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combined fleets all yesterday and this morn-boarders were soon in possession of the ing.' Fortune, however, ere long cheered enemy's deck, struck her colors with him up. In 1782, his friend Admiral Bar- cheers, and thus in about three quarters of rington was sent to sea with twelve sail of an hour the action ceased. the line, and one of them was the Foudroy- The prize was the Pegase of seventyant. The Brest fleet came out; the signal four guns, commanded by Le Chevalier was made for a general chase, and the Foud- Cillart, who by the fortune of war became royant, being the best sailer, soon walked a prisoner to an old acquaintance, to by the fleet, and, towards the evening, saw whom, of course, Jervis was delighted to the French, six ships of war, and eighteen pay the most marked attention; giving sail of convoy. About ten P. M., Jervis, positive injunctions that every article of observing they were separating, and select- furniture, clothing, books, and papers, ing the largest for pursuit, ordered Bowen, belonging to the captain and the officers, a favorite midshipman, to the forecastle, to should be carefully collected and brought keep sight of her by his night-glass. In on board the Foudroyant. Captain Brenthe mean time every thing was made ready ton tells a very different story, which he for action; and to the repeated questions says he had from Sir John Jervis himself. to young Bowen, if he saw the chase? the The French captain showed him a letter reply being always in the affirmative, he had written to the minister of marine, Jervis was so delighted with the boy's at- giving an account of his capture, and he tention, that at last he called out, 'That's asked Jervis his opinion of it. 'I read it,' right, Bowen; do you only keep sight of said the latter, and returned it to him, her, and rely upon it I will never lose sight saying I had but one objection, namely, of you. A promise most faithfully kept.* that not one word of it was true-"Mais Young Bowen, now seeing a close action comment pas vrai?" No, sir, not one at hand, took his station, as aide-de-camp, word of it is true; but you can send it if by the side of his captain on the quarter you please. He did send it, sir, and, when deck. The Foudroyant, running at the he was tried for the loss of his ship, the rate of eleven miles an hour, was speedily letter was produced; he was dismissed the within hail of the adversary, when the officer on the forecastle called out-'She has put her helm up to rake us, sir.' When Jervis was on the point of putting the Foudroyant's helm a-starboard, in order to give her a broadside from her starboard guns, young Bowen was so forcibly struck with the advantage that might be taken by a contrary proceeding, that he could not help exclaiming-Then, if we put our helm to port we shall rake her.' Jervis, instantly feeling the force of the observation, in his turn exclaimed, 'You are right, Bowen-helm a-port!' Passing close under the enemy's stern, the Foudroyant poured in, and continued for some time, a raking fire. The enemy being thrown into confusion, her sails in the greatest disorder, Jervis determined on boarding, and laid the Foudroyant on the enemy's larboard side. Headed by young Bowen, the
service, and his sword broken over his head.' Sir John Jervis, we venture to say, never would use so insulting and brutal a phrase to any one, much less to a friend in misfortune, his prisoner and his guest. The loss of life, and the damage to the masts and yards, were great in the Pegase; in the Foudroyant not a man was killed, and only five wounded-of whom Jervis was one, being struck between the eyes, both of which were blackened. Admiral Barrington, in a private letter to Mr. Rose, after due praise of Jervis, says He, poor fellow, has got an honorable mark above his eye, which I conceive will be of no bad consequence, rather the reverse; for, as a man of middle age, it may make his fortune. The fair honor the brave, and, as we suppose delight in kissing the honorable mark.' In submitting to the King what reward should be conferred on Jervis, his Majesty at once said to Lord Keppel-' Let At the close of the year, at the relief of Gib-him be made Knight Commander of the raltar, he appointed Bowen acting lieutenant of Bath;' but no baronetcy, as Mr. Tucker
the Foudroyant, and he was confirmed to the has stated. Prince in 1790. In 1792, following his patron to In 1782, the Foudroyant was attached the West Indies, he obtained the rank of commander, then of post-captain into the Terpsichore, in which ship he so often and brilliantly distinguished himself; and while captain of her at Teneriffe, he there gallantly fell.
to the fleet under Lord Howe for the relief of Gibraltar, where Sir John Jervis got great credit for the able manner in which he conducted safely into port the fleet of
victuallers and powder ships, in the face of tional questions the strong inclination of the Spanish fleet, and amid the acclama- his opinion was toward the liberal side, tions of the garrison. On the passage out yet, of the necessary and lawful preroga to Gibraltar, Lord Howe one day assembled [tives of the crown, and of its consequence the flag-officers and captains, to know their and grandeur, he was at all times the eager opinions with regard to the prudence, or defender.' His name is to be found in all otherwise, of an inferior fleet engaging a the great struggles of the Whigs for liberty, superior one by night. Jervis was the and at all their meetings in favor of relionly captain who decided against it, as-gious Toleration and of Parliamentary Resigning various reasons for giving preference to a battle by day; in which he was supported by Admiral Barrington, who observed, that he could not contemplate that any ship would be found wanting in the day of battle; yet, should there unfortunately be a shy cock among them, daylight would expose him."
In 1787 Sir John Jervis was promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral; and in 1790, when the Nootka Sound quarrel occurred, he hoisted his flag in the Prince, of 93 guns, under Lord Howe, and was placed in command of a division of the fleet. Spain having applied to the National Assembly On her return from Gibraltar, at the of France for assistance, the latter, as usual, close of 1782, the Foudroyant was paid ever ready to show her hatred of England, off, after being eight years in commission: assembled a fleet at Brest; but licentiousa more perfect man-of-war, or a more ness and insubordination having usurped beautiful model, the British navy had the place of discipline, the inevitable conthen never seen-superior alike for her sequence, mutiny, followed; officers were sailing and fighting qualities. Yet when appointed and removed at the pleasure of in the French service, this fine ship, of 84 the crews; and nothing was, or could be, guns and 800 men, was captured by the attempted by such a disorganized fleet. A Monmouth, a small 64, after an action of convention was made by England with four hours, in which Captain Gardiner was Spain, hostilities were avoided, the fleet first wounded in the arm, then shot dead paid off, and each flag-officer was indulged by a ball striking his forehead; but the with the remuneration of a midshipman for action was nobly continued by the first promotion. The quarter-deck of the lieutenant, Carket. The enemy had 100 Prince was full of young gentlemen of the men killed and 90 wounded; the Mon- first families in the kingdom. Many were mouth, 28 killed and 79 wounded. Splen- the candidates, and overpowering the indid as the Foudroyant was, we believe that terest made, for the highly connected aspino model or lines of her beautiful figure rants; but when the day came for nominahave been preserved; but one of her name tion, surprise and disappointment arrived was built at Plymouth, in 1798, by Sir with it. The unsolicited recommendation John Henslove. of Sir John Jervis was in favor of a friendOn a conjoint expedition projected by less, retiring, but well-behaved son of an the Government against the Spanish West old and poor, but well-conducted, lieuteIndies, Sir John Jervis accepted a com- nant. In answer to the youth's overflowmand, on the principle that he never solicit-ings of gratitude and astonishment at his ed or refused any particular service, and good fortune, Sir John said—' Sir, I named his broad pendant was hoisted in the Salis-you for the lieutenant I was allowed to bury; but on the armed neutrality being promote, because you had merited the settled, the project was abandoned, and Sir good opinion of your superiors, and that John struck his broad pendant, and re- you were the son of an old officer and mained on shore about six or seven years. worthy man in no great affluence. A person, however, of such an active mind steady perseverance in that conduct which was not likely to continue idle; and, on has now caused you to be thus distinthe general election of 1784, he was re-guished, is the most likely means to carry turned for N. Yarmouth. In politics he you forward in your profession; for I trust was a decided Whig; but, as Mr. Tucker that other officers of my rank will observe says, he should be called a Whig Royal- the maxim that I do-to prefer the son of ist; for although upon all other constitu- a brother officer, when deserving, before any other.'
*Sir John Barrow gives this anecdote in his life of Howe, as he tells us, on living authority.
That Sir John's correspondence was well suited to its subject, the following, forming
reported he had been commanded to do. We can well imagine the fierce look from the all-piercing eye which Sir John cast on first sight of this impudent order; and with what ineffable scorn he treated 'the ignor
a striking contrast with the preceding, will furnish an example:-'I enclose 's letter as a testimony of his effrontery; no consideration will ever induce me to countenance any officer who slights the good opinion of his captain, or presumes to at-ance, the presumption, and the arrogance' tempt to pay me a compliment at the expense of him.'
In 1793, the Government decided on a joint expedition against the French West India islands, when Sir John Jervis was selected to command the naval part, and Sir Charles Grey the troops. A combined expedition is not always a cordial or a successful one; but in the present instance a good feeling and harmony prevailed, not only between the respective commanders, but on every occasion between the soldiers and sailors-each vying with the others which should outdo their fellow warriors in the same cause. In no instance was there the slightest misunderstanding between the Commanders-in-chief; it is on record that neither of them had occasion even to write a single letter on service to the other, during the whole campaign. The result was, that although the French were well prepared, and fought desperately, every island fell in succession into our hands; so that, in a campaign of scarcely more than three months, when all the main objects of the expedition had been accomplished, Sir John Jervis was enabled to inform the Admiralty, that all the French islands in those seas were reduced.'
of the silly writer. It appears, however, that the general soon recovered his senses, as he says in the Gazette-'I cannot help acknowledging the great obligations I lie under to Sir John Jervis, for the many and essential services which he rendered me and my garrison while he continued in the command, and which were always offered with the utmost alacrity, and performed with equal diligence.'
To recount the operations of the besieging forces is beyond the scope of this article; but we cannot withhold a few words on the eminently gallant conduct of Commander Faulknor, of the Zebra, before Fort Bourbon. The Zebra, with bamboo scaling ladders triced up to the shrouds, was ordered to lead in; made sail straight to the fort; laid his little sloop as close under the guns as the water allowed, to within fifteen feet of the wall; and Faulknor headed his boarders over the parapet into the fort. On the covered way a whole regiment waited their approach; a tremendous discharge of musketry thinned the ranks of the seamen; but the enemy was charged so fiercely that nothing could withstand it, and the whole regiment laid down their arms. Faulknor forced his way through the iron There was, however, a single instance, gates, gained the summit of the citadel, and but one, of foolish feeling, originating and struck the French and hoisted the Enprobably in weakness of intellect, but ex-glish colors, amidst shouts of triumph from plained into a misunderstanding, on the the armed boats, from the squadron, and part of a general officer. The following from the army on the outside. No lanorder was given out by General Prescott:guage of mine,' says the Commander-in'Whereas Vice-Admiral Sir John Jervis chief, can express the merit of Captain has given orders frequently on shore here, Faulknor upon the occasion; but as every and particularly in a note dated Boyne, officer and man in the army and squadron June 11th, which must have arisen either bears testimony to it, this incomparable from great ignorance, or great presumption achievement cannot fail of being recorded and arrogance-if from ignorance, poor in history.' man, he is to be pitied; but if from great On a signal being made for the Compresumption and arrogance, to be checked. mander of the Zebra, Sir John ordered the It is therefore Lieutenant-General Prescott's Boyne's hands to be turned up, and placing orders, that in future no attention is to be himself at the head of his officers, he thus given to such notes or orders, and his sig-greeted the hero-Captain Faulknor, by nature to be as little regarded as those of your daring courage this day, a French John Nokes and Peter Styles.' The cause of this peevish and foolish order was owing to the Admiral having seen a few soldiers in a state of intoxication, and requested the officer on guard to hand them over to his boat, to be sent on board, which the officer
frigate has fallen into our hands. I have ordered her to be taken into our service, and here is your commission to command her, in which I have named her, after yourself, sir, the Undaunted.'
But this brave officer did not long sur
vive this honorable testimony of his gallant in his manner, and not over polished in his conduct. In the following year, when he language, yet he would, with the greatest commanded the Blanche, he fought a des-good-humor and tact, convey a censure or perate battle with the French frigate La reproof with the desired effect. For inPique, of 38 guns, in which he fell, while stance, Commodore Thompson being frehe himself was in the very act of lashing quently careless in his dress, was one day the bowsprit of the enemy to the capstan of in his boat clad in a purser's duck frock his own ship! which it was said he hinted and a common straw hat, and passing near beforehand his intention of doing. The the stern of the flag-ship, was recognized action continued for five hours, when La by the Admiral, who hailed the boat- In Pique called out she had struck. The the barge there! go and assist in towing boats of the Blanche being all stove in, Sir that transport.' The Commodore received David Milne, the present Commander-in- the gentle rebuke as his chief intended it: chief at Plymouth, then her second lieu-standing up in his boat, and taking off his tenant, with a few men, swam on board and took possession of the prize. She had about 76 men killed and 110 wounded. The Blanche lost her captain, and had 2 It was generally supposed that Sir John killed and 21 wounded. Such is, and ever | Jervis had brought home enormous wealth has been, the triumphant result of English from the West Indies, but he declared in courage, coolness, and superior seamanship.
But, alas! for the mutability of human affairs, and the wonderful changes effected by human invention ! A boiler of water, converted into steam, impels a ship through the sea with a greater and more constant velocity than the winds can do; and the ship so impelled requires few or no seamen. She is navigated by engineers, gunners, blacksmiths, and coal-stokers, who usurp the place of seamen. What then is to become of our brave sailors? and what is to become of our superiority of seamanship, of the glorious result of which we have just given so splendid an instance? It may be said, we too can steam equally with others; true-but the naval superiority of England, which has been asserted and maintained for the last three hundred years, admits not of equality. Let us but imagine, what may well happen, one of our threedeckers becalmed, and a steamer with those long guns which throw heavy shot or shells to the distance of three miles, taking up or shifting her position as best suits her, while the other thrice-powerful ship is compelled to remain immovable, and must submit to be pestered by a popinjay,' and stung, as it were, by a smoking musquito, which, like that animal, can neither be hit, nor caught, nor crushed. The only resource we have, and it is the imperative duty of the authorities to apply it, is to supply every ship of the line and frigate, with as many of these long guns as each can conveniently be armed with.
Though Sir John Jervis was by nature, and from circumstances, frequently blunt
hat, he answered the hail in proper style, Ay, ay, sir!' and proceeded to execute the order.
print that it was a very great mistake; for he says, my expenses in entertaining the whole staff of the army on the passage out, and in going from island to island, exceeded my gains.' Then the Boyne, while his flag was still flying, caught fire at Spithead, was entirely consumed, and every thing in her belonging to him destroyed.
The admiral was not long permitted to remain on shore. Near the close of the same year (1795) he was sent for by Lord Spencer, and informed by him that his name had been submitted to and approved by the King, to command the Mediterranean fleet; which he at once accepted, and prepared forthwith to set out. On his arrival at Corsica he hoisted his flag in the Victory. His fleet consisted of 2 ships of 100 guns; 5 of 98; 2 of 80; 14 of 74; 2 of 64; 24 frigates; 20 sloops, and other smaller vessels. Under his command were three Vice-Admirals and one Rear-Admiral; and here, for the first time, Sir John Jervis made the acquaintance of Hallowell, Troubridge, Collingwood, Hood, Nelson, and Cockburn-names very soon prominently brought forward under his auspices, and destined to hold the most distinguished rank and to attain the highest honors in the British Navy. One only of these memora ble seamen survives-Admiral Sir George Cockburn; and long may he survive for the benefit of his country!
The blockade of Toulon was immediately decided on. A detached squadron from the blockading fleet was placed under the orders of Captain (then made Commodore) Nelson, of the Agamemnon, for the purpose of cruising along the coast to support the
Allies; and seven sail of the line were left | says, 'had Admiral Mann sailed from Gibbefore Cadiz under the command of Rear-raltar when he received my orders, and Admiral Mann.
obeyed them, I have every reason to believe they would have been cut to pieces.'
Excepting the in-shore squadron, in which were Troubridge, Hood, and Hallowell, who On the 2d of December he arrived at were constantly engaged with the batteries, Gibraltar, and was gratified by receiving an no occasion offered for the fleet to come account of his young friend Bowen, now into action with the enemy; but it required Captain of the Terpsichore, having capturall the attention and the vigorous exertions ed the Spanish frigate Mahoneza. Bowen,' of the Commander-in-chief, to obtain sup- said he, is of my school.' On the 15th of plies of provisions and water, and other this month we find him cruizing off Cape necessaries for so large a fleet, after the St. Vincent. Three days afterwards he scandalous defection of Corsica-to econo- received orders to 'proceed immediately to mize the reduced state of the stores-to the Tagus.' Here within a week his squadkeep up discipline, as well in the officers ron was refitted, replenished, and ready for as in the men, by the exercise of the great sea, and he went out with it forthwith, writguns-by desiring the captains to be on ing to the Admiralty, Inactivity in the deck when a signal was made to tack or Tagus will make cowards of us all.' By wear by night-and by a due regard to all the loss of the Bombay Castle, and the the evolutions of the fleet. A general grounding of the St. George, the Admiral's memorandum says 'The Commander-in- fleet was reduced to eight sail of the line. chief has too exalted an opinion of the re- Fortunately, however, on the 6th of Februspective captains of the squadron to doubt ary, he was reinforced with six sail of the their being upon deck when the signal is line under Sir William Parker, and next made to tack or wear in the night.' day the Culloden rejoined him, by whom he learned that the Spanish fleet had passed Cadiz. On the 13th, Commodore Nelson, with his broad pendant in the Minerve, joined him, and shifted his pendant into the Captain. The morning of the 14th of loden's signar fans but very soon the CulA little after nine six ships of the neemy. ordered to chase. The Commander-inchief walked the quarter-deck, while the hostile numbers were duly reported to him as they appeared, by signal. There are eight sail of the line, Sir John,'-' Very well, sir.'-'There are twenty sail of the line, Sir John,'-' Very well, sir.'' There are twenty-five sail of the line,'-' Very well, sir.'-'There are twenty-seven sail, Sir John,' and this was accompanied by some remark on the great disparity of the forces- Enough, sir, no more of that: the die is cast; and if there were fifty sail I will go through them.' This determined answer so delighted Captain Hallowell, who was walking beside him, that, in the ecstasy of the moment, he could not resist patting the old Admiral's back, exclaiming, That's right, Sir John, that's right; by G-d, we shall give them a d-d good licking!'-and so they certainly did.
The progress of the French army in Italy made it probable that their fleet would attempt to enter the Mediterranean; and in this view the Commander-in-chief sent an — stronn forthwith to join him having gone to him from the Admiralty. The receipt of the former he acknowledged; but, instead of obeying his orders, he thought fit to proceed to Spithead. The Admiralty told him they felt the greatest regret at his proceedings, and that orders would be forthwith sent to him to strike his flag and come on shore;' yet the same Board of Admiralty appointed him one of its members not long after!
In October 1796, Sir John Jervis received information from Sir Gilbert Elliot, the Viceroy of Corsica, that the government was wrested from him, and that the island must be evacuated. The Admiral writes with great indignation to Lord Spencer. The Viceroy,' he says, 'had many thousand men in pay, as free companies; these, with almost the whole of the Members of Parliament in the interest of the British Government, and other pensioners, were the first to show enmity to us. In short, I do not believe the page of history can produce an instance of such rascally baseness and ingratitude; for the whole island has been enriched by the generosity of our Government.'
The Spanish fleet had left Cadiz and entered the Mediterranean, and the Admiral
The glorious battle of St. Vincent is matter of history. Every one knows that it was won by fifteen to twenty-seven; and that four large ships were taken by that portion of the fleet which attacked the