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granite platform was brought to its level, and the be distinct in the stormiest night; but as the con Herschel mark refixed and filled in with cement, stant connexion of such apparatus would neither it was necessary to erect heavy shears of large be desirable as concerns the action of the clock, spars, to place the stones of the obelisk, composed nor pleasant to the ear as a companion, a mode of large blocks of Craigleith stone, some weighing bas been introduced of readily detaching it alto

This was accomplished with some gether. By a certain method, which shall be es. trouble and expense, and the base of the obelisk plained, the bammers are raised from the tables was laid with the faces corresponding with the at one end, and the arms at the other entirely four cardinal points. The whole was completed disengaged from the anchor at the pallets, without on the 15th of February, 1812, in presence of inconvenience or disturbing action to the clock some of the Committee and several of the sub- itself. The apparatus within is immediately, and scribers and friends of Sir John Herschel, who at pleasure, acted upon through the agency of a attended on the occasion of placing the top stone i bolt, which is placed vertically, immediately over of the obelisk. The obelisk has ihe base 6 feet the 60 minutes, or about two inches back, suffisquare by 6 feet in height, and the pyramidal part ciently long to reach a spring of hard brass, which stands 12 feet above the base. On the east face is about half an inch wide, and which passes is an opening showing the Herschel mark, desig. transversely over the frame-work of the clock, nating the site of the 20-feet reflector. The and is fixed securely to the backboard of the elockopening will be closed with a bronze plale, con- Now the mode in which the spring unites taining the inscription of the purpose for which its action with the rest of the apparatus is by slight the obelisk is erected.”-Athenæum.

cross-bars, wbich extend to the extremities of the sides of the frame, so that the ends are immedi

ately over the hammers, with which they are con“On Loup BEATS OF Clocks USED IN OBSER- nected by silk threads. Therefore, by pressing VATORIES.—A simple and variy applied method down the bolt before named, the hammers are al of obtaining very loud beats for the astronomical lowed to fall into action, and do their duty simul. clock. The mode of constructing the apparatus taneously with the teeth of the wheel upon the is as follows :- Two pieces of thin brass are pallets. While the little hammers are in action, placed at the sides of the frame-work of the ihe teeth of the wheel are no longer heard. clock, in length the same as the space between The Astronomer Royal declares by letter, that the pillars; in width, about two inches or more he has examined the plan, and is enabled to say at pleasure; these pieces of brass are placed hori- that it answers completely for its proposed purzontally, at about the same altitude from the base pose ; and that it appears likely to be very useful. as the axis of the escape-wheel pinion, and at the Moreover, that the rate of the clock will not neright angles to it, or nearly so. They should be cessarily be disturbed during the time of its conmade of such a size as would insure a sound, dis nexion—thongh that will greatly depend on eertinct, sharp, and short. The little tables can be tain conditions.-Athenæum. made to any size. Upon these tables or plates two hammers ply, supported by arbors at the same MICROSCOPE IN GEOLOGICAL RESEARCH._On elevation as all the others. The pivots should be the application of the Microscope to Geological made small for easy motion. The hammers are Research,' by Dr. Carpenter, F. R. S. Dr. Carintended to beat upon the middle of each brass penter pointed out bow much the progress of table simultaneously with the drop proper of the science depends upon the perfection of the instruescape-wbeel: through the agency of the pendu.ments employed in the observation of its phenolum, they are lifted alternately by the beels of mena; and that even to geology, whose facts are the anchors of the pallets, assisted by a passing for the most part obvious to the unassisted senses, spring similar to that used in the chronometer the achromatic microscope bas afforded, of late escapement. It has just been observed, that the years, the most efficient aid. He noticed the rearbors wbich support those little hammers are searches of Messrs Witham, Nicol, and others, placed at the same elevation from the base of the on the structure of fossil woods, and the light brass frame-work of the clock as the escape-wheel which these had thrown on the origin of coal. arbor, but at the sides, and as near to the edge as | The investigations of Prof. Owen on the structure possible. About the centre, or midway between of teeth were next glanced at, and illustrations of them, are affixed brass collets, about 1-8 of an their application to the determination of fossils inch in thickness, and 1-4 of an inch in diameter. were given. The identification of the LabyrinTwo slender pieces of spring are secured to the thodon as the gigantic Batrachian, whose footcollets by screws passing through square holes steps are preserved to us in the sandstone of the formed longitudinally, to secure power of adjust. Stourton quarries, was noticed as one of the most ment for bringing the arms into proper contact interesting results of this kind of investigation ; with the anchor of the pallets. The little ham- and a sketch was given of the train of reasoning mers beat upon the plates or tables at one end, by which Prof. Owen has established the true and at the other the lifting action takes place, as character and habits of the Megatheroid quadrusisted by the passing spring. The strokes upon peds. Dr. Carpenter then gave a summary of the these brass tables bave a peculiar sharpness of researches, on which he has been himself entone, which can be accounted for in some measure, gaged, on the structure of the shells of the Molwhen it is considered that they are very different lusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata. With the from the sounds produced by the teeth of the aid of highly-magnified delineations, he explained wheel itself; in the dead-beat escapement the the cellular organization of the shells of Pinna, teeth have a sliding motion in the moment of and other allied genera belonging to the family drop, but not impulse, for it is well known that Margaritacæe, by which the fossil forms of that that is subsequent to the sound. such appli- group are at once distinguished (even by the excation it is proposed to obtain sound, so loud as to amination of the minutest fragment) from all

others;-the very curious plicated membranous and forms a white covering. The plate is allowed structure, which is characteristic of Terebratula to cool a little, and after having poured off the and its allies, and distinguishes them from all liquid, it is dried by the usual process of cotton others ;-the true character of the lines upon na- and rouge. The white coating deposited by the cre, to which its iridescence is due ;-and the tu- mercury is now to be polished. With a ball bular structure, analogous to the dentine or ivory (tumpon) of cotton and saturated with oil and teeth, which is found in certain other genera, and

rouge, this coating is rubbed just sufficiently for is distinctive of them. After describing the pecu- the plate in be of a fine black. This being done, liar cancellated structure of the shells of the Ru. the plate is again placed upon the horizontal distes, and stating that, by his microscopic test, plane, and the solution of gold and platina is the perplexing Cardium hibernicum should be re poured over it. The plate is to be heated, and ferred to that group, he briefly explained the then left to cool, and the liquid having been structure of the shells of the Crustacea, the inner poured off, the plate is dried by means of cotton portion of which is tubular, and strongly resem- and rouge. In doing this, care must be bad that bles dentine, whilst its surface (beneath the horny, the plate be merely dried, not polished. On this structureless epidermis) is covered with a layer of metallic varnish, M. Daguerre has succeeded in cells, in which the coloring-matter is deposited ; taking some very fine impressions of the buman and gave a brief account of the structure of the figure, which were exhibited. --Atheneum. shells, spines, &c. of the Echinodermata, pointing out the difference of pattern between the stems of

METHOD OF INCREASING ELECTROMOTIVE different species of Pentacrinus, which rendered the microscope a very easy means of distinguish FORCE.-In No. 538 of the Institute is a paper by ing them. The lecture concluded with a notice Mr. Poggendorf, in which he proposes a method of the researches of Ehrenberg on Fossil Animal- of increasing the electromotive force of a voltaic cules; of which the siliceous remains form a large pair, or which in the old phraseology would be proportion of the chalk-marls of Southern Europe effects into those of intensity: 'He ranges a cer

a method of converting the quantitative besides abounding in other deposits; whilst the tain number of pairs of platinum electrodes, so calcareous species make up a great portion of the that one half are united with the zinc, and the chalk itself in many localities. Of these species, other with the platinum of a Grove's battery. He whose minuteness is almost inconceivable, many of those now living appear to be identical with then, by an arrangement which he does not parthose which existed at the early part of the ter- and unites them in series; they thus form a sec

ticularly describe, detaches them from the battery, tiary epoch.-Athenæum.

ondary pile, whereby the intensity of the reacting currents arising from the polarization is increased,

with reference to that of a single pair, as the sum Paris Academy of SCIENCES --M. Blondeau of the pairs of electrodes employed. We believe de Carolles gave an account of an experiment at analogous experiments have been made in Eng. which he was present, and in which he saw the land soon after the publication of Mr. Grove's sugar of the cane transform itself into acetic acid, gas-battery, by Mr. Grove and others; in wbich, under the influence of caseum, without change of for convenience of charging, number of cells volume either by loss or absorption.-M. Co

were united in a quantitative arrangement to a chaux, civil engineer, presented to the Academy small battery, and then detached and arranged in a large and well-executed model of a drag-ma- series. The point offers no economy of material, chine, which, having been long and successfully as the same amount of zinc is consiimed by this used in foreign countries, he recommends for method of producing intensity as would be if an adoption in France, for the harbors, rivers, and ordinary battery of the like intensity were arcanals. The machine differs from those in ordi- ranged and charged in the ordinary way, but it nary use by the judicious combination of all its parts and the comparative ease and rapidity with may, in certain cases, add to convenience of mani

pulation.- Lit. Gaz. which it acts. A communication was made by M. Daguerre, relative to some improvements in the Daguerreotype process, chiefly for the purpose ORIENTAL MSS.-A letter from Mr. N. Bland of taking portraits, the ordinary mode of preparing was read before the Royal Asiatic Society, on the the plates not being found suficient to enable the subject of a valuable collection of Oriental Mss. operator to obtain good impressions. The im- in the library of Eton College, which appears al. provement made by M. Daguerre requires a rather most entirely to have escaped the notice of Oricomplicated process, but it is a very regular one, entalists. 'l'his collection was presented to the and has one decided advantage, for the artist is College above fifty years ago, by Mr. E. Pote, now enabled to have a good stock of plates on who had been a scholar on the foundation, and hand, as the new preparation will remain for a who afterwards went to India. It reached Engvery long time in a perfectly fit state for use land in 1790, together with another collection, of The new substances of which M. Daguerre makes equal value, which was presented by the same use are an aqueous solution of bi-chlorule of mer- gentleman to King's College library, Cambridge, cury, an aqueous solution of cyanure of mercury, where his education was completed. The Eion oil of white petroleum, acidulated with nitric collection is rich in historical and lexicographical acid, and a solution of platina and chlorure of works, both Persian and Arabie ; and contains gold. The process is as follows :- the plate is also many writings on the jurisprudence, theolopolished with sublimate and tripoli, and then red ry, traditions, and ecclesiastical history of the oxide of iron, until a fine black be obtained; it is Mohammedans, and a few poems. The whole now placed in the horizontal plane, and the solu-number of volumes is above 200, and altogether tion of cyanure previously made hot by the lamp constitutes a very valuable Oriental library.--is poured over it. The mercury deposits itself, Lit. Gaz.

[graphic]

OBITUARY Don Augustin ARGUELLES.- March 23. Aged | Queen gave insecurity to the head of the govera. 68, Don Augustin Arguelles.

ment, and the Queen-mother, who bad adopted s This most eminent personage of the Spanish line of government not liberal enough to please Revolution was born in the Asturias in 1775, the the citizen class, though too liberal to suit the Leyounger son of a noble family. He was educated gitimists, fell from want of any support in any in the university of Oviedo, and proceeded to class or party. The Liberals triumphed, and, in practise in the provincial court: but, finding this want of better, chose Espartero to be Regent. sphere too narrow, he betook himself to Madrid His elevation displeased the more ambitious Too young for legal functions, he became em- and younger men of the Liberal party, who were ployed in the secretary's office for the interpreta- anxious for a regency of three, and for thereby tion of foreign languages, from which post he was leaving open many avenues to ambition. Argutaken and sent on a mission to Lisbon. He after- elles was one of those who opposed this repetiwards went to London on a diplomatic mission of tion of the French triple Consulate. When the a similar nature.

Duke of Victory became Regent, the care of the He was at Cadiz on the French invasion in young Queen's person and education was en1808, and was appointed member of the first trusted to Arguelles, who dismissed the mere Cortes ; and he was unanimously selected as the courtier tribe, and endeavored to accustom the person to draw up the Constitution. This docu-infant ear of Royalty to some other language than ment, with his report preceding it, are both too the whispers of Battery and intrigue. These arfamous to need being characterized. He was re- rangements, more than all else, offended the warded, like other patriots in 1814, by a condem- court of the Tuileries, and the overthrow of Arnation to the galleys at Ceuta. The tribunal in- guelles and Espartero became the great aim and deed refused to sentence him, but Ferdinand VII. effort of that court and its agents. Nearly three volunteered to inscribe the sentence with his own years were taken to effect it. An attempt to carhand. During six years the illustrious Arguelles ry the palace by a coup de main, under the patron. partook of the labor of the galley-slave. When a age of the French Chargé d'Affaires, Pageot, failstatue is erected by his countrymen to their great. ed. Slower modes of operation were adopted. est name, the fetters of Arguelles will prove the More than a score journals were founded by the fittest decoration.

French in Madrid and in the providees, all utter; The revolution of 1820 liberated Arguelles, ing the most nefarious calumnies against England and opened a scene for his eloquence. He be- and the Regent. French emissaries circulated came Home Minister, and, as such, took that po them in every garrison town, and insinuated themsition which he ever since maintained, of a mod-selves into every officer's mess. The republican erate and practical statesman of the thoroughly party at Barcelona and elsewhere were taken liberal or Exaltado party. But the French Bour-into pay; the political rivals of the Regent were bons stepped in to crush those liberties which the cajoled, and won over in Paris and in Madrid ; Spanish Bourbons wers not alone able to stifle; and, when all was ripe for execution, the batteand Arguelles became an exile in England. The ries were unmasked. Barcelona again rose in death of Ferdinand again opened to him a return insurrection. Committees were formed at Perto his country, and the voice of Arguelles was pignan and Bayonne. Money in great abun. once more heard in his native Cortes. Age and dance was forwarded from Paris, whilst the funds events had now still more tempered his youthful which the Regent expected from bankers there ardor: and though a stern opponent of Zea's were cut off. In short, the conspiracy succeeded. despotismo illustrado, as well as of Toreno's aping The Duke of Victory was driven from the king. of and leaning upon France, the views of Arguel. dom, and Arguelles, appointed tutor by a decree les were as far removed from wild republicanism of the Cortes, was deprived of his office by the as from the servile and impracticable aim of set. simple order of General Narvaez. In the few ting up a constitution in the likeness of absolu. months which have since elapsed Arguelles lived tism.

retired; he saw the interment of the constitution His principles and party prevailed, attained by Narvaez; and might say, with Gratian, he power, enforced its views of internal government had watched over the cradle of his country's libin the constitution of 1837, and persevered in erties, and had followed them to the grave.those efforts which finally expelled Don Carlos Morning Chronicle. and his party from Spain.' But it is seldom that The funeral of Arguelles took place at Madrid the party which conquers and establishes freedom on the 25th of March. The multitudes that as. is allowed to profit by it. The minority of the sembled and accompanied his remains in solema

procession to the tomb, have no parallel in the the surrounding scenery, are beautiful pieces of annals of that capital. It was an almost univer- art, as worthy the praise of the amateur in paint. sal tribute to the memory of a man whose name ing as of the antiquary. The general view of had never been sullied with intrigues for place, Palinque is also a most artistical performance, power, or wealth. As guardian to the royal child and gives a perfect idea of the country. Los dren, during the regency of Espartero, he was en Monjas at Uxmal* is another superb panorama, titled to above 14,0001. a year. Of this he would but more architectural. But where every examonly accept the tenth part, and at his death just ple is either so rich, characteristic, picturesque, 22 dollars were found in his house, and old or singular, it is vain to speak of them separately claims on the Government for 7,000 dollars. All It is by the eye only that the excellence and that the Heraldo could find as matter of reproach value of Mr. Catherwood's labors can be appreagainst Arguelles was, that, being a bachelor, he ciated ; and we shall only repeat, that they make was unfit to exercise a fatherly care over the us intimately acquainted with the antiquities, royal orphans; and, further, that he had no merit present appearance, scenery, and native habits in refusing nine-tenths of his salary, .for he and looks, in Central America.-Lit. Gaz. cleaned his own boots and had no wants.' Would that Spain had left a few more honest shoeblacks, to put to the blush the hordes of adven. Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, to Sir turers, political and military, who degrade her in

Horace Mann, his Britannic Majesty's Resident the eyes of Europe! As the Queen-Mother was

at the Court of Florence, from 1760 to 1785. Now making her triumphal entry into the capital, a first published from the Original MSS. Vol. partisan rode up to her carriage with the joyful uines III and IV. Bentley. news-the happy coincidence—the hand of Prove idence displayed in the death of her enemy, Ar- The letters in these concluding volumes of the guelles.' Hush!' said Maria Christina, do not series commence in 1776, when WALPOLE was let the children hear it, for they loved him!' - about sixty, and beginning to talk of old age, and Gent's Mag.

end in 1786, the year of Sir HORACE ŇANN'S death. The Bentleian edition of WALPOLE is rendered more complete by various addenda : some epistles to GEORGE SELWYN from the late publication of the Selwyn Correspondence ; a few

miscellaneous letters ; a paper of suggestions to BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. the Duke of GLOUCESTER, (who had offended

GEORGE the Third by marrying WALPOLE'S Great Britain.

niece,) pointing out the best course to be pursued Catherwood's Views in Central America, Chiapas, tection without further offence to the King; a

in appealing to Parliament for an income and proand Yucatan. Large folio.

memoir by WalPOLE touching his sinecures, The frontispiece executed by Owen Jones in written at a time when the financial distress of the “ chromolith,' and the rest on stone by several American War induced a call for their abolition ; efficient haods, these views of the ancient monu- an autobiography, to 1779, under the title of ments in Central America remind us of the beau- “Short Notes of my Life," confined to mere facts, ty and splendor of Lord Kingsborough's Mexico, and principally about his writings; together with or Vyse's Egypt. They are the fruits of Mr. WalPole's own description of Strawberry Hill Catherwood's two expeditions into the country, and its curiosities. the majority of them belonging to his second

The time of these letters embraces great politijourney, in 1841. Referring to Stephens, Pres- cal events: the full-blown corruption and miscott, and other authors, for general information government of India, on which WALPOLE falls relative to these extraordinary remains, the artist into the common cry; the middle and close of the gives a particular description of each plate. All American War; the first appearance of the youngbears out the fact of an early civilization, and a

er Pitt, both as orator and statesman; the coalisplendor which could only spring up amongst a tion of Fox and North, with its downfall and the powerful people. We may take to the Literary destruction of the family Whig oligarchy. The Gazelle the merit of having first brought this inte- leading incidents of these topics are touched upon resting subject into European notice, by publish in the volunues before us, and at varying lengths ; ing the correspondence of Colonel Galindo, de- but more in the character of observer than actor. scribing the ruins of Copan and Palinque in Chi- At an earlier period of life WALPOLE mingled in apas, inany years ago, and we were glad to find the world of politics, and his accounts bad the that Messrs. Stephens and Catherwood had taken narrative air which is derived from first-band their cue from him, and opened their campaign knowledge. More confined to the house by gout on the field he pointed out. Their course of ex- and advancing years, and dependent upon the inploration further embraced Quirigua, Uxmal, and formation of others, his present notice of events other immense remains : which are figured with has rather the character of a commentary, and of truly artistic skill and ability both in their broad a commentator not uninfected by the lauditor er features and their remarkable details. Pyra- temporis acti.”—Spectator. mids, idols, palaces, courts, fragments, ornaments, doorways, arches, mighty temples, wells, castles, &c. &c., all admirably displayed, fill the * Plate XV. here is one of the most striking space of this splendid work; to which a clear illustrations of the natives. They are delightuseful map, marking out their sites, is a valuable fully grouped in this drawing: but still more so addition and key. Turning the first leaves, the in Plates XVIII., XIX., and xx., the wonderful tinted pictures of the great idol at Copan, with Well of Bolouchen.-Ed. L. G.

GREAT-BRITAIN.

North British Reriero, No. I A nero Quarterly SELECT LIST OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS.

Review. Edinburglı, Kennedy, London, Hamilton, Adams, and Co.

It may seem like a contradiction, but it is nev. ertheless a truth, that mere authorship, however A History of the Church, in Seren excellent, will not suffice for a literary periodical Books, from 306 to 445. By Socrates, Its first purpose is to supply a want or create a de

surnamed Scholasticus or the Advocate. sire ; and this purpo e does not seem to be attain. Translated from the Greek, with some Acable in practice by men of letters and nothing else. Byron, Bulwer, CAMPBELL, and Moore, count of the Life and Writings of the Auhave failed egregiously, and others of lesser note thor. in the present and former times have not succeed- History of Holland, from the beginning ed particularly well. On the other hand, the of the Tenth to the end of the Eighteenth most successful periodicals have been planned and produced by men

whose first or only vocation Century. By C. M. Davies. was not letters. CAVE started the original Historical Collections of the State of Monthly, the Gentlemen's Magazine; Griffith Pennsylvania. By Sherman Day. projected the Monthly Review, Phillips the New

Narrative of the late Victorious CamMonthly Magazine, Blackwood the work which bears his name ; JEFFREY, BROUGHAM, and Sropaign in Affghanistan, under General PolNEY SMITH, two lawyers and a divine, establish. Ilock; with Recollections of Seven Years' ed the Edinburgh; the Quarterly, though urged Service in India. By Lieut. Greenwood, by Scott out of soreness for JEFFREY's criti. H. M. 31st Regiment. cisms, was published as the organ of a party, to

Even be supported by their ablest otticial men.

The Progress of Queen Victoria and the Westminster, thongh inferior both in ability Prince Albert in France, Belgium, and and influence to the two great organs of Whigs England. Nustrated by 100 Engravings. and Tories, was intended as a channel for the Factories and the Factory System, from circulation of certain views in politics and phi: Parliamentary Documents and personal Exlosophy, and received its color from minds deeply imbued with the opinions it advocated, (though

amination. By W. Cooke Taylor, L.L. D. they might be assisted by mere literary men,)

Black's General Atlas; comprehending and whose main object was to give utterance to a Sixty-one Maps from the latest and most full mind.

authentic sources. Engraved on steel, by From this impulsive character arises much of Sidney Hall Hughes, &c. the originality of influential and very successful periodicals. No matter whether it be an observ

The Three Kingdoms : England, Scoting caterer for the public supplying avowed or land, and Ireland. By the Viscount D'Arlatent longings, or men impressed with new prin- lincourt. ciples to which they are impelled to give utter

The Idolatry of the Church of Rome. ance: in either case vitality and novelty of spirit are the consequence; and they guide aud stimu. By the Rev. A. S. Thelwall, A. M., of Jate their ote professional collaborateurs In Trinity College, Cambridge. many cases this living and social character im- Hebrew-English Lexicon; containing all presses novelty upon the style and form of their the Hebrew and Chaldee Words in the Old publications. The original Monthly Magazine, Testament Scriptures, with their Meanings the original Monthly Review, and the original Quarterly Review, were all new in form as well in English. as substance: even their style of typography and getting-up was novel. Some of the Magazines and Reviews of the last century, as well as the Quarterly, were imitations of periodicals existing, Köllner, Dr. Ed. Symbolik aller christso far as form was concerned; but they appeared lichen Confessionen. 2 Th.: Symbolik der for the most part as opponents in principles as well as rivals.in trade.

heil. apostolischen römischen Kirche. HamSomething of this is visible in the North Brit- burg. ish Review. Having a theological object in op- Quellensammlung zur Geschichte des posing Puseyism, with a general design of infus: neutestamentlichen Canons bis auf Hieing a religious tone into literature and politics, it has so far a living principle ; but the general form ronymus, herausg: und mit

Anmerkungen is imitative or coinmon. There is a good enough begl. v. Joh. Kirchhofer. Zurich. selection of topics so far as variety is concerned; Kohl, J. G., Reisen in Schottland. Dresthey are handled with good although not striking den. ability :: but they have no distinctive marks, ex

Beha-eddin's Essenz der Rechnenkunst. cept an occasional want of cultivated skill in some of them. Beyond this peculiarity, which is not

Arabisch und deutsch, herausg. Von G. an advantage, the papers might be placed in any H. F. Nesselmann. Berlin. periodical without attracting particular attention Grimm J., Deutsche Mythologie. 2 stark unless for an occasional religious strain.-Ibid.

verm. u. verb. Ausg. Abth. I. Göttingen.

Agassiz, L., Recherches sur les poissons fossiles. Soleure.

GERMANY

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