cause to liable to suffer death. This is no doubt a barregret the past on this account, and some barous and cruel law, but it is not peculiar 10 would willingly begin life again, solely from a Mahomedanism-witness the Martyrs' Memowish to serve and please those of whose worth rial at Oxford ! There have been probably they are now aware.
more persons put to death in cold blood, and Trifle not with a mother's love! It is too according to the forms of law, for exchanging valuable, too elevated, and, though it last to one mode of Christianity for another, than in the end of life, too transitory. Like many ob- Turkey for renouncing the established faith jects of inestimable worth and power, it is yet altogether. delicate and sensitive; then wound it not by In the Turkish empire, there have been india thoughtless word or an unkind action, but viduals who, educated in Christianity, have cherish its existence with feelings of the apostatized to Islamism,-men of lax or aban. strongest admiration and respect.
doned principles, who hoped by such change to Let us endeavor to share in the sentiments improve their worldly circumstances, or, perof the poet, Kirk White, as expressed in the haps, in a few cases, to gratify their appetite for following lines:
pleasures in which the Mussulman creed per
inits its votaries to indulge without let or cen6 And canst thou, mother, for a moment think sure. It is barely or scarcely possible that one That we, thy children, when old age shall shed or two individuals in a century have conscienIts blanching bonors on thy weary head, tiously repudiated the Bible, in the belief of Could from our best of duties ever shrink? which they have been bred, and sincerely emSooner the sun from his bigh sphere should sink braced the Koran. When the Barbary states Than we, ungrateful, leave thee in that day,
were in their vigor, many Christians, captured To pine in solitude thy life away, Or shun thee, tottering on the grave's cold brink through compulsion, or in the hope of escaping
by their rovers, became Mahomedans, either Banish the thought! where'er our steps may the horrors of slavery ; but that infamous sysroam,
tem has passed away: O'er smiling plains, or wastes without a tree, Still will fond memory point our hearts to thee, Recently, some individuals, who had apostaAnd paint the pleasures of thy peaceful home; tized from Christianity to Islamism, and become While duty bids us all thy griefs assuage,
again converts (as it is termed) 10 their origiAnd smooth the pillow of thy sinking age." nal faith, have been executed in Turkey.
What might have been the motives of these men in thus dallying with a question of such vital importance to themselves, it is impossible to know; if the first change was a sordid or licentious one, the second may be as litile sincere. But the motives of the converts are no part of
the question. PUNISHMENT OF APOSTATES FROM The ambassadors of England and France ISLAMISM,
at Constantinople have been authorized and instructed by their governments to demand of the Sultan that this practice of putting to death
converts from Islamism to Christianity, be forA Recent occurrence, which has established mally and forever abandoned throughout the a precedent for interference by Christian gov- Ottoman empire. When this proposition was ernments, in matters of religion, with Mahome-made to the minister of the Porte, he told the dan states, is too curious in itself
, and too impor- ambassadors that this was a religious question, tant in relation to its probable consequences, in which the government could not act; at the to be allowed by us to pass without a short same time, in order to evince his desire to fulfil notice. The relaxation of that severe system the wishes of his Christian allies, the Sultan, of anti-Christian policy which for so many although he could not abrogate a religious law,
undertook that it should not in future be enTasso, Pope, Gray, Cowper, Kirke White, forced. Canning, may be adduced, among many others, This was a very considerable step in toleraas well-known examples.
tion, to be taken by a bigoted government, at
From the Asiatic Journal.
the instance of those whose motives it must sus crept into the newspapers. Nobody as yet pect and whose faith it detests. The law was knew it, but all assumed the knowledge; and still to remain unrepealed, but inert, like our what they were at a loss to comprehend they law against witches, up to a very late period. invented of their own. Some announced that And this would probably have sufficed, is it had they had started for Paris to see how it was not been intended to establish a direct and un- performed in society; others simply stated questionable precedent for interfering peremp- they gave lessons in it twice a-day; and one torily in such matters hereafter. The two am. lady informed an anxious public “that she had bassadors would listen to no stipulation short of had the honor of acquiring it from a Bohemian a formal abrogation of the law. It was in vain nobleman.” How we should like to have they were reminded that this was no question seen the interview! and what a subject it involving the toleration of Christianity, which would have made for the pencil of Mr. Leech, is secured by treaty; the ambassadors demand- who in the portrayal of “foreign gentlemen," ed interviews with the Sultan, and threatened seedy and otherwise, stands unrivalled. Bothat, if their proposition was not agreed to, they hemia must indeed be the land of dance, from would cease communication with the Porte, the days of La Esmeralda to the present time, and withdraw from Constantinople.
when its very nobles give lessons therein. Whether the military and naval prepara- Imagine our returning the compliment, and tions, which were ordered contemporaneously dispatching one of our peers-Lord Brougham, with this demand, indicated an intention pri- for instance to teach the college-hornpipe or marily to resist it, is matter of conjecture: the the double-shuffle at foreign academies! Turkish government is too feeble to engage in It was left for Easter Monday to reveal the a war with any European power, even when music and the dance of the Polka to public the contest is for the defence of their faith. It ears and eyes,-the former at the Haymarket, has submitted.
the latter at the Lyceum and Princess's 'TheaIn this event we foresee the ultimate over-tres; and four days later the Opera followed throw of Mahomedanism as a principle of their example. At the first-named house it government. Similar occasions for interfe- was simply played by the orchestra, but at the rence will often happen, and they will never others it was executed by the corps de ballet. be neglected. The two creeds will thus be Miss Farebrother, as a most bewitching robbrought into a species of conflict, and Mako- ber, joined her band of forty very pretty thieves medanism will sink from a dominant principle in its graceful evolutions at the Lyceum; and into the distinction of a sect.
at the Princess's so many dark eyes and good The result may be beneficial; but we wish legs flashed and twinkled in the figure, that it could be brought about by ditierent means. the lookers-on were well nigh beside themNeither England nor France has any greater selves. But at both of these theatres young right to require the Turkish government to ladies in the boxes became alarmed as they forhear executing apostates who relapse, than watched its intricacies, and whispered to each to call upon that of Portugal to abstain from other, or thought to themselves, "Goodness an aulo da fe.
gracious! shall we be expected to go through all those positions in society ?” We believe we can relieve their anxiety by replying, “Certainly not;" for in both cases the Polka is a fine fiction, as now performed. We, who from our Divan” remove the roofs of houses at
our will, and, Asmodeus-like, lay bare their THE POLKA.
secrets, know that at neither theatre was any From Bentley's Miscellany.
thing particularly understood about it at all.
At one house, the tact of the gifted little woman When we wrote last month, that there was who now manages therein, cleverly aided by little doubt but the Polka would soon leave her satellites and auxiliaries, contrived to throw Paris, and come to town rid Folkeston and additional attraction into a very clever burBoulogne, we scarcely imagined that our pre- lesque by its apt introduction; and at the othdictions would be so rapidly fulfilled. The ers, the evening "Fair Star” shone with inPolka has arrived, and its London popularity creased brilliancy by the Polka, which emanabids fair to equal its Parisian, at least for a ted from the united heads, or heels, of Monsieur
But we are bound to state our im- Jullien and Madame Vedy. A great man and pression that this season will be a very short a talented is Monsieur Jullien. You will find
envious musicians, and gloomy frequenters of The “Illustrated London News,” with its classical concerts, who call him a humbug. usual active vigilance, was the first to herald This we flatly contradict. He has unequalled the approaching furore, by giving the music tact in seizing, and ability in arranging, any of the dance, and illustrations of its execution, subject of popular interest. And, even admit. in which a lady with long plaited tails and a ting that he is one, a man who can "humbug.” gentleman in melodramatic costume, were London for three or four consecutive years is ihrowing their limbs about in unwonted action of no ordinary mind. How many are strugThen advertisements of tuition in its mysteries gling to do the same; and, in the same, misera