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burlesque, in the penny-peep-show style of Mr. Westmacott's letter on this subject eloquence :
well deserves greater attention than it has
yet met with. He draws a very proper disHere may be observed the helpless or tinction between two classes of monuments phans sitting round the newly-dressed grave of — One, of a personal and commemorative beloved parents ; while there, the tender youth character, and having reference to worldly may be seen ornamenuing ihat of a darling sister; here, the aged widlow mourns, underhonor and achievements, and therefore ila weeping willow, the memory of a deparied lustrating the importance of the individual ; husband; while there, cypress wreaths,' &c. the other, intended to be simple records of &c.-Remarks, p. 15.
the dead - the reminders, not of the glory
and honors of a transitory life and of this England will never realize the following world, but of that change to which all are scene which annually takes place at Mu- doomed.' (Letter, p. 5.) The former nich, and forms certainly one of the most class he rightly thinks misplaced in a Chrisextraordinary spectacles in Europe :- tian Temple; and he even proposes to re
move the existing statues from the Abbey 'The tombs,' says Mr. Chadwick, Care dec
to the Chapter-House. Public cemeteries orated in a most remarkable way with flowers, natural and artificial, branches of trees, cano
would provide a still better · Walhalla.' pies, pictures, sculptures, and every conceiva- The 'sic sedebat’ of Lord Bacon or Cyril ble object that can be applied to ornament or Jackson, so much more interesting to the decorale. The labor bestowed on some tombs age and to posterity than the draped nakedrequires so much time, that it is commenced iwo
ness of Dr. Johnson, or the conventional or three days beforehand, and protected while dress of older monuments, is only inapprogoing on hy a temporary roof. During the whole of the night preceding the 1st of No- priate from the site. vember, the relations of the dead are occupied
We have preferred to speak of what cemin completing the decoration of the tombs; and eteries are, and might be, rather than dwell during the whole of All Saints' Day, and the at length on the evils of the present inadeday follo ng, being All Souls' Day, the ceme quate accommodation for burial in the metery is visited by the entire population of Mu-tropolis and other large cities, which are so nich, including the King and Queen, who go glaring and obvious that they scarcely re'there on foot, and many strangers from dis
notice from us. Each family in tant parts.'- Sup. Rep. § 174.
its turn feels the inconvenience when death Mr. Loudon states that 50,000 persons have not read Mr. Chadwick's
knocks at their own door, but few who
report have walked round the cemetery in one day. On
any idea of the extent to which the poor mid-day of the 3rd of November the more valuable decorations are removed, and the of funerals leads those who can only just sup
are sufferers by it. The excessive expense rest left to be the spoil of time and weather. The Christian cemetery at Pera is one of port their own life, to delay the interment
of their dead to the latest possible period ; the most beautiful spots in the neighbor- and the corpse is frequently kept more than hood of Constantinople, commanding a splendid view of the Bosphorus and the of six or eight, and often more, sleep, eat,
a fortnight in the one room where a family Golden Horn, and forming with its mulber
work. To meet the exorbitant demand ry-trees and cypresses, a most conspicuous which the undertaker makes on their petty land-mark. At Weimar the ducal mauso
gains, burial-societies have been very geneleum has opened its doors to receive the
rally established among the humbler ortombs of Goethe and Schiller. At May- ders; and these are often on the very worst ence and Berlin, the cemeteries contain the public monuments of distinguished soldiers, hands of low undertakers and publicans,
system, being for the most part in the who, officers, and men, are
who work the society for their own espe• Neighbors in the grave,
cial benefit. A more horrible evil has reLie urn by urn, and touch but in their names. sulted from these clubs, in the neglect or
poisoning by their parents of children on This circumstance suggests how infinite- whose deaths a sum of money was insured ly preferable National Cemeteries, if they for burial. There have been three or four existed, would be to Westminster Abbey or trials from Stockport at the Chester assizes St. Paul's for the monuments of those for infanticide on this motive; and though whose claim upon our regard is rather for only one conviction was obtained, no one public services than for private virtues. I had any moral doubt of the guilt in some
other cases. It is said to be a common to require such extreme precaution. Has phrase of the gossips in the neighborhood the corpse-bell at Frankfort or Munich ever of Manchester respecting a sickly infant- yet been rung? The French provincial * Aye, aye, that child will not live; it is in news-writers, nearly as trustworthy as their the burial-club! The frauds that are at- Irish brethren of the same class, are the tempted in order to obtain the burial-money, chief source of the modern tales that are are very ingenious, sometimes amusing. A told of the nailing of the coffin awakening man and his wife, residing in Manchester, its innate-of bearers being stopped by agreed that the husband should pretend to strange noises on their way to the gravebe dead, that the wife might receive the of bodies found distorted on disinterment, funeral insurance. Due notice of his death and other like horrors of posthumous life. is given—the visitor for the society calls to For ourselves, we should be content with see the corpse—the disconsolate widow Shakspeare's testpoints to the 'dear deceased,' whose chin
* This feather stirs; she lives ! is tied
with a handkerchief in the attitude of death-the visitor is about to de- There is another evil of the present syspart, satisfied with the fulfilment of his sad tem, calling for remark. The class of sexerrand, when an awkward winking of the tons and grave-diggers, who in the early eye arrests his attention-he feels the pulse Church as copiata, fossarii, &c., would
L there is life in the old dog yet.' The have borne a respectable office and characindignant widow asseverates that there has ter, becoming the duties imposed upon not been a breath in him since twelve thein, is notoriously become one of the o'clock last night. Careful not to hurt her most demoralized and shameless; and painwounded spirit, the visitor hesitates--the fully unite in their own body the contrast neighbors of course assemble--the debate of the Psalmist, being door-keepers in the grows warm-till the doctor being sent for house of the Lord,' yet dwelling in the dispels doubt, disease, and death, by dash-tents of ungodliness. It would be well ing a jug of cold water into the performer's that the lower office-bearers of the Church face. The concluding part inust have were more strictly looked after : we verily been not the least ludicrous, when the map believe that vergers, sextons, and parishwas brought up the next morning before clerks, make many infidels annually. The Sir Charles Shaw, clothed in the coffin-cos- evidence given of the habits of the metrotume of his imposture.
politan grave-diggers, is too sickening to There exists among the poor of the me-repeat; some idea, however, may be formtropolitan districts an inordinate dread of ed of them by a low publication lately adpremature burial; and very terrible stories vertising ' A correct view of the Church of are told of bodies being found in coffins in
and the Grave-diggers Playing positions that seemed to indicate that a at Skittles with the Skulls and Bones.' struggle had taken place after the lid had How unlike the ancient gentleman' of been closed. The dread of such a contin- Shakspeare-— Did these bones cost no gency is another of the causes which often more the breeding, but to play at loggats delay interment till decomposition has be- with them ? But of old, though a skull gun. A case of supposed trance lately oc- might occasionally be 'knocked about the curred at Deptford, where, from the ab- mizzard with the sexton's spade,' they did sence of some of the usual signs of death, not bury eight or ien corpses in the same the parents of a lad, who had died sudden- grave; nor had the operator to dig through ly, would not allow the body to be interred a mass of loathsome soil, 'saturated and till after the spice of thirty-five days. At blackened with human remains' (Sup. Frankfort there is a singular contrivance to Rep., § 156); nor were his profits inavoid the possibility of preinature inter-creased and his sacrilege stimulated by the ment. Receiving-houses are appointed, in half-decayed wood and ornaments of the which the body is laid out, and a ring con- coffins he disturbed. The sale of secondnected with a lightly-hiing bell is placed on hand coffin-wood has now become a petty the fiuger of the corpse, so that the slight-trade in some low districts of London, and est motion of the limb would give the alarma witness describes that he detected by the to the watchers. It would seem too skep-smell the origin of the firewood in some of tical to doubt the fact that people have ever the wretched abodes that he visited. We been buried alive; but we can hardly think have just heard that one poor man has gone that in this country the danger is sufficient mad on the subject of the desecration of
graves; and that he goes about addressing, they cannot alleviate, uncheered by the wbat audiences he can collect, mounted on faintest hope of overtaking the work that a rostrum made of a second-hand coffin, lies before them, and by little sympathy which he snatched from a grave-digger who from the uncounted wealth that dwells was about to apply it to use again. The within the sound of their church-bells—but following bit of Mr. Wild's evidence may we would beseech them to let no deadenfitly conclude this part of the subject. He ing routine of their thankless duties, no has been speaking of the effect produced by salving precedent, no cold calculation of the many funerals which take place at the mercenary underlings harden their hearts same time in large parishes, and the re- against the claims of the Christian poor to marks of the poor who are kept waiting the full participation of the last offices of outside while the service over those whose the Church. If it were not that Dissent is higher fees are paid is proceeding within ten times more crouching to wealth, and the church, half-realizing the scene of grinding to poverty still, the poor man's Crabbe, where
Church' would long ago have been a
mockery as applied to the Church of Engwaiting long, the crowd retire distress'd,
land. To thiuk a poor man's bones should lie unbless'd.'
One important point, which we have left The further question is asked,
unnoticed, the moral effect of cemeteries, What other inconveniences are experienced yard, will come better recommended in the
as compared with the close town gravefrequent thing that a gravedigger, who smells language of Wordsworth. Coleridge gave strongly of liquor, will ask the widow or his sanction to these words by publishing mourners for something to drink, and, if not them in his ‘Friend:'given, he will follow them to the gates and outside the gates, murmuring and utiering re- I could here pause with pleasure, and inproaches.
vite the reader to indulge with me in conten!s that ordinarily the last thing met with plation of the advantages which must have aibefore leaving the churchyards ? - Yes, that iended such a practice (wayside cemeteries]. is the last thing.
We might ruminate on the beauty which the "That closes the scene ?— Yes, that closes monuments thus placed must have borrowed the scene.
from the surrounding images of nature, from
the trees, the wild flowers, liom a stream runIt is stated in Mr. Chadwick's report, ning within sight or hearing, from the beaten that in many parishes of London the road, stretching its weary lengih hard by: corpses of the very poor are not brought Many tender similitudes must these objecis within the church at all, and that conse
have presented 10 the mind of the traveller,
leaning upon one of the tombs. or reposing in quently half the service is omitted. We
tie coolness of its shades, whether he had cannot believe this to be a prevailing cus- halted from weariness, or in compliance with tom-for it would hardly have escaped the the invitation, 'Pause, traveller, so ofien found Jynx-eye of the present zealous diocesan; upon the monuments.
We, in and surely it would be worse than folly to modern times, have lost much of these advanurge the more frequent and strict observ- tages; and they are but in a small degree ance of the Church's general services, if towns and cities, by the custom of depositing
counterbalanced to the inhabitarts of large the most solemn of all were notoriously the dead within or contiguous 10 their places curtailed to the measure of quality or fee. of worship, however splendid or imposing may Truly indeed may it be said in this matter be the appearance of those edifices, or howthat until the Church's intentions are com- ever interesting or salutary may be the assopletely fulfilled as to her ritual, we do not ciations connected with them. Even were it know what the Church really is, nor what not true that tombs lose their monitory virtue
when thus obtruded upon the notice of men
Mr. Milman she is capable of effecting.' emphatically denies this defraudment of the often sullied and defiled by those cares; yet
occupied with the cares of the world, and too poor for his own curates. All honor be to still, when death is in our thoughts, nothing them! For the denial seems to imply the can make amends for the want of the soothcontrary general use. Too much allow-ing influences of nature, and for the absence of ance, indeed, can hardly be made for the those types of renovation and decay, which zealous and painful clergy of our over- serious and contemplative mind. To feel the
the fields and woods offer to the notice of the grown metropolitan parishes, who toil on force of this sentiment, let a man only comfrom to week amidst a mass of crime pare, in imagination, the unsightly manner in that they cannot check, and misery that which our monuments are crowded together in the busy, noisy, unclean, and almost grass-i It requires a nice hand and a reverend less churchyard of a large town, with the still mind to perform this delicate task rightly, seclusion of a Turkish cemetery in some re- and not one spadesul of earth should be dismole place, and yet further sanctified by the
turbed without the personal superintendo grove of cypress in which it is embosomedi
ence of the clergyman or church-warden. If an English Virgil were to sing the Where this attention is paid, and the minds blessings of rural life, he would hardly omit of the parishioners duly prepared beforethe decency and quiet of the countryman's hand, a most salutary reform may be effectlast home; for Gray's Elegy, the verses of ed without committing either injury or Wordsworth and Wilson, and the chapters Offence. Only in this, as in every church of Washington Irving and Mrs. Southey, restoration or improvement, let no clerk have not exhausted a subject round which take the measure of his own knowledge or the present state of feeling has thrown a feeling as that of his pock. It requires new, and, we think, a holier interest. Our more pains and time than he may like to country churchyards are not indeed with-give, to bring up his people to his own out their defects, ofien very grievous ones ; standard; but he must not expect them to and while our larger towns must certainly adopt in a day principles and practices without delay provide additional burying which it may have taken him many years, ground, our villages must not be behind in and much reading and reflection, to work rendering the courts of the Lord's House out for himself. The soil pared off it will more worthy of Ilis name, and the uses for be much better to heap into a steep mound which they were set apart for ever. The than to carry beyond the churchyard ; and state of the church material, it is said, may another generation may perhaps not be be taken, in most parishes, as an index to afraid or ashamed to revive upon its sumthe state of the church spiritual. The say- mit the ancient and simple Cross, which a ing would be more true of its precincts. bigotry more strange and fierce than the The poor vicar cannot always find the Saracen’s, has desecrated, and swept away, means or the influence to expend many almost universally, from its most approprihundreds upon
the fabric; but he can ate site. always forego the petty gain of letting, and The mistakes that have already been undertake the slight expense of keeping de- committed, make us deprecate any hasty cent, the churchyard. There are a few change. We have heard a churchyard simple rules which should be observed in eulogized because it was planted to harevery parish-Never to allow burial within monize with the shrubberies of the vicarsix or eight feet of the walls of the church age-and, being only separated by an in-10 admit no iron palisades round tombs visible wire fence, to appear part of them. -to carry away, on the opening of each This is false in principle, and therefore in new grave, four or five wheelbarrowfuls of taste. A clear boundary should mark the earth to a distant corner of the churchyard consecrated ground, and the style of plant-to keep the turfed grave as low as possi- ing be accommodated not to the parsonage, ble, and the general surface of the church- but to the church. Straight and angular yard below the level of the floor of the walks are therefore preferable to the unduchurch. This last direction seems now lating curves of the landscape-gardening often beyond our power. Two, three, and school, and formal avenues
to mixed sometimes even four feet of soil lie a con- clumps. A broad gravel path immediately tinual damper against the outside walls, and round the church, is as seemly as conveninecessitate the infliction of Arnott's stoves ent. Those who abuse the state of our and hot-water pipes within. But, consid- present churchyards are little aware of the ering the depth at which the coffins are in- difficulty of rendering them more comely. terred, it would be quite possible to remove We know of a little village in one of the two or three feet of earth from the surface midland counties, where the new vicar without in the least degree disturbing the turned off the tenant and his sheep, took remains below, taking care that the exact the churchyard into his own hands, and set spot of every tombstone was marked that it about to make it the pride of his parish, might be replaced in the same position, and the pattern to the neighborhood. and not less observant of each heaving turl Pleased with the idea, he put up new gates beneath which,
after an old fashion, in place of the field• Each in his narrow cell for ever laid,
gate that was there before; he planted an The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.' avenue of cypresses up to the porch, and
yews and cedars of Lebanon where they | zontal branches, finely contrasting with seemed most wanted ; and, fond, easy man, spiral church architecture, may recommend in the pride of his heart be entered the it where other reasons fail. It is, indeed, a name and place of his plants, and the date noble tree, as worthy now to guard God's of their planting, on the fly-leaf of the House without as it was deemed of old to Burial-Register, and dreamt that on some furnish it within ; and may well represent future day, when he slept beneath the shade those trees of the Lord's planting which of his cedar, his successor should settle the Aourish so greenly in the verses of the age of that wide-spreading tree by turning Psalmist, and which have thrown an unto that solemn record. How a Mephis- wonted charm even into the metres of Brady tophiles would have laughed to see him and Tate, for there is surely a simple majesty planting them! The hinds stopped to ad- in these lines :mire them on the Sunday; they overgot the winter's frost and the summer's drought; “The trees of God, without the care
Or art of man, with sap are frd; nay, escaped the ravages of the stones and
The mountain cedar looks as fair fingers of the village children.
• Did I not
As those in royal gardens bred.'-- Ps. civ.n.v. say,' remarked the vicar, as he pointed to the Virginian creeper that had reddened The sycamore would remind us of Zaca the autumn sun, as it'clung round the yel- chæus, and the vine and the fig-tree are
low sandstone arch of the porch, that if both sacred types. These two last are best · you showed confidence in the people, they suited for the porch, where they might re
would prove themselves worthy of it?' place the perfidious ivy; and if left to grow Alas for the short-sightedness of human in their natural luxuriance, would seldom boasting, and for our fondest hopes of trees tempt the pilferer by their fruit. The rose and flowers, and rustic taste! There was of Sharon, and the wild vine of America a slight disturbance in the village that call- (the Virginian creeper), might add their ed for the vicar's interference; and the symbols intermixed with these; and on no next morning—and Sunday morning too— account should any other flower, save those there lay torn up by the roots, the rem- that spring up naturally from the turf, mar nants of the trees he planted,' and the the solemnity of the place. Ivy, when creepers he had trained ; and which read planted at all, should be the narrow-leared him probably, as he walked through his English, not the broad Irish. Loudon gives ruined idols, a far better homily than the a list of some five hundred trees, shrubs and serinon he afterwards preached to his flock. flowers, adapted for cemeteries and churchIt requires no little faith to persevere after yards ; but, as may be supposed from the such scenes as these; but though we would number, it is rather a select arboretum and by no means discourage our country friends flora equally suited to any other purpose. in their attempts to improve their church- His sketch of the sepulchral style, as conyards, we would suggest to the passing trasted with the pleasure-ground style of traveller and the prying Camdenian a little laying out a cemetery, is generally correct; charity in their judgment, when they lay but he quite overlooks a principle which all the blame at the parson's door.
we think will be found to hold good univerMany are beginning sadly to overplant sally, that for a cemetery or churchyard the their churchyards. Two or three fine old shrubs only should be spiral, the trees trees are quite enough; and therefore a massy and horizontal in their branches. In greater number of young ones should only both cases, evergreens are preferable. The be planted to meet accidents. After all, old and genuine Scotch pine is one of the what can be better than the single solitary best trees for a high situation. The Lomyew, which is all that most of our oldest bardy poplar should be avoided, as being in churches have to boast of? The species of too close competition with the spire. The trees appropriate to a churchyard, are very oak is too Erastian, as well as too utilitarian limited. They should either be connected a symbol. The weeping-willow is quite a with the associations of Holy Writ, or, as modern sentimentalism, false as a Christian Aristotle would say, xenic-that is, removed type, and its name (Salix Babylonica), from common life. The splendid Deodara which popularly connects it with Hebrew and the graceful hemlock-spruce will come song, a mere pious fraud of the botanists. under the latter head. But the tree that The Yew demands especial notice as the best unites these two qualities, is the cedar church tree of England-many of the finest of Lebanon; and its quick growth and hori- specimens of which are undoubtedly older