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is upon the hollow of the thigh,' and they tors; and it is to the power of Scriptural do not touch the blood of animals. He knowledge, that we have to ascribe the recognized the Hebrew letters as those emancipation of our minds from the corused in their sacred writings, and could rupting, the stultifying dominion of idolatry. trace, in the sound of Hebrew characters, As the Foundling hospital (the Yuhying a connection with words which he had táng) was over the way, we begged the heard them utter. The testimony of this priest to introduce us to the building and individual precisely coincides with the brief its inmates. To the left hand of the outer notices published by Dr. Morrison, and porch is a crib, upon which the abandoned with some of the lengthened details laid infant may be laid. Over the door are emdown in Grosier's History of China, vol. blazoned the characters kiáu ching páu iv. chap. 11.
ch'ih, nurture to maturity and protect the We now made for the Yúshing kwán, babes.' On crossing the threshold, you the temple of the Táu sect at the North gate, open a finely paved square. To the right noticed before as a very large and exten- and to the left, there is a side door, with sive edifice. It lies close under and within the words nái fáng, i. e. milk room,' or the city walls, and is covered in at the back nursery, upon it.
number of coarse by a thick
grove of trees. The avenue that looking women were peeping through the leads from the outer lodge to the 'sanc- lattice at us, with squallababies at their torum,' is clean and cool. It is shaded breasts, and squalid boys and girls at their over with the branches of some lofty trees, heels. These women are their nurses, and that rise on each side of the walk, and these children the foundlings. Each nurse throw a sombre quiet over the whole place. has two or three to look after. But I have The venerable priest, a man of short stature rarely witnessed such a collection of filthy, and slender make, but of mild and genteel unwashed, ragged brats. There are at manners, politely volunteered to show us present in the institution from 60 to 70 round the building. We passed from one male and female children. One side of apartment to another through this corridor the house is appropriated to the girls, and into that, and in the immense building did the other to the boys. We got admittance not meet with more inmates than half a into the girls' nursery, which consists of dozen of the sacerdotal order. The spa- from 20 to 30 rooms, in two or three flights cious chambers, rooms, and halls are ten- running the one behind the other. The anted by sculptured, carved, and painted boys' nursery is its exact counterpart in images of all sizes, shapes, and ranks, male filth, as in every thing else. But the apartand female, young and aged, animal, hu- ments of the housekeeper or superintendent, man, devilish, and imagino-divine.
looked decent,-forming a good contrast to There were two prominent idols that what we had just seen. chiefly attracted our attention, and as we The object of the institution is to afford contemplated them, filled us with solemn to outcast babes, or to the children of poor sadness. They were the representatives of and destitute parents, the protection and Shángtí, the High Ruler of the universe. nurture of a home. Boys remain under its These huge images are lodged each in its benevolent roof, until they attain the age own apartment, and in form, attitude, and of 14 or 15, when they are hired out to attributes, are perfectly distinct. As the he service, or are adopted into some family
, true Christian views these man-faced like- and girls until they reach their 16th year, nesses of Jehovah, this wooden, clayey, and when they are engaged as waiting-maids, gilded embodying of the invisible One, he or are taken into concubinage, or are bemust mourn over the fall of the human in- trothed by a parent in favor of his son or tellect, and tremble at the mockery and grandson. defiance to which it has lent its powers. This institution is above a hundred years
That man is not a grateful, nor is he an old. It was erected in the first year of the enlightened Christian, who can only smile emperor Kielung's reign, at which time it at the folly of his fellow-creatures in at- numbered only twenty-four distinct aparttempting such semblances of the incorrup- ments. During his reign and since his tible God, or who can nickname them idiots dernise, it has undergone various repairs
, and blockheads for worshipping these dumb and has been much enlarged, so that now shows. It is the light of Bible truth alone there are upwards of 100 rooms, including that has dispelled the darkness, ‘in which superintendent's quarters and public halls. we also walked sometimes, or our ances- It has lately been repaired, after a partial
demolition during the occupation of Ningpoed between two thick planks, to be split by the British forces in 1841 and 1842. up, to be bored through and through, to
There is a temple within the city that is have the eyes dug out or chiseled out, to worthy of a passing visit. It lies to the have the limbs torn off one by one, to be south of the Bridge gate, from which we plunged from a cliff, or a bridge, into a discovered a path close under the city walls dungeon below, or a rapid torrent, to be leading us to it. The range of the edifice pounded in a heavy mortar, to be boiled in is long. It bears an elegant front, deco- a hot-water caldron, to be burnt up in a rated with a group of handsome reliefs, furnace, to be baked at the stack, to have among which are embossed in gilt the hot liquids poured down the throat, etc. characters Tungyóh kung, 'the palace of etc., constitute their ideas of future punthe Tungyóh god.'
ishments, and are the counterpart of the On entering we found it almost deserted. torments inflicted by the Inquisition in EuNone of the regular priesthood made their rope upon the magnanimous adherents to appearance, and no votaries were to be the Protestant faith.
The only persons to be descried, Turning from this spot we bent our steps besides the doorkeeper, were mat-makers. to the Tien-fung táh, which is named by It appeared indeed to be more of a mat- foreigners the Tower of Ningpo, or the mart than a sacred building. The images Pagoda of Ningpo, or the Ningpo Obelisk. are dusty and filthy, and show other signs As you ascend the river from Chinhái, of disuse and neglect. On pushing our and come within five or six miles of Ningway to the extreme end, we espied a gal- po, this is the most prominent object that lery of idols and attempted to ascend the arrests the eye; and, to foreigners who stairs. But the doors were barred, admis- visit the city, it is a point of no little attracsion could not be gained, and our attention tion. As soon as they enter the east gate was directed to two notices, the one placed of the city, they make for it, and wind at the bottom of the right hand flight of their way in a southeast direction. After steps, warning '(those that eat) strong- shaping their course through numberless meats, (and drink) wine, not to enter;' streets, it abruptly bursts upon their view, the other upon the opposite side, advising rising 160 feet over their heads, and tower'the unclean person hastily to retire.' ing high above the surrounding houses.
Passing out again to the street, we per- This pyramid is hexagonal, and counts ceived a wicket on the right hand of the seven stories, and above twenty-eight winprincipal gateway. It was open to us, and dows. At
window there is a lantern we were invited to behold the exhibitions hung up; and, when the obelisk is illumiintended to depict the terrors of hell. nated, which I have seen only once during The apartment is called tíyóh, 'the earthly my stay, the scene is very gay. dungeon;' it is a dark, dreary cell. In The building is in much need of repair, the centre of the ground floor, there are for it is daily becoming mofe dilapidated, images of hideous aspect, standing in threat- and has already deviated several feet from ening attitudes. Behind them, groups of the perpendicular, hence it might not inapsmall figures in stucco relief are plastered propriately be called the Leaning Tower of upon the wall, which exhibit the pains and Ningpo. As it is in the keeping of a Budpenalties of hell. These are arranged in histic priest, who lives in a monastery three or four rows, rising one above the behind, we were under the necessity of other until they reach the ceiling. Each awaiting his arrival. He, poor man, finds group has its judge, its criminal, its execu- it advantageous to keep the keys, since it tioners, and its peculiar form of punish- is in that way alone he can secure the larment. The judges are attired as officers gesses of his foreign visitors. By ascendgenerally are, and the executioners as po- ing a flight of narrow stone steps, that run lice-runners. The penalties vary accord- up in a spiral course through the interior ing to the heinousness of the culprits of the column, we reached the uppermost crime, and the horrors of future punish- story, from which the finest view one could ment are depicted before the spectator in desire opened upon us. The entire city every possible form. To be whipped, to and suburbs were beneath; the valley of be bastinadoed, to be seared with red-hot Ningpo with its hamlets, villages, hills, irons, to be strangled, to be speared, to be mountains, rivulets, and rivers lay all beheaded, to be sawn asunder, to be flayed around; and, away in the distance to bound alive, to be squeezed, flattened, and crush-I our horizon, we had chains of mountains on the one hand, and the sea with its isl. | In these times there is more of name ands on the other.
and show than reality or utility in such an The date at which this tower was found institute. It was originally designed to be ed is exceeding antique. It is indeed more the residence of the literary officer, apancient than the city of Ningpo.
pointed to preside over the interests of The district of Ningpo, in the time of learning in the district, but especially to the original Han dynasty, or at the Chris- patronize and promote the studies and tian era, was very small." During the sev- views of those candidates who should be enth, eighth, and ninth centuries, it rose so successful as to take the first degree. in importance. At the commencement of Here they were to pursue their daily the tenth century, and in the reign of studies, and to undergo their monthly exTáitsú, the first monarch in the line of aminations, under his immediate inspec(wút ví) 'the Five Dynasties' which suc- tion. But, from the degeneracy of the age, cessively contended for the mastery,-it it has almost become the seat of a sinecure. was organized
larger district. During Somewhere between, but behind, the Disthat emperor's short sway, the foundation trict hall and the Department temple, of the city walls was laid by Hwangshing, there is the site of the commander-ioa native of the place. But the 'Tower of chief's palace. But there is scarcely one Ningpo' had been reared one hundred or stone left upon another, so thorough has one hundred and fifty years previous to that been the work of destruction. event. In raising this superstructure at Having crossed an arched stone-bridge, that anterior date, the object sought for which, in the vicinity of the two temples accorded precisely with the belief which, lately mentioned, is thrown over a narrow at the present day, obtains through the part of the lake, we took the road to the whole empire, that the presence of such right hand, and arrived at the ancient an edifice not only secures to the site the sculptured gate of a large public instituprotection and favor of heaven, if it already tion, which, from its proximity to the oppobears evidences of enjoying it, but represses site lake, is called Yueh hú Shú-yuen, the any evil influences that may be native to Moon Lake College.' the spot, and imparts to it the most salu. At its foundation, nearly 200 years ago, tary and felicitous omens. The tower has it was called 1-tien Shú yuen, 'the Charity accordingly stood for the last 1100 years. Field College,' a name in which a clue is But its history during that period, as given given to the objects of its erection, viz., to in the Annals' already referred to, has aid the humble scholar, or to assist the poor been much checkered. It has fallen to and illiterate in getting an education. For ruins, and been rebuilt. It has been burnt the support of a teacher, fields bave been alınost to the ground, and been reconstruct- granted, from the produce of which he reed. It has been struck by lightning, and ceives 4000 catties of rice as bis premium. been repaired. Its pinnacle has been blown The sacrist is also entitled to 400 catties. down in a hurricane, and has been restor- Not many months ago, it was occupied by ed. Some portions of it are now under the officiating commander-in-chief as his going amendment. But its days appear to official residence. be numbered, and ere long its downfall may From this spot we proceeded to the fabe announced.
mous and valuable repository of booksStill pursuing our walk, we came to the library spoken of before under the Hien Hióh kung, the District Literary name of the Tienyih kóh. Our object in Hall.' Each department in the empire repeating this visit was to inspect two rare owns a literary hall, and so also does each birds, of whose arrival we had lately heard. district. Accordingly, this city, as it is They are natives of Siam, and are generalthe principal in the department, has two ly known by the name Sienhóh. They such halls. The Department hall is that somewhat resemble the crowned crane, the generally known to foreigners under the Grus carunculatus. They are both of them name of the temple of Confucius,' and quite young. The one is a male, the other lies within the northeast, or Artillery gate. is a female. They are nearly of a size, The District hall or college was laid in but of the two the male looks the larger ruins amid the disasters of. 1841, and is and more robust. The legs are long. The now rising out of a mass of wrecked ma- head is of a handsome black, forking off terials into a neat, orderly, and attractive behind. On the crest there is a red skin. range of buildings.
The rest of the body is white, except the
secondaries of the wings, which are not s with your card of thanks, unless it is espered, as represented in Chinese drawings, cially requested by the donor that you should but black and overlap the tail. These take the whole. have both been purchased by an English- Then, on your accepting the present, man, and it is said are to be carried to Great whether a part or the whole, you are under Britain."
an obligation to make each of the bearers This is the bird that is worked upon the a gift of money, the amount of which will embroidered breast-pieces of the official vary according to the class of the messendresses worn by the highest ministers and gers, is mere coolies or if personal attendnobles of the state. None under the first ants,-according to the quantity and value rank of dignity are permitted to bear such of the presents,-according to the quality a badge. In a native work on the ornithology of the donor,--and according to your own of the country, there are many curious, and station in society. The servants, on resome prodigious, stories given regarding this turning to their master, apprize him of your fowl. It relates that the bird is capable of bounty, which, with his permission, they being kept in life for 1000 years; that, at 60 retain for their own benefit. years of age, it can sing exquisitely and re- These appear to be fixed rules, to which gularly every hour of the day ; that, on I have not known a single exception during
reaching its 1000th year it can ascend trees, my residence at Ningpo, except in the case • but not before; that it has a beautiful scar- of intimate friends. In other parts of the
let tuft of down or velvet skin on the empire the custom may vary. But in this crown of the head, to which the poison of department at least, it seems to be, not the serpent, that it is reputed io be so only universally, but uniformly observed fond of eating, determines; and that the among the well-bred community. It is a downy or velvet crest is often formed into usage, however, that is not unfrequently a bead, and made up with those ornamental taken advantage of by bad fellows to imnecklaces, which the high officers wear pose upon the stranger.
For instance, around their necks, that, in case of im- several attendants will accompany the presperial displeasure, they may destroy them- ents when one or two are quite sufficient. selves, a matter (so report goes) very easily It happened once that a knave, who was effected by merely touching the venomous some way or other connected with the chífú’s bead with the tip of the tongue, when in- office, went to my lodgings with a pair of stant death follows.
ornamented candles, purporting that they Last night we were honored with a large had been presented to me by his worship. present from his worship Li Júlin, upon As I was not at home, the fellow could get whom we had waited the previous day. no remuneration for his trouble. Being inThese gifts were sent as tokens of friend- formed, however, that I was dining out, he ship, and intended at the same time as a made for the residence of my friend, and recognition of the courtesies we had paid. handed in a card with the candles. But, They consist chiefly of tea, fruit, and sweet- from the form and style of the card, and meats, in separate baskets, the sum of the from the nature of the gift, which stood in lots being even and not odd, and each lot awkward juxtaposition with the large and being made up of an even number of pack- handsome presents that his pretended masets, according to the prevalent idea that, ter had only the previous evening sent to in an odd number there is bad luck, but in me, it was evident that it was an attempt at a complete number there is good. On a imposition.
imposition. The fellow was dismissed with festive occasion, especially, this rule is al- little ceremony. He was probably hard most universal. But in making presents at pressed for money, and adopted this clumsy a mournful season, such as the death or bu- expedient to replete his purse. But, that rial of a friend, or the anniversary of his the servants of the chifú's office might be death, the odd number obtains. Connected warned against repeating the cheat, I apo with the receipt of presents, there are one prized his worship of it, to the no small or two formal peculiarities that deserve to perplexity of his attendants. be noticed. Should the present be large, it As I have lately had a good opportunity is generally expected that only a portion of of learning much about the nuns and nunit will be accepted, the rest to be returned neries of China, it will be fit in this place
to give a short digest of the items I have Pwantingqua of Canton has a pair of these been able to collect. In doing so, it will birds at his country seat.
be better to embody all I have gleaned in an account of the convent—a wing of which I have seen a blooming nun of nineteen, I occupied.
who left the world' and all its concerns, It is situated on a line with the lodgings and took upon her the vows of perpetual I at present hold, and about 200 yards dis- virginity, in consequence of the untimely tant from them. It is dedicated to the idol, death of her intended husband. The nun generally named in European writers, the to whom I allude had small feet, which had Goddess of Mercy. Hence the building is been bandaged prior to her misfortune, and called the Nunnery of Kwányin. The full her introduction to the priesthood. Of the appellation of the deity is Kwánshi yin, nuns, whom one occasionally sees walking that is, 'observing the sounds (the cries) peaceably though the streets of Ningpo, of the world. It is represented as a fe- there are a few who have small feet. Probmale, who is supposed to extend her yra- ably all of these have, after they have come cious patronage to all that, in trouble and to the years of maturity and discretion, difficulty, raise the cry for compassion. It taken the veil without compulsion and of is one of the numberless objects of idolatry, their own accord. introduced by the Budhists from the west. The candidate is not admitted into full In the whole of China, there is no idol that orders, until she attains the age of sixteen. meets with more respect and honor; and, Prior to this, and from the commencement since women form the overwhelming ma- of her ascetic life, she assumes the garb jority of the devout, and Kwányin being peculiar to the sisterhood. The chief apthe special patroness of the weaker sex, parent distinction, between the novice and they of course chiefly apply to her,—there she in full orders, is that the head of the is not any other that is more frequently in- latter is wholly shaven, while the former voked in favor of frail humanity.
has only the front part of her crown shaven. The great allurement presented by the The younger nuns have. platted cues flowpromoters of Budhism in China, to the ing down behind. As to the habit which mind of the aspirant who would consecrate this devout class wears, it on the whole so herself to the altar of this goddess, is the much resembles the dress of the Budhistic absorption after death into the unknown monks, that it is in very many cases imposBudha,
-a matter which, the more myste- sible, at first sight to distinguish the two riously it is represented to the mind of the orders. The nuns have large feet, clumsy ingenuous but credulous candidate, the shoes, long stockings and garters, full more taking it becomes. This personal trowsers, short jackets, and wide sleeves advantage is held out by the institution, to with bald pates and skull-caps, precisely as facilitate the succession of an order of priest- the priests have. But the priestesses have esses, who can gain access where the for- smoother countenances, softer looks, sweetmalities of society cannot admit the stranger er voices, and are more tidy. priest, and who are qualified to work, both According to report, the nuns of Súchau with dexterity and with impunity, upon the fú have reversed the general laws, and throwfeelings of the class that is the most sus- ing aside the hempen cloth which is the ceptible of religious impressions. To keep material assigned to the self-denying sister. up this order of the priesthood, the rooms hood, have preferred silks and satins for of the deceased, or, as they will have it, the dresses. annihilated or absorbed, must be filled up When the young woman has bared, or either by purchase or by self-dedication. shaved, her head—a sign of making reliIn the case of purchase, babes, or girls of gious vows very different from that of takvery tender age and good promise, are pre- ing the veil'adopted in the nunneries of ferred and bought up at a very low rate. Europe, --she is required to live a life of To my personal knowledge, a sweet child devotion and mortification. She must eat only four years of age has been offered by and drink sparingly, and her diet must conits own mother to an abbess for the paltry sist of vegetables only. Strong meats and sum of four dollars!
drinks are to be avoided as poison. The But there are some, who either are dedi- business and cares of this world are not to cated by their parents from their birth, or engross her attention. She has retired from who, when they come of age, voluntarily it
, and must be fitting herself for eternal consecrate themselves to the service of this canonization. Nothing should occupy her deity. When the case is optional, it arises thoughts or engage her affections, but the often-if not always—from having been service of the temple in the precincts of thwarted in some of their prospects or which she lives. wishes.