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ment, and the enormous amount of improve-invention, and their Reports contain a ment they have experienced during the last large body of valuable information and retwenty years.”-Page 32.
marks. In the English Report, whilst the There are many other points, connected applicability of the atmospheric principle with the construction and working, exam- and its advantages, in point both of econoined by M. Mallet, to which we should my and safety, are distinctly admitted, have referred, did our space allow,-with these admissions appear to be unwillingly respect to the crossings, for instance, which extorted, and every advantage is reduced to we shall give in M. Mallet's words, with a
its minimum of computation. In the suggestion he offers :
French Reports, the importance of trying
the merits of the invention is pressed upon “They are done precisely as on the locomotive roads; for this they divide the pipe ; but
the government, and an earnest desire is not to destroy the continuity of the aspiration, manifested to promote the investigation of the two divided pipes are connected by means a great work of national importance. of another pipe sunk in the ground, which The historical sketch of the invention curves back at a right angle at its two ends, and application of the atmospheric railway to branch into their lower portion. The points here terminates; it is no longer an experiof junction are above the valves of entrance ment, but an established means of transit, and exit
, which the interruption of the pipes tested and proved by fair and repeated trials, compels them to put at their extremity. When in a proper state for use, the valve at the and by the opinions of the most eminent enextremity of the pipe at the side by which the gineers,* English and continental, who have train would arrive is closed, as well as the en- witnessed and watched its success, and extrance-valve of the other pipe. When the pressed their opinions satisfactorily upon leading carriage appears, the first will be the subject. Indeed it is this testimony opened as usual by the compressed air driven that has induced us to offer the present arforwards by the piston, Another valve, placed ticle to our readers : we waited until pracin the pipe of communication, will be closed at the same time by the effect of the passage of tical results had been obtained, and the the train. That at the entrance of the next merits of the invention had been placed bepipe will be opened, when the piston shall yond a doubt, before we felt it right to exhave entered this pipe, by the valve-man, or, press an opinion. It had ceased to be a what is better still, by the train itself. Another question limited to the circle of purely scimeans which might be employed consists in entific inquiry, and now comes to be renot dividing the pipe, but making two inclined planes at 0.050 of slope, per meter, for the garded in the results of its application ; the passage of carriages. 'In this case three open- power being once obtained, it remains only inrs are required, iwo for the wheels of the for enterprise to accomplish the rest, and to carriages, and the third for the piston-rod, the render it available to the service of man. wheel which presses the valve and the cylin- The subject of the atmospheric railway has, der which compresses the composition. The since the opening of the Dalkey line, exciopenings would be too large and too deep to ted a daily growing interest, and the attenallow of their being left uncovered. It would be easy to adapt thick planks of deal, with a
tion of governments and companies is counterpoise for this purpose.”—Page 29.
drawn more and more to the adoption of
the system. In having occasion to consider attentive- In the course of a recent discussion in ly and to cite from the official reports presented to the English and French govern- * Amongst the opinions expressed by the most meuts, we regret to have a comparison eminent of our Engineers is that of Mr. Brunel. forced upon us disadvantageous to the for- The prospectus of the Gravesend and Chatham mer. The object of a government, in ap
Company, which has recently appeared, contains
a recommendation of the Committee, founded upon pointing competent judges to report upon the opinion of their engineer, I. K. Brunel, Esq., any scientific subject, is not merely to have to adopt the atmospheric system. The prospectus objections raised and difficulties suggested, states that—"The Committee, having made a satbut to have every advantage as well as isfactory inquiry as to the decided economy with every defect of the system explained intel- which the Dublin and Kingstown Extension Rail
way is now being worked as an Atmospheric ligibly and impartially. This is the view Line, and their Engineer having satisfied himself which M. Teisserenc and M. Mallet have as to the advantages this plan of motive power taken of their duty; they have given pre- affords, recommend its adoption on the proposed cisely the information, fully and candidly, line of communication, both as a means of keepwhich might enable the French government and increasing the profits by á reduced charge of
ing the capital within a very moderate compass to form thier »p inion on the merits of the working.”
the House of Commons, on the appoint- here a new and astonishing application of ment of a select committee to consider the power opened to us, and it is impossible to standing-orders relating to railways, Sir anticipate all the important results to whici Robert Peel stated that he concurred in this may lead. Success has silenced the the opinion,
questionings and hostility of interested op
ponents to the system; and if men are “That the public and the government are not wise, they will at least pause before they to be precluded from availing themselves of rush' into new speculations on a system any suggested improvement or invention of which will probably soon be superseded. science, which may probably affect the present railway property; as also in the remark that
The introduction of the atmospheric we are not to be called on to compensate a railway opens a new era in the means of company for its choosing a line upon which it transit, because, from the great reduction may have been found necessary to expend in the cost of construction and working, it £60,000 per mile. Far from it, if you can is clear that we must enter upon an entirely successfully compete, by means of any inven
new scale of economical calculations. This tion, upon a turnpike-road with such a railway will operate in manifold ways : it will enacompany, you are perfectly at liberty to do so. If new discoveries are made applicable to rapid ble railway companies to lower their rates, conveyances, the public will"avail itself of whilst deriving even greater profits than at them, and those improvements will always be present, and thus to open means of travelthe best security and check against imposition ling to larger classes of the community. or exaction. What may be attempted by Again : one great feature in the atmosmeans of the atmospheric railroad it is difficult to conjecture ; but I know that those who pheric railway is, that it is practicable on have witnessed its exhibition near Dublin,
lines of road where the locomotive system have returned to this country with changed is wholly inapplicable and useless. Let opinions as to its applicability to longer lines any one take a map of England and trace than one or two miles. The proprietors of the net of railroads which have come into railways must soon find out that they are de- active operation within a few years : let ceiving themselves if they neglect to provide him imagine this immense benefit, which at third-class carriages. But the true interests of society will best be protected by holding over
present is restricted by the cost attending them the checks of competition, and of the im- it to traffic between large towns, extended provements that may take place in science, over the whole country, carrying passenrather than by attempting forcibly to control gers and produce from one little marketthose companies, by attempting to reduce their town to another, bringing all this advantage profits or take the management of their proper- to every man's door, and placing it within ty out of their own hands."*
every man's enjoyment. The benefits to
the nation, in calling out her industrial This is the sound and only safe course of powers, assisting her commercial,
manufaclegislation,—to encourage competition, is turing, and agricultural interests, form too an indirect and proper means of checking large a subject for us to enter upon here, monopoly.
but too obvious and important a consideraIn consequence of the determination of tion to escape attention. In a moral point the Government to continue the mail-packet of view, likewise, the result would be to station at Holyhead, a line of railroad is extend largely the advantages of social inprojected from that place to join the Ches-tercourse and of education in every shape, ter line. With a view to ascertain the which are now only to be found in large practicability of adopting the atmospheric communities,-in fact, of centralizing the principle on this line, (chiefly as a means power and raising the moral character of of obtaining for the mails a considerable the nation. increase of speed,) Mr. Robert Stephenson We have uniformly urged the imporhas been desired to examine the works on tance of calling into action, by multiplying the Dalkey railway, and to furnish a report facilities, all the sources of our national to the Government.
wealth ; and we have pointed this out as We shall, in conclusion of this article, one great means of substantially benefiting briefly allude to some of the advantages Ireland. To unfold the resources of a which may be derived from the adoption of the country, is to teach a people their value, atmospheric railway, in a social, industrial, the most important lesson of national poliand commercial point of view. We have tics and national economy conveyed in the
most practicable and intelligible form. It is See Debate of February 6, 1844. impossible to estimate the change which a large system of railroads intersecting Ire of the public spirit of the Hungarian noland in every direction, stimulating pro- bles-runs over the Julian Alps from Carlduction and exciting the energies of her stadt to Vienna ; its length is ninety Enpopulation, would produce; and if that glish miles. The atmospheric apparatus country, whose interests we are bound to could profitably be adapted to that road, promote, not less from motives of policy whose gradients, although moderate, no lothan of justice, has a claim to share in any comotive engine could overcome. In this great work of national benefit, it has an es- manner, the energies of twenty millions of pecial claim in the present instance, where Austrian and Turkish subjects would be İrishmen have been foremost to second the made available in the markets of Europe, efforts of English skill and talent, and to and the products of some of the finest overcome the obstacles opposed to the pub- countries of this quarter of the globe would lic good by private interests and monopoly. be added to the general stock. If the atmospheric railway should prove, Berlin is to be connected with Hamburg as we anticipate, a new source of benefit to by a direct line, and with the Rhine by mankind, it will be remembered, not un- two lines of railways.
One will pass gratefully in this country, that to Ireland through Minden to Düsseldorf and Cologne, we owe its first encouragement and adop- and there unite with the Belgic-Rhenish tion.
net. A second will pass through Cassel to Extending our view to the Continent, Frankfort, and join the Taunus railway. some idea may be formed of the extent to To the east, a line to Königsberg is prowhich the nations of Europe will be bene-jected. From Frankfort, Hesse Darmstadt fited by this invention of Mr. Clegg, from is continuing the Taunus line to Heidelthe length of the lines of railways now con- berg and Mannheim, where the Baden net structing in central Europe.*
will take it up, and carry the communicaIn Austria the line from Trieste to Vi- tion on to the Swiss frontier. A railway is enna is progressing. The atmospheric now constructing from Basle to Zürich. pressure removes the grand difficulty pre- The Wirtemberg net of railways will consented within a short distance of the capi- nect the Baden and Hessian nets with the tal, at the traverse of the chain of Alps lake of Constance and with Bavaria : they which forms the boundary of Styria. With-cross the heights that separate the Rhine out such aid it would be a most costly and its tributaries from the Danube. One work to carry a railroad over the Noric line of this net, which has been considered and Carnian Alps to the sea, even if the scarcely practicable, is that from the Rhine plan of inclined planes were resorted to. I by the way of Pforzheim and Stuttgardt to From Vienna the line passes to Olmütz, Ulm, in which the ascent at Geisslingen is where it branches off westward through looked upon as insurmountable. By the Prague to Dresden and Hamburg. From aid of the atmospheric pressure this obstaOlmütz a second line goes northward to the cle can be overcome, and the Rhine be Riesen mountains, and through Silesia to connected with the Danube at the shortest Stettin. A third line, which runs to the interval. The Bavarian net is to consist of salt mines of Galicia, will join the Russian a central line running from the foot of the railroad from Cracow to the Baltic, by the Alps to Saxony, which is to be traversed at valley of the Vistula. In mountainous right angles by a line from the Austrian to countries, the momentum acquired from the Wirtemberg frontier, passing through descents is available for succeeding ascents, Munich to Augsburg. and the difficulties in the one system be- A most important decision has been come facilities in the other.
made in Bavaria, to commence the line that The prosperity of Hungary is indisso- is to connect Bamberg with Frankfort imlubly linked with a good communication mediately. The country between these between the valley of the Save and the two towns is so mountainous, that it would Adriatic Sea. A road of sufficient width, require an immense outlay to construci a and of splendid construction-a monument locomotive railroad. The atmospheric rail
road, by availing itself of the principle of
gravity, might perhaps be even more econ* At the end of last year there were twenty-one omically adapted to such a line than to a lines of railroad open in Germany, the total length level. of which was 1083 miles. The railways then in progress would extend to nearly 1000 miles. Since Of the immense advantages which these that period many others have been projected. vast countries will derive from the adop
BY MRS. C. J. PARKERSON.
From the Metropolitan.
" HENCE, dull reality,
Hence, for a while,
Thy cares can beguile;
From sorrow and strife, And the stern nothings
Of every-day life.
“ Fancy, conduct me,
with wide-spreading pinions, Together we'll visit
Thy fairy dominions ;
Of beauty to-day-
“Weave me a garland
Of rainbow-dyed flowers,
Bloom in thy bowers;
O'er ocean, we'll stray-
tion of the atmospheric pressure to railway carriages, it is therefore needless to say much. The anxiety entertained in all these countries to be released from the necessity of providing coals for these lines, has been proved by the reward of 100,000 florins voted by the Germanic Diet to the inventor of a galvanic machine at Frankfort. It is true that the machine has not been finished, and the money is consequently not yet paid. No machine depending upon a moving principle scarcely less costly than coals, can pretend to vie with the beautiful simplicity of the atmospheric pressure.
It is not merely the difficulty of providing coals that is an obstacle to railways on the continent. The cost of carriage of such a bulky article, in a country where the communications are indifferent, is a serious inconvenience, and one that, on the large net of railways we have described, would form an enormous drain upon the industrial resources of the country. A similar difficulty presents itself in central India, where railroads connecting the capitals have become almost indispensable, both in a military and in a political point of view. With the atmospheric system, the difficulty of collecting depôts of coal is obviated, and we may soon expect to see a railway connecting Bombay and Calcutta.
In this article we have endeavored to give our readers, first, an historical sketch of an invention which promises to realize such important benefits; secondly, an intelligible description of the construction and working of the apparatus; and thirdly, an examination of the merits of the system. We have consequently deemed it necessary to extract largely from all the reports and documents hitherto published, in separate and detached forms,—to cite the opinions of those eminent engineers who have instituted experiments and carefully examined the system in all its bearings, and lastly, to give the results obtained on the trials that have been made : these are of a peculiar value at this stage of the invention, as affording facts upon which calculations and reasoning may be grounded. We have carefully considered what might be most serviceable to the public to know; and in conclusion must express a hope, that the recommendation urged upon the French Government by M. Mallet, to give the system a fair and full trial, will not be thrown away upon the Government of our own country.
“ Lead where the waters gush,
Under the willow;
Tinges the billow.
Light's softened ray,
Dart through the spray.
“ Here would I wander
In spirit beside thee,
Fate has denied me.
Its scent-burdened air,
Their pearl showers there.
“ The eglantine's canopy
Waves o'er our head,
With violets o'erspread.
Her soul-thrilling lay.
" Pictured enchantments
Unclouded by care, Fairy-bright fabrics
Upraised in the air; How quickly ye vanish,
Fond spirits can tellBeautiful vision,
BY MRS. ABDY,
CONFESSIONS OF AN ILLEGIBLE “ Such opinions are not confined to little WRITER.
minds; Hannah More says that 'to speak so low that nobody can hear, and to write
a hand which nobody can read, may be From the Metropolitan.
classed among the minor immoralities.”
“Now you come to quotation, I must “My good fellow," said my school-fel- put an end to the conversation; it is bad low George Gordon to me one morning in enough to listen to your own wisdom, but I the play-ground of Somerton Academy, cannot be overwhelmed with lectures at
why do you not pay a little attention to second hand.” your hand-writing? Your characters ap- George Gordon, although only a schoolpear to be traced rather with a skewer than boy, had attained a command over hima pen; your i's are guiltless of a dot, and I self which many men pass through life only wish I may go through the world as without acquiring; he could occasionally free from a cross as your t's. Your capi- allow an antagonist to have the “last word;" tal M's are a decided failure, your H's are he did so to me in the present instance, below criticism, and no one, even with the) and the conversation dropped. I was fifaid of a microscope, could detect the differ- teen at that time, and am now thirty, and had ence between your a's and your u’s." George Gordon possessed the power of pre
Now I considered this speech of George dicting future events boasted by some of Gordon's to be rather vain-glorious, inas- his second-sighted countrymen, he could much as he had just completed that elab- not more correctly have prophesied the orate and laborious performance denomina- evils in store for 'me from my atrocious ted“ a school piece," which had not only handwriting. gained him the prize for writing, but had I might fill a novel, containing the preelicited a sovereign from his maiden aunt, scribed allowance of a thousand pages, accompanied by an observation that “
one were I to recount all my disasters ;-but could hardly tell it from copperplate;" in alas! why do I talk of writing a novel of a fact, Mrs. Ronalda Gordon evidently con- thousand pages - how should I ever get it sidered it the finest work of art that had brought before the public? Even if the ever astonished the world since the comple- bookseller's “reader" were in so peculiarly tion of her own school sampler, forty years beneficent and amiable a mood as to reago.
commend what he was unable to decipher, " Perhaps, Gordon," I replied, “ you will it could never go through the press-there remember who carried off the prizes for would be a general strike and mutiny in classics and mathematics; I am not with- the printing office! I will therefore conout a few laurels to rest upon, and need not fine myself to three leading events of my very much covet that skill in penmanship life, and as I know that every body likes in which I may be rivalled by a charity love stories, especially when they have an boy.”
unfortunate termination, I will relate the “ True,” he replied mildly; “I submit manner in which I thrice lost the lady of to your superior genius, Seyton; but re- my love by the bad management, not of my member, the elephant, which can lift a suit, but of my pen. heavy weight with its trunk, does not dis- Most young men fall foolishly in love for dain to pick up a pin. I do not want you the first time, and I believe I might once to excel in penmanship, but only to write a have entertained a slight predilection for legible hand; depend upon it, if you do not my sister's drawing mistress, but it soon improve, your scrawl will involve you in passed off, and my first real ve was cho serious difficulties all through your life.” sen with such prudence, that admiring “What kind of difficulties ?"
fathers held me up as an example to their “Suppose you write for the press; how sons, and wary uncles told their nephews curiously your effusions may be misrepre- to follow in my steps. sented."
Miss Hartopp was an orphan heiress, “O, I can correct the press.”
very pretty, and twenty years of age; she “Would it not be easier to correct your lived with a guardian, and he, like the own bad habit, while you have yet time to guardians in comedies and farces, had a do it ?'
son whom he wished her to marry; but I “ It is a mark of a little mind to affix so had engaged the affections of the lady,
and much importance to the hand-writing." purchased the good will of the Abigail; a