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to wealth and honor only due to such as have gusting to us in the public exhibition of cofbeen rendered worthy by the grace of God ?' fins, such as takes place in the catacombs
of the cemeteries, and in some nobleman's Such is the unanswerable appe ul. Now vaults, on payment of a fee. Like making for the manner of enforcing it :
a spectacle of an execution, or thronging to
the funeral of a suicide or a murderer, this We are disposed, dearly beloved brethren, to show all possible inoderation in this neces
is hardly the healthy Christian contemplasary reformation; though charged to be strict tion of death, but rather springs from the in the fullilment of our pastoral duties, we are same morbid feeling that led the Egyptians allowed a discretionary power, and can consult to introduce a skeleton in their feasts, and your habits, your opinions, and even your Lord Byron to have his drinking-cup made prejudices, ani all that may conciliate your of a skull—not a repose, but an excitement interests with the glory of God; but woe to us the substitution, in either case, for the if, blinded by weakness, we lose siyht of the experience of past ages, and suffer things still wholesome fear of death, of a braving of to continue that have till now served, and can
· The doom he dreads, yet dwells upon.' only serve, to perpetuate disorder.' – Gatherings, p. 72.
A great deal has be
said of late of the
unchristian 'respect of persons' shown by The reasonableness of the injunction, and the ambitious and monopolizing pews of the moderation in effecting it, we earnestly too many of our churches; and certain it is recommend to our spiritual rulers. On the that such distinction of rank in God's other hand, we will not think so ill of our House is very hurtful in many ways, and aristocracy as to believe that family pride that if there is to be an inequality at all, will stand out for the pitiably Pharisaical the tables should be turned, and the best distinction of burying within the church-places allotted to those who have, as is supof all privileges the most unprofitable to the posed, most to learn, and who are the possessors, and unedifying to the people. Church's peculiar care. But surely it is There can be few cases where they far more shocking to right feeling to carry have the shadow of a legal right; and an this inequality into the grave : we mean episcopal injunction might, we suppose, in not in monuments, which may result mereevery case, avail to suppress it. Belial and ly from affection using its proportionate Mammon are the presiding deities of pri- means, but in the place of burial, so that vate vaults; for Christianity, reason, and the poor man shall have the northern and decency, must, on an unprejudiced view, unsunned corner of the churchyard, while equally abhor them. The material appear-the chancel shall hardly be deemed good ance of a charnel-house is positively more enough for the deceased rector. Even the nauseous than that of an earthen grave,
be the process of corruption there perhaps the perverted, if the foundation be not rightly more loathsome of the two. When Allan laid; for in many cases where the greatest Cunningham was offered by Chantrey a care is bestowed upon the fabric, it seems place in his own new elaborate mausoleum, rather to be viewed as a family mausoleuin Allan answered like a man and a poet, than as a place of common worship; and
No, no, I'll not be built over when I'm the high principle that is contended for will dead; I'll lie where the wind shall blow be litile advanced if the green-baized pew and the daisy grow upon my grave.? His only gives place to the emblazoned monuwish was granted; he was laid in the lap ment. Let the high clergy and laity follow of his mother earth, under a simple sod; Allan Cunningham's example, and give and, according to a brother poet's prayer ;- such directions about their burial that the The evening sun
poor man may see some little sincerity of Sbines sweetly on his grave.'
action, as well as warmth of profession,
and have no more repetition of the old but The fact that the tombs most conspicuous eloquent epitaphin the Cemetery at Kensal Green, where · Honest Allan' thus reposes, are those of
Here Wie beside the door,
Here I lie because I'm poor; St. John Long, the quack, Ducrow, the
Further in the more they pay, equestrian, and Morison, the hygeist, will
Here I lie as well as they.' not perhaps tend to raise the value of granite, and marble, and bronze, in the public For our own part, when we think over the mind. There is something, too, very dis- lives of those who claim chancel-vaults,
and of those who rest in the churchyard but with increasing ratio; our without a stone to mark the spot of their grounds are meanwhile almost stationary; interment-like Crabb's old Dibble we and the mind shudders to think of the acwould content ourselves with the humbler cumulating horrors which must ensue from allotment, and
a continuance of things as they are. There • Join the party that repose without.' is no doubt whose prerogative it is to con* To subsist in lasting monuments,' says Sir duct the rites of Christian burial, and whose Thomas Browne, “to live in their productions, duty, therefore, it is to come forward at the was large satisfaction unto old expectations, present moment, and rescue them from their and made one part of their Elysiums. But all increasing desecration. One year more, this is nothing in the metaphysicks of true be- and a new concession may be wrested from lief. To live, indeed, is to be again ourselves, the Church, and another tie may be brokwhich being not only an hope but an evidence, in noble believers 's all one to lie in St. In: I en; and while Churchmen are busied in nocent's churchyard as in the sands of Egypt.
fine-drawing the Articles in their studies, Ready to be any thing in the ecstasy of being and carving rood-screens in their work for ever, and as content with six feet as with shops, the opportunity of a great practical the moles of Adrianus.'
restoration, at once primitive and catholic, Though, as we have already said, we dif- pious, edifying, and popular, may be allowed fer from Mr. Chadwick as to the hands into to slip away, to fall into the hands of specwhich the providing and maintenance of ulators and Dissenters. Never—if we may, cemeteries should fall, we can have no dif- without irreverence, apply to a minor want ficulty, and we think the nation will go
of the Church that expression which was along with us, in coming to the same main more solemnly appropriated of old to her conclusion with him :
greatest need-never was the Fulness of
time for a specific object more signally That on the several special grounds, moral, The necessity of the case is not religious, and physical, and in conformity to the more urgent, than are the means to meet it best usages and authorities of primitive Christianity and the general practice of the inost civ- prompt and ample. The antidote as well ilized, modern nations, the practice of inter- as the bane is before us. The very existments in towns in burial places amidst the habit-ence of the Ecclesiastical Commission, unations of the living, and the practice of inter- welcome as it may be to many even in its ment in churches, ought for the future, and improved constitution, offers the fortunate without any exception of places, or acceptation -may we not say, providential-accident of persons, to be entirely prohibited. ?-Sup. of a motive power and machinery made to Rep. $ 249.
hand to carry out the material framework; We also fully agree with himn– That the while the spirit to give life and energy to a necessities of no class of the population movement in the direction of primitive in respect to burial, ought to be abandoned usage, is only not boiling over for want of a as sources of private emolument to commer- vent at which to expend itself. It is not in cial associations ;'—that 'institutions of this only, but in greater matters, that we houses for the immediate reception, and re- want good practical men to guide the presspectful and appropriate care of the dead, ent high-running tide of Church principles under superior and responsible officers, -a change for which, on the whole, we should be provided in etery town for the cannot be too grateful. No great change use of all classes of the community;'—that of mind, for good or for evil, was ever the 'an abatement of oppressive charges for fu- unassisted work of man. Despite the cries neral materials, decorations, and services,' of old women and the fears of philosophers should be made; and we are sure that he —nay, despite the serious offences of the would meet us with his concurrence in the masters, and the laughable flounderings of suggestions we have tendered for the gen- the disciples, no unprejudiced observer can eral diminution of all funeral parade. We fail to recognize in the present signs of the cannot take leave of the Report without times, a more than common reading of 'vor thanking its able author for the very great populi, vor
Deii' Let the leaders only, public service he has achieved by it. instead of shrinking into irresponsible pri
And now, something must be done in vacy from the immediate duties to which this matter, and that without delay. This they have been called, or provoking friends day the sun will set in Britain upon a thou- into enemies by one-sided histories and exsand corpses of those who saw the light of treme theories, or frittering away their yesterday. It will be the same to-morrow, | learning on copes and candlesticks, take a
manly and practical view of the presents and students to the sculpture galleries, was about Tequirements of the English Church, and 4938 in 1831, 6081 in 1835, 6354 in 1840, 5655 as has been done in one field by the vicar The number of visits to the print-room was
in 1841, 5627 in 1842, and only 4907 in 1843 of Leeds, take up such questions as this we about 4400 in 1832, 5065 in 1835, 6717 in 1840, have now dicussed-where the want is clear 7744 in 1841, 8781 in 1842, and 8162 in 1843. and palpable, and the remedy simple and in the manuscript department 805 MSS. and 35 well defined. 'Going over the theory of original charters have been added since the last virtue in one's own thoughts, talking well, of great biblical and theological importance, the
return. These MSS. include 320 vols. of Syriac, and drawing fine pictures of it;' this may greater portion written between the 6th and 9th suffice for the philosopher, but not for the centuries. The oumber of printed books reDivine. Let it never be said of English cently added to the library is 11,549, of which theology, as it was of Grecian ethics, that 545 were presented, 2039 received by copyright, when its written principles were highest, been kept open 295 days, and the average num
and 8965 purchased. The reading-rooms have its practical development was at the lowest ber of daily readers has been 244. It appears ebb. Of course we do not mean to apply this that each reader consulted, ou an average, nearly personally; we speak of measures, not of five books a day. To the zoological collection No great principles were ever yet have been added during the present year.—Lit
21,864 specimens of different classes of animals advanced by the mere speculations of the closet. The benefactors of mankindthose for whose being we have to give God thanks—have not been content with putting forth abstract opinions, but, like their great
English HistorICAL DOCUMENTS.-We have Master, have employed themselves in going had the gratification of a glance at an extremely inabout doing good. It is a commendation mss., which Mr. Bentley has recently had the
teresting collection of correspondence and other in the Gospel, that the love of a disciple good fortune to procure for publication. It con; was deepest shown, in that the work she did sists of letters of King Charles I. and II., and was done for burial.' We look to the also of a large number of Prince Rupert's; and Fathers of our Church to draw the conclu- many of them of great personal as well as hission, and sum up our paper in the words and other literary treasures, these documents
torical importance. Like the Evelyn, Pepys, of the faithful Borromeo-'Morem restit- have been curiously and safely preserved. Mr. uendum curent Episcopi in cemeteriis sepe- Bennett, the secretary to Prince Rupert, was liendi
their original custodier, and in his family they were handed down till an intermarriage with the family of Mr. Benet, the member for Wiltshire, brought them into his possession. It is remarkable enough that though so nearly alike
in name, the ancestor of Mr. Benet was disBritish Museum. The gross total amount of tinguished on the side of the parliamentarians, all receipts from Christmas 1842 to Christmas whilst the ancestor of the female line of Ben1843 was 37,3141.. of which 24,4321. arose from nett was serving the king; and there was no sums already received from the Parliamentary
consanguinity, till their descendants were united. grant of 1813-44. The total expenditure dur- We look forward to the appearance of these reing the same period amounted to 35,4881., leav- mains with much curiosity, as likely to eluciing a balance in hand of 1,8261. The estimated date many matters belonging to one of the most expenditure for 1843 amounted to 37,5261. The memorable eras in English history. One of the estimated charge from Lady-day 1844 to Lady- papers we looked at was a receipt eigned in a bold day 1845 is 39,4871., and the sum proposed to
hand by Prince Rupert for 15001., his two quarbe voted by Parliament 37,9871. The total num
ters' pension to Christnas.—Lit. Gaz. ber of persons who were admitted to visit the British Museum, and to view the general collections, during the year 1843, amounted to 517,440, being less by 30,274 than the number who visited the establishment in 1842. The NAPOLEON Relics.-M. Marchand, who was number of visitors in former years was as fol. , valet-de-chambre to Napoleon, has addressed a lows, viz. :-in 1839, 266,008; in 1839, 280,050 ; letter to the Constitutionnel, respecting the sale, in 1840, 247,929; and in 1841, 319,374. The by the cxecutors of Sir Hudson Lowe, of various number of visits made to the reading-rooms for rticles described as having belonged to the late the purpose of study or research, was about Emperor. M. Marchand declares, that some of the 1950'in 1810, 4300 in 1815, 8520 in 1820, articles so described were never in the possession 22,800 in 1825, 31,200 in 1830, 63,466 in 1835, of the Emperor. He mentions particularly the 76,542 in 1840, 69,303 in 1841, 71,706 in 1842, Breguet witch, the portrait, and the gardenand 70,931 in 1813, exhibiting the enormous chair; and adds, that although the hair in the increase, between the years 1810 and 1844, of inedallion may be genuine, the ribands connected 68,981 readers, or between 35 and 40 times more with it had never been worn by Napoleon.than in 1810. The number of visits by artists Athenaum.
but rarely statesmen or legislators. The NEW SPIRIT OF THE AGE."
world rarely sees the "spirit” which moves From the Westminster Review.
the external agency of a wise and beneficent A New Spirit of the Age. Edited by R. law. Practical men gain the reputation, II. Horne. Smith Elder and Co.
power, the wealth. The “spirit” rests A title of large promise. Amidst all from its work contentedly, unknown, and that is even now stirring all human things to says
“it is good." their deepest depths, the announcement of All art, invention-i. e. original art—is a yet newer spirit is pregnant with high but the embodiment of “spirit” in some interest. For it is, afier all, the “ spirit" fori directly or indirectly useful to man. which can alone give value to the material
. Art is but the combination or arrangement of The aspiring, the upward, and the onward, natural principles to produce new results; are all encircled in the term spirituality and the organization of bodies of men or It is synonymous with progress, with the bodies of matter are, in all cases, operations growth of man from the savage state, wi h of the spirit.” The art by which Mimatted hair, projected muzzle, high cheek chael Angelo found the statue in the marble bones, and prominent eyes, up to the high- block, and the art by which Oliver Cromest forms of human beauty; it is synony- well found a cavalry regiment in a rude mous with the release of man from physical mass of men and horses, were alike operadrudgery to mental exercise--his intellecttions of the “spirit.” The spirit of Watt gaining knowledge, and his spirituality could discern the form of the steam-engine teaching him, or impelling him to, its right in the metallic ore, with the dim vista of ful application in the purposes of benefi- countless thousands of human beings set cence.
free from drudgery in the hewing of wood Through the whole range of human pur- and the drawing of water; and the spirit of suits, we find constant traces of this ad- Arkwright beheld the forms of various kinds vancing spirit, more rife at the present than of matter combining into a mill for grindat any former period of the world's bistory. Sing out clothing by miles These men put And the reason for this is obvious. There forth their “spirit” in actual forms, to the is a large leisure class who have time to cognizance of the world. Other spirits, as think, who are clothed, fed, and lodged Homer and Shakspeare, gave their creations while thinking, with more or less freedom to the world in written descriptions; their from anxiety, and their thoughts are direct- ideal embodied their actual. Michael Aned to the processes best adapted for guid- gelo, Oliver Cromwell, Watt, and Arking the work of the workers, and shaping it wright, actualized their ideal. But there to the most useful ends. The workers have it is, the self-same "spirit" in all, making more supervisors over them, and produce itself obvious to man's apprehension in one better results; they waste less labor. A or other of the various modes by which society of all workers would do little more man holds converse with his fellows, of than realize their own physical consump- greater or lesser significance. tion. A sailing vessel, with a large crew What then is there new in the spirit of and no captain, would be lost, with all its the present age? Development has mightpower of physical labor. Converted into a ily increased, but we can discern no change steam-moving vessel by the long studies of in the quality. Wisdom is but wisdom now, men of leisure, the drudgery of the mass of as it was in the earliest ages. The spirit the crew is dispensed with, and a very small of benevolence existed from the time that minority do the work. They are set free the first man possessed more provisions to become men of leisure or workers at than he could eat, The benevolence grew other things. All that is greatest in the his- in proportion as wants were supplied, and tory of human actions, has been produced, its retardation has been caused only by the not by the workers, but by the thinkers. wants outgrowing the supply. The aristoThe changes that take place are the resultcratic Greeks of old could be benevolent to of thoughts of individual minds, practical. each other ; but the slaves of the mill who ised by the more active workers of greater ground corn for their bread, they regarded physical energy. Even the law-makers are only as lower animals. Benevolence in the
* This work has been lately republished in present day has greatly increased, because this country hy J. C. Riker in a neat12mo edi-intellect, discovering steam, has diminished tion, and by Harper and Brothers in a cheap wants, and the spirit of man speaks out form.
The title of this book is a manifest mis- ture of the mind which assumes to do this, nomer of unphilosophic construction-a is a proper subject for inquiry; for it must title indicative of the littérateur spirit which be a mind of no light capacity to be capaso commonly sacrifices meaning for the pur- ble of weighing and looking through so pose of catching the eye and ear—a book- many minds, to discover the spirit within selling title, not conveying the spirit of the them. Such a mind is in itself a great book itself. We turn to the preface, to en- spirit of the age, and we are disposed to able ourselves to correct the defect of the welcome its advent in a reverential mood. title.
Such a mind would not enter on its task It appears that Mr. Horne, thinking Haz- without due knowledge added to intuitive lite's Spirit of the Age’nearly obsolete by judgment. Knowing that men of even the the lapse of twenty years, wishes to make highest powers are subjected to the occathe public aware of the peculiarities of - sional trammels of the mechanical routine
"A new set of men, several of them anima- of the bookselling trade, we may assume ted by a new spirit, who have obtained emi- that the philosophical perceptions of the nent positions in the public mind, the selection editor were overruled by the title-making not being made from those already crowned' propensity of the bookseller, and acquit him and their claims settled, but almost entirely of any intention of misleading. from those who are in progress and midway Had the work been anonyinous, we must to fame.
- The selection therefore which it has been have been content to form our estimate of thought most advisable to adopt, has been the the capabilites of the writer from its internames of those most eminent in general litera- nal evidence. But we have a catalogue of ture, and representing most extensively the works bearing the name of Mr. Hornespirit of the age, and the names of two indi prima facie evidence of an industrious wrividuals, who in this work represent those phi ter-and abundant material to test his
genlanthropic principles now influencing the minds eral capacity as a spirit of the age, and also and moral feelings of all the first intellects of of his fitness for estimating the spirits of the time.”
the age. His first acknowledged work pubFurther on Mr. Horne professes his in- lished in 1833, was entitled ' Exposition of tention at some future period to make the the False Medium and Barriers excluding present work complete—if the sale be good Men of Genius from the Public.' Subse—by adding to it, “The Political Spirit of quently he became editor of a periodical, the Age,' 'The Scientific Spirit of the The Monthly Repository. In 1837 he Age,' *The Artistical Spirit of the Age,' published Cosmo de' Medici, an Histori'The Historical, Biographical, and Critical cal Tragedy.' In the same year he put Spirit of the Age,' and the 'Educational forth the Death of Marlowe, a Tragedy in Spirit of the Age.' That is to say, the pre- One Act.' In 1840 appeared 'Gregory the face negatives the title, by showing that the Seventh, a Tragedy.' Subsequently he book is not the spirit of the age, but a se- edited a publication in monthly numbers, lection of certain literary men whom Mr. entitled “The Life of Napoleon; and in Horne considers “the most eminent in gen-1843 appeared an epic, entitled 'Orion. In eral literature, and two individuals of his preface to the ' Spirit of the age,' Mr. philanthropic principles," whose "claims" Horne states that during the last seven or he proceeds to “settle,” for the purpose of eight years he has“ contributed to several “crowning” them. The promised New quarterly journals,” probably to monthlies Spirit' we must look further for. The also. In addition he has published a report 'Spirit of the Age' turns out to be, not the of his proceedings as a factory commissiongeneral progress of man on the globe we in- er, and was an occ: sional lecturer at the habit, not even the spirit of Europe, but the meetings of the Syncretic Association,* of spirit of a very small class of men in a very which he was a zealous member. He has small corner of Europe, and that not in also edited an edition of Chaucer. There "general literature,” but in particular literature, chiefly confined to poetry and fic
* An association composed of unacted dramattion, with a considerable insusion of the ists and others, impressed with the idea that they drama.
were unfairly treated by managers of theatres and Mr. Horne claining to be an “author of thers. One result of this association was the prothe last ten or fifteen years," assumes the the Lyceun, where it was received by the public
Cuction of a rejected, tragedy, “Martinuzzi,' at capacity to sit in judgment, and pass sen
in a manner to confirm the judgment of the mantence on contemporary writers. The struc- ugers who had rejected it.