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can, therefore, be no doubt that he is a dance, or work, for gain; but they will not ready and industrious writer.
pay to be taught philosophy. People will The first work, which, for the sake of also pay to be pleased; and those who have brevity, we shall call the · False Medium,' pleasure to sell, find a ready market. A is dedicated to Edward Lytton Bulwer, a man or woman may have a talent for dancpatriot and a man of genius.” As Mr. Bul- ing, for singing, and working, in modes wer was at that time well known to the which people like; but if a man or woman public, it is evident that he had found some has a genius for inventing new dances, or means of thrusting aside the 'False Medi- songs, or work, of an intrinsically superior um.' The“ exordium” in this work, is— kind, but which people have not been ac“A common stone meets with more ready to turn instructor without pay till the new
customed to, the genius must be contented patronage than a man of genius."
art is rendered popular. Genius varies in That is to say, the stone being placed in its quality. One man originates a new a cabinet, as a specimen, by some one who philosophy; another originates a new mode selects it from a heap of other stones, it is of cheapening pleasure. One will get putaken care of, whereas no one takes care of pils by units, the other gets customers by a man of genius; and Mr. Horne gives in- thousands. But were the originator of the stances of men of genius, “poets and phi- new philosophy to complain that he could losophers, from Homer down to Camoens, not sell his philosophy for current coin, we who have been buffeted about the world should be apt to suspect him of false phiduring their whole lives, and only valued losophy, and tell him he had mistaken his after their deaths. “Authors in general,” genius. The popular thing is the paying from Demosthenes down to some individu- thing: the widest popularity is among the ·al not specified by name, have been an ill- masses; and the greater the refinement, used race; imprisoned when possessing the less is the popularity. It is the essence property, and starved when possessing none. of high genius to be in advance of its age. Si R. P-is accused of neglecting an The genius of the Greek tragic poets was author, scholar, and man of science, who not in advance of their age. had been of much service to him, so that cultivated audiences to whoin they present“his wife is obliged to wash in one room ed the highest intellectual excitement of while he translates Greek in another." the time, but we doubt whether their popu
Now we object at the outset to a man of larity was great with the masses of uricultigenius being made a dependant on “ready vated slaves. patronage.” A man of talents may be “Dramatic Authors,” Mr. Horne asserts, subservient to those who require his talents, are as ill-used as all other authors, and bat but a man of genius must be essentially for the "barriers and false medium,” the original. He is a guide and not a servant; author of 'Paul Clifford' could produce a he points out new paths of excellence; un- sterling comedy, in which the philosophy, recognised at the outset by any one but wit, and humor could only be surpassed by himself, and to appreciate which, in some its sound and beneficial moral tendency. cases, even the few require years of instruc- Yet Mr. Horne would seem tion, and the many require centuries. If value on the moral principle. Speaking of he were not in advance of his time, he Edmund Kean, He sayswould not be a man of genius. We speak
“They (certain tragedies) contain some of now of the genius for great things, the ge- the e'ementary principles of tragedy, which he nius which elevates. To expect that peo-|(Kean) only can feel and portray." ple should rush in crowds, to worship that which they neither recognise nor compre
And in a note he remarkshend, is an absurdity; to expect that they « The great tragedian is no more; but he should pay for it in ready coin, is a con- can never be dead so long as those live who clusion that no man of great genius ever have once awoke from ordinary existence to dreamed of. People do not pay for being appreciate him. A deep continuous feeling is taught anything but what they can take to multiude can destroy or even disturb its sa
worth all your tombs; for no capricious moral market and sell or exchange away to ad- cred isolature.” vantage, or such accomplishments as may tend to personal influence. They will pay Edmund Kean is a most unfortunate into be taught to dance, or sing, or work, in stance for Mr. Horne to have chosen. order that they may be enabled to sing, or There is no doubt he possessed genius of a
to set little
peculiar kind. There is no doubt that by MSS. offered for publication, who never personal energy he broke through all false judges rightly of the merit of a work; who mediums; and there is no doubt that he invariably rejects all works of genius, and was very highly paid for his services, by a only accepts or approves of the very worst. public to whom his peculiar genius gave This reader is always either " a fool or a great excitement. Unfortunately, also, there knave," and," in either case, the author is is no doubt that his personal character w the victim." Unmeasured terms of abuse rather that of a savage than of a civilized are heaped on this “reader "-on ail man. He was one to gaze on, but not to readers." associate with. His stage powers were all that he gave to the public in return for bitter coteries he can bear down and impress
“He lords it dogmatically over the gin-andtheir recognition and large pecuniary pay, with an idea of his knowledge, acute judgThe “ moral multitude" are
as- ment, and literary importance. In the society suredly rather hardly dealt with by Mr. of capable men over their brandy punch, he is Horne.
still as a mouse." Composers and Musicians, Actors and Singers, all are alike ill-treated.
'The Dramatic Reader at the theatres is Jordan with a paltry salary of four pounds even worse, so bad, that Mr. Horne is surper week!” Claiming to be a man of prised none of the ill-used authors have genius, Mr. Horne has a strange propensity burned down the patent theatres. to try things by money value. “Pasta fur
“No man who does write poetry can ever nished with old clothes by the wardrobe think of doing us any thing but verbal miswomen !" “ Miss O'Neil brought out at a chiet.” low salary, the owlish managers doubting her success!”
Such Mr. Horne affirms to be the opinion Novelists, Painters, and Sculptors, fare of dramatic readers, but he adds--no better. Men of Science, Original Pro
“Our idea of a tragic writer, exasperated jectors, and Inventors, still worse.
by wrongs and want, is not quite so harmless; In treating of the causes of all this, Mr. we are glad, however, ot' their escape.” Horne remarks :
It does not appear that Mr. Horne proposes - Napoleon was the greatest patron of
any one but the writer should sit in genius and art in every possible class that ever lived. Those only who are conscious of judgment on his own compositions, or at superiority in themselves, apart from their sta
leasttion, who possess copiousness of intellect and power to do or suffer, can be above all petty the beautiful with that enlarged taste which
“Few of mankind are prepared to relish jealousies and fears, and thus fit to govern others.” “Shakspeare was treated by Eliza comprehends all the forms of feeling which beth as an amusing playwright; and as he
genius may assume--forms which may be never meddled with public spirit' or politics.
necessarily associated with defects.” she suffered him to continue his labors unmolesied.”
This is very like pointing out, that ge
nius must necessarily be its own rewarder, We incline to think that Napoleon's pat- the many not comprehending it. ronage of any genius adverse to himself, is
remedy” for all these evils, Mr. far from a proved case. He patronized | Horne states to betalents that were useful to him.
“ The foundation of a 'Society of English nius of Carnot never succumbed, and was Literature anii Art for the encouragement and never forgiven.
permanent support of men of superior ability Mr. Horne seems quite unable to com- in all deparments of human genius and knowprehend that the genius of Shakspeare wa 'edge.'
The permanent advanabove queen or court He would have had tiges to be derived hy those whose claims are him made a duke at least, as a recompense alized by annuities for life. from 2001. down
recognised by the establishment, should be refor his writings, and a pension of course,
this not to extend to genthough of pecuniary gains the great man lemen who write novels and poems, for which had probably enough for his wishes.
they ought be hung.” The evil of men of genius who write books, is, according to Mr, Horne, the
When a man has written a fine epic and “ false medium” employed by booksellers, btained the 3001. a-year for life, in the shape of a “Reader," who peruses "He has done enough; would you have a
man write epics, and keep him at it, like a fougbt.” Cosmo, nevertheless, asserts that wheelwright with a government order ? he has been “murdered," and suspects Again, the producer of a powerful tragedy that Garcia knows of it. By way of makwould only be entitled to an annuity of 1001.
, not that we do not consider such a iragedy asing sure, he has the dead body placed in an great an effect of human genius as t'ie finest alcove, with a curtain before it. Garcia is epic, bu because there is a manilest difference ushered in; and Cosmo, after charging him in the time and labor employed, and also that with the murder of his brother, draws the a tragic authorthus brought with his due honors curtain, shows the body, when Garcia before the public, would have a great chance says, “I did it;" but adds, “it was in selfof emolument from the stage, whose gradual defence.” Cosmo insists that the blood is improvement would be a necessary congequence.”
flowing afresh at sight of the murderer;
but Garcia asserts that it is congealed, and We pause to extract one more sentence very naturally appeals to his father “not to from this 'False Medium.'
harrow his senses till he owns what is not."
But the just Cosmo will hear nothing, draws “ He (Tonson) was the real Milton-he forth “Garcia's broken sword,” raises it had got all the money
(froin the sale of
to heaven, and says* Paradise Lost'). Tonson and his nephew died worth 200,0001.”
“Thon constant God! sanction, impel, direct
The sword of Justice and for a criminal son We now turn to the 'New Spirit of the
That pardon grant, which his most wretched Age,' and find the following assertion.
Thus in the hour of agony implores !" “That in the pure element of dramatic com position, they (the unacted dramatists) also Subsequently we are informed that, with consider themselves worthy to be ranked with his own hand, and of course with this brosome of the dramatists of a nobler era, is unken sword, the father has taken his son's doubtedly true-and one of them has been life, soon after which an eye-witness informs heard to set at nought the scoffs of his time. him that Garcia slew his brother in self-deby claiming to rank in the pure elements of
fence. tragedy, with the dramatists of the Greek or Eliazbethan ages.”
Throughout this play the sympathy goes
only with Garcia, ill-used on all sides. In a note we are inforined that this The man of justice should also be a man claimant is Mr. Horne himself, the author of judgment to weigh evidence, and of of Cosmo de' Medici' and 'Gregory the stern purpose to act only on evidence. The Seventh.'
evidence was in favor of Garcia. His sword
was broken, and Giovanni's was unsheathThe plot of Cosmo is briefly as follows : ed and stained, as though he had fought." Cosmo, a patron of art, who gives livings A father with a heart, would have left no and employinents to scholars and artists,
means untried to prove his remaining son and professes a love for justice above all
innocent, but Cosmo leaves no means unother things, has two sons, the elder, Giv
tried to wrest evidence and prove him guilty. vanni, a student, described as of most sweet It is an inquisitor, not a father, nor a mindisposition; the younger, Garcia, given to
ister of justice, who is before us, and with hunting. These two brothers much dislike one another, and the elder exhibits his father, butchering a son with a broken sword,
an inquisitor we can have no sympathy. A sweet disposition by constantly scolding
is horror, bordering on the ludicrous. the younger. By way of producing an at
There are several prose scenes in this tach inent between them, their mother per- play, we presume, intended for humor; suades the elder to join a hunting party ) they are, indeed, “heavy lightness.” There with the younger. In the forest they quar- is also a philosophic sculptor to whom Cosrel as to which had slain a boar. Somehow this quarrel changes into a dispute death of his sons, as "life-sized figures," of
mo gives an order for a monument after the about a young lady, and they draw and his whole family The philosophical Pasfight. Garcia, the younger, breaks his
sato reasons thus :sword in half, but yet contrives to kill his brother, whose body he leaves on the spot “The duke is great and goverous; yet methinks A courtier finds the body, and the broken
Itill suits greatness in philosophy, sword point, which he conveys to Cosmo,
Because his kin bave sought their natural rest
Some seasons prematurely, thus to rave ! informing him that Giovanni's sword was I will return to mine obscurity,
unsheathed and stained as though he had To stand upon some cliff that goat ne'er hoof'd,
a case, a preponderance of self-esteem Companion shadows and commune with Time. would not defcat all previous preparation.
A tragic writer who can talk of" burning Scattered through this play there are down a theatre” as a means of redressing passages of great poetic sweetness. wrongs and want,” cannot well be a dispower of depicting character, and as a work passionate judge. of art, it is a failure.
A man of genius, capable of great things With Gregory the Seventh' we neither and of estimating the Spirits of the Age, make nor meddle. “The death of Mar- must, according to our notion, be a very lowe' unquestionably bears considerable different person. Genius, i. e. the power resemblance to certain writers of the age of of creation, we take to be an emanation of Elizabeth. There is much passion in it, the “divinity that shapes our ends," and but it merely excites, it does not call for can no more work for hire than God himsympathy. It rather reminds us of the self could in the creation of the world. tragedies of mad Nat Lee, but it has a life Great genius is ever in advance of its time, about it, which 'Cosmo' has not.
and can no more be appreciated by its conBy his own acknowledgment Mr. Horne temporaries, than God's creation could be considers himself equal to "the dramatists appreciated by the megatherian and ichthyof the Greek or Elizabethan ages," in the osaurian tribes, who inhabited the world production of these “powerful tragedies," prior to the advent of man. Genius is a and entitled to "a permanent annuity of prophet where, "out of the fulness of the 3001., so that he has already done enough to heart the mouth speaketh.” Genius works entitle him to a handsome income, when the for the gain of its disciples, not for its own.
Society of English Literature and Art” It works to advance others, not to glorify shall be in full operation. To wish he may itself. The earthly body it inhabits, needs get it would be an easy matter, if we could “ meat, clothes, and fire,” or in lieu of the satisfy ourselves that he deserved it. latter a genial climate. Deprived of these
After a careful examination we come to things it cannot work, but it needs only the the conclusion that he does not possess the essential, not the adventitious. It does high mind that is ever the attribute of lofty not need a “respectable" income, nor a genius. He does not value genius for itself lodging in May Fair: it needs neither costly alone, but for what it will fetch in the mar- clothing, nor modish association, neither ket. “ Permanent annuities, due honors, sumptuous fare nor costly wines; it needs further chances of emolument." are the sor- not even “due honors." The blind men did rewards he contemplates, and these off- of genius, Homer and Milton, could have hand, without loss of time, in order that recked little of externals, while they poured authors, like clergymen, may enter on im- forth the spirit from within. And in a very mediate enjoyment of their benefices. All humble residence was the genius of Richter men of genius, he says, are ill-used, all the developed. There is one thing only which public are fools, and those who profit are can reward genius--the sympathy of apprepart and parcel of the 'False Medium.' ciating spirits. Beyond this, indifferent to He is himself, he considers, ill-used, and of the man of high genius are all externals; course, he is disappointed. His tragedies“ homely fare and hodden gray,” are as have not been acted, and his epic has been good as turtle and velvet. We can consold for a farthing. Such a mind is not in ceive a man of genius in this our modern harmony, and cannot be fitted to sit in England, dwelling in a union workhouse, judgment on the spirits of the age-is un- clothed in work house garb, and fed on workfitted even to distinguish them. A man of house food, teaching, perhaps, the A B C to talent-a man of industry, Mr. Horne is, workhouse children as a quittarce for his but assuredly not a man of genius, nor a meat, clothes, and fire, furnished with spare philosopher. . We have not seen his Facto- leaves of account books as a reward for dilry Report, but we should expect to find it a ligence, and permittted to sit by the kitchen medium of considerable prejudice, insepa- embers in the still night, and even thus prorable from the mind of the writer. A well ducing works despised by existing publishers appointed home, reputable clothing, and and an existing public, and destined to be proper breakfasts, dinners, teas and sup- hailed by future mien as the gift of a great pers, are evidently essentials to induce in benefactor. We know of one earnest man, him a quiet mind, and, moreover, “due not of genius, but a devoted linguist, who honors," but we doubt whether even in such saved his lodging by lying on the bare floor of empty houses, to take care of them while ( large upon it. The ‘Spirit of the Age,' wanting tenants-earning his food by copy- if meant to express any particular kind of ing MSS. Not being enough “man of the spirit, should express the general preworld” for this lodging work, he was dominating spirit of the world as to some obliged to seek his nightly rest by the shel- particular branch of progress. In this view tered sides of brick-kilns, and a few oc- it is an entire failure, for the prominent casional pence by singing at low public characteristic of the present age is physical houses, and with these appliances he actu- progress, i.e. progress in all arts tending to ally accomplished the publication of the diminsh human drudgery, and ultimately to two first numbers of a Dictionary on a new extinguish it-arts, also, tending to enlarge system. At one time this man had an in- the sphere of human pleasures. In the come of five pounds per week for teaching petty spirit of caste, Mr. Horne, a profeslanguages, but he was shouldered out of sional writer, deems that written books are employment by people of greater energy of more importance than things; that writthan himself.
ers of things are greater men than the doers Let it not be alleged that a man of genius of things. It is true that contemplation requires a library and appliances. The must be the creator of great action, but it man of original genius is not essentially a may print the results of its thoughts as man of cultivated art. Homer was not a indelibly on things and events as on pastudent of books. Earth, sea, and sky, and per. all on and in them were his themes, and In this view the strong Saxon spirit of out of his own soul he spoke or sung; and George Stephenson, the “ Hengist of Railif it be asserted ihat in this our England ways,” is a spirit of the age that has written men of genius need the appliances of art, a work whereon those who ride may read there are the museum and library called glad tidings of man's rescue from the bonthe “British,” to which garreteer or cellar- dage and thraldom of ignorance; of his dweller may alike obtain access, though power of unison with his fellows for the they be clothed in frieze, baize, or sack- purpose of conquering and civilizing the cloth; there are the eternal realities of men earth, reclaiming its swamps and morasses, and women, and streets, houses, churches, and adding to its beauties. Prometheus, in and parks, and the never-ending river, car- the elder mythus, brought fire from heaven rying bodies, souls, and imaginations over to earth to aid man's uses. George Stephen. the watery highway to the furthermost parts son may be the hero of seme future mythus, of the earth, and there is ever work to be which will tell how he harnessed fire to done of the task kind, for him who earn- chariots of iron, which became swifter than estly sceks it, to supply the body's bare ne- the winds of heaven. Isambart Kingdon cessities. A judge, of repute in the United Brunel is a spirit of the age that would not States, obliged to live in a city while at- be content with the work of George Stephen. tending in the courts without any practice, son, but made a yet greater work in adand with only a supply of money for a given vance of the spirit of his age, refusing to period, at the rate of a few cents per day, submit to the set patterns even of the great hired a garret, for which lie paid the whole originator. David Napier, the restless planterm in advance, and laid out the remain- ner of steam-boat after steam-boat, each der of his money in sea biscuit, which he swifter than the last, and the planner of the himself wheeled home in a borrowed bar- great Bristol iron steamer, are spirits of the row, and stored up in his garret, and on age. Clegg, of the railway air traction, that and water he subsisted for
rope of wound-off-wind; Smith, of months, while pursuing his studies. And Deanston, the physician of diseased land; this in a city where the commonest me- Liebig, the multiplier of human food by chanic ate three meals of meat per diem. chemic science, are all spirits of the age.
Genius is essentially unconscious. Art- Marshall, of Leeds, the greatest of the ists, when mere imitators of genius, are captains of industry,” he who spins flax self-conscious, and hence the petty squab- for half the world, and when profits become bles amongst men and women of talent,"too large, voluntarily cuts them down, and poetasters, dramatizers, actors, and musi- “ builds another mill” to keep up his annual cians, who make their art a trade; for revenues—he who works to underwork cot“two of a trade can never agree.”
ton cloth and replace it by cloth of linen; Mr. Horne has done rashly in taking up | he, too, is a spirit of the age. Hazlitt's ill-chosen title, and trying to en