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the departed; in those silent mansions noder tear for me; and at all times an unchange ever cometh; the condition of the murmuring submission to His will who has soul, its affections, its impulses, are all the given the weary rest, and glorified himself same-firmly fixed for eternity. But we ! by the departure of one in His faith and we who talk of the changes of death, put fear. out of the way the incalculably greater Enough of this, and more than enough. changes of life.
I pause in the midst of my vain dreamings.
How much is our dread of death-our shrinking from the pale shadow-increased by the bugbear mockeries with which the grave and burial are now encumbered! Men LOVE, THE LIGHT OF THE MORAL are not satisfied that their friends should
WORLD. die, but they must heap up in addition such
From the Metropolitan. idle pageantry as can only weary and disgust. Think over some of them !-the
' Aστηρ άριζηλος, αλαθενον satellites of Death who make up the funer
'Avopi peygos. al, bis triumphal hearse-car, his monumental trophy (to give durability to his O GLORY! seen afar, but seldom won conquest), and his badges of servitude, By weak mortality-Eternal Sun which the living weepers wear for the of Moral Nature ! Thy bright beams on high
Diffuse glad rays of awful harmony: twelvemonth. And yet we may ask, why Beyond the reach of Thought, 'ere Time was these sad and distressing symbols ?—why known, add suffering to suffering-heap grief on Time was the sceptre and the heavenly throne ! grief, and tear on tear, by these cumbrous obsequies?
on in my youth thy light serene I saw,
While inward ardor wrapt my soul in awe ; I will not, that friend however dear, or And a deep calm subdued the fretful sense,relation however nearly connected, place A calm won from divine intelligence : over me the graven work of the statuary. Thy smile the waters of Time's restless sea It is but making Death his trophy, as I have Hush'd with the stillness of Eternity; before said, and I acknowledge not the
And gliding softly from the realms above,
“ The wings of silence''* bore thy words_0 conquest of the great victor. Rather lay Love!me in the grassy bed, wherein I may repose quietly and unmarked; and save me from --Heed not the passions of the world below, the incumbrance of such unwieldy struc
The empty phantoms of a passing show; tures. The couch of turf speaks better like morning mists before the deeper day:
They shed their wrath, then swiftly faint away, things in its symbolic simplicity ; says it know thou, Earth’s vapor-stream of changeful not, that the one within is looking for an strife, awakening, and is patiently expecting the The shadow only of thy coming Life ;welcome tones of that voice which will not And all, to which time only renders birth,
The shadow, not the substance, --Air and Earth, call to him unanswered! The marvellous In Time shall perish, and new worlds shall spring sweetness of those divine accents will be Within the cycle of his restless wing: sooner heard through the light covering of ty Throne shall never fall, my Laws endure a few earth-handsfull.
Through all Eternity unchang'd and pure :
To all, in whom fair Charity is seen, Memorial, to be sure, I would have, for My smiles beam ever from the Far Serene, who would be without one ?-but one more Shadowing the Life to come, where sorrows desirable than efligy in brass or stone,
cease, Where joy unfathom'd breathes the eternal
Above the darkness of Earth's Moral Night,
The brighter Sun of living Love descrya constant presence with those I love; a The spiritual Sun for all Eternity! word of blessing when thought of; some
G. W. times, but rarely, a longing wish or a ten
THE ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY. years, several thousand miles of railway
have been laid down in the British empire; From the British and Foreign Review.
and above sixty millions sterling had in This is the most complete view of this 1841 been embarked in railway speculawonderful application of our common air to tion; independent of this, is the still purposes of locomotion, which we have yet It will be read with interest, and we the continent. When we consider all the
greater projected extent of its adoption on hope will lead to an experiment in our own country. One great advantage of this mode difficulties to be overcome, the immense of conveyance, not mentioned in any reports, amount of labor to be encountered, and will be exemption of eyes from cinders, and of the enormous capital that has been so easily dresses, barns, etc., froin burning.--Ed. found and so readily embarked in this gi1. Report of Lieut.-Colonel Sir Frederick gantic enterprise, we find cause for admira
Smith and Professor Barlow, to the tion, not less at the power, skill, and indus-
limitless resources of our national wealth.
The invention and the successful appliMajesty. London, 1842.
cation of such a power might appear suffi2. Rapport, addressé à M. le Ministre des cient for one age, were it not that the char
Travaur Publics, sur le nouveau mode acteristic of power is to multiply itself, and de locomotion, dit Système Atmosphé- incitement to fresh efforts of inventive ge
that every new discovery proves only the rique. Par M. Edmond Teisserenc. Paris, 1843.
nius. We are not content to look back 3. Report on the Railroad constructed from upon what has been achieved, but press
Kingstown to Dalkey, upon the Atmo- continually forward to what we are capable spheric System, and upon the Applica- of accomplishing: new means beget fresh tion of this System to Railroads in wants, and these again are the stimulus to general. By M. Mallet. London :
those whose task it is to provide for them. John Weale, 1844.
The history of the discovery which we 4. A Treatise on the Adaptation of Atmo- shall sketch in the present article, presents
spheric Pressure to the purposes of an interesting chapter in the annals of inLocomotion on Railways. By J. D. vention, apart from its vast importance in A. Samuda. London: John Weale,
reference to practical results; and we deem 1841.
a subject of such universal concernment 5. The Atmospheric Railway. A Letter to be deserving of an historic record. With to the Right Hon. the Earl of Ripon, briefly the origin and progress of the in,
this view we shall, in the first place, relate President of the Board of Trade, By James Pim, Jun., M.R.I.A. Lon- vention of the Atmospheric Railway, and don, 1841.
shall reserve our remarks on its application 6. Observations on the Report of Lieut. to the conclusion of this article. Colonel Sir Frederick Smith, R.E., air in land-carriage* occurred to a gentle
The first idea of employing the power of and Professor Barlow, on the Atmospheric Railway. By T. F. Bergin, ventor of the first power-loom,) in 1805.
man at Manchester, Mr. Taylor, (the inM.R.L.A. London, 1842. Amongst the inventions which within worth and Mr. Clegg, the subject was dis
In conversation with two friends, Mr. Duckthe last twenty years have rapidly followed cussed ; and, although these gentlemen one another, in the application of steam
were all of opinion that the idea was capa. power to works of public utility, the most ble of being realized, the means of accom. important is the Railway. Scarcely fifteen plishing their object was so surrounded years have elapsed, since the practicability with difficulties, that the subject was ultiof this means of locomotion was untested
mately dropped without any steps being taeven by experiment; and the astonishing ken or experiments made. The plan prorapidity with which, as soon as this point posed was in principle the same as that was ascertained, the invention was brought which is now in successful operation in into general use, is itself a criterion of its Ireland, -namely, the application of atmovast importance.* During the last twelve
* Mr. Papin originally suggested employing * The Liverpool and Manchester line was atmospheric pressure against a vacuum, but not opened to the public September 15, 1830.
for these purposes.
spheric pressure obtained by the exhaust- / wheels of the carriage to run upon; and the ing power of the air-pump. Mr. Taylor's carriage must be nearly of the size and forn scheme only extended to the conveyance of of the canal, so as to prevent any considerable letters and despatches; he suggested that a is forced into the mouth of the canal, behind
quantity of air from passing by it. If the air tube, large enough to contain a parcel, the carriage, by an engine of sufficient power, should be laid down from one town to an- it will be driven forward by the pressure of the other : at these places a stationary steam-air against it; and if the air is continually engine should be erected, which should ex- driven in, the pressure against the carriage, haust the tube. The parcels being placed and consequently its motion, will be continually in the tube at one end, and the latter ex
maintained.”- Page 3. hausted by an engine at the other, the pres-canal, from the engine, the air must be forced
• When the carriage is to go through the sure of the air would carry the contents of into the canal behind it; but when it is to go the tube along with immense velocity; at the contrary way, the same engine is to draw each station or town the letters and parcels the air out of the canal, and rarefy the air beintended for that district would be taken fore the carriage, that the atmospheric air may out, and the rest forwarded to their desti- press into the canal behind the carriage, and nation. This ingenious suggestion was drive it the contrary way.”—Page 15. never published; we believe that it has re
The next suggestion of Mr. Medhurst mained to the present time wholly unknown:
was as follows:its interest will be seen as we proceed. In 1810, Mr. George Medhurst, an engi
“It is practicable, upon the same principle, neer in London, published a pamphlet, in to form a tube so as to leave a continual com
inunication between ihe inside and the outside which he proposed a new method of con- of it, withvut suffering any part of the impelveying goods and letters by air ;” and in ling air to escape ; and by this means to impel a 1812 he published his calculations and re- carriage along upon an iron road, in the open marks on the practicability of the scheme. air, with equal velocity, and in a great degree
These publications," he says, “met with possessing the same advantages as in passing that indifference and contempt which usual- withinside of the tube, with the additional satly attend all attempts to deviate so widely and in view of the country. If a round iron
isfaction to passengers of being unconfined, from established customs." His sugges-tube, 24 inches in diameter, be made, with an tions led however to no attempt to test their opening of two inches wide in the circumfercorrectness; but in 1827 Mr. Medhurstence, and a flanch 6 or 8 inches deep on each printed another pamphlet, * in which the side of the opening, it will leave a channel beauthor suggests four applications of the tween the Hanches, and an opening into the principle of atmospheric pressure to purpo
tube. If such a tube is laid all along upon the ses of travelling, which we will describe in ground, with the iron channel immersed in a his own words.
channel of water, and a piston or box made The passages we select contain the whole account of what he pur-Jor rollers, this box, driven through the tube by
to filit loosely, and pass through it upon wheels posed to accomplish, the rest of the pam- the air forced into it, may give motion to a carphlet being filled with calculations and de- riage without, by a communication through the tails of management, which it is unneces-channel and the water. No air can pass out sary to quote.
of the tube while the channel is immersed in
water, unless the air is of such density as to "In order to apply this principle to the pur-force the water out of the channel, and then pose of conveying goods and passengers from the air will follow it and escape; but there is place 10 place, a hollow tube or archway must an opening made for a bar of iron to pass from be constructed the whole distance, of iron, brick, the running box, in the interior of the tube..... timber, or any material that will confine the to which a rod or crank may be brought froma air, and of such dimensions as to admit a four- the carriage in the open air, and from that rewheeled carriage to run through it, capable of ceive its motion.” carrying passengers, and of sirength and capacity for large and heavy goods. The tube
A third plan was the following or aërial canal must be made air-tight, and of the same form and dimensions throughout,
“A plan 10 combine the two modes togethhaving a pair of cast-iron or stone wheel Tracks er, that the goods may be conveyed within the securely laid all along the bottom, for the canal, and a communication made from the in
side to the outside of it, so that a carriage may * It was entitled “A new system of inland be impelled in the open air, to carry passenconveyance for goods and passengers, capable of gers, would be an improvement desirable and being applied and extenued throughout the coun. practicable. It must be effected without the try, and of conveying all kinds of goods, cattle, aid of water, that it may rise and fall as the and passengers,” etc.
| land lies; and it must give a continual impulse
to the outside carriage, without suffering the the subject for a patent. A model of this impelling air to escape. For this purpose railway was exhibited at Brighton, but this there must be some machinery which will diminish the simplicity, make it more expensive,
was the extent of its application. and more liable to be disordered, unless execu
We shall briefly notice a claim put forted in the most substantial and perfect manner; ward by Mr. Pinkus to be the inventor of a but by skill, by experience, and sound work- pneumatic railway. He obtained a patent manship, it may be accomplished in various March 1st, 1834, for a contrivance preciseways."
ly similar to that which Medhurst had pubMr. Medhurst suggested a fourth idea :
lished seven years before, excepting that he
proposed to use a rope for the continuous “ The same principle and the same form, valve, and substituted a cylinder for a square may be advantageously applied to convey tube, which he describes as follows :goods and passengers in the open air, upon a common road, at the same rate of a mile in a “A flexible cord lies in the groove at the top minute, or sixty miles per hour; and without of the cylinder, for the purpose of closing the any obstruction, except, at times, contrary longitudinal aperture ; this cord is to be of the winds, which may retard its progress, and same length as the pneumatic railway, and to heavy snow,
fit tightly into the groove or channel.” iron tube be formed, two feet on each side, four feet in area, with three sides, and one half of
The failure of this scheme was shown by the top, of cast iron, the other half of the top the fact, that Mr. Pinkus took out a new made of plate iron or copper, to lift up and shut patent in 1836, in which he says,down in a groove in the cast-iron senii-top plate, as before described ; and if a strong and light “ The method of carrying it into practice box or frame be made to run upon wheels consists in a method or in methods of constructwithin the tube, and an iron arm made to pass ing the pneumatic valve and the valvular cord, out, through the opening made by listing up and in the manner of using the same, one of the plate, as before described, this arm may which methods hereinafter described, I design give motion to a carriage in the open air, and to substitute for and in lieu of the valve and upon the common road, without any railway, cord described in the specification of my said if the pressure within the tube is made strong former patent." enough for the purpose."
It is unnecessary to describe the specifiThis pamphlet is now simply an interest: cation of this contrivance, which proved a ing historical document: the suggestions second failure; but we must note that it in of its author led at the time to no practical no way anticipated or resembled the subseresult, because, although he understood the quent invention of Mr. Clegg. The diffiprinciple, the point upon which its applica- culty had still to be conquered, and no apbility entirely depended was unattained : proach to this had been made, since Mr. the difficulty was, to find the means of ren- Medhurst first suggested the idea of making dering a tube sufficiently air-tight, and at a continuous communication between the the same time of allowing a piston, which inside of the tube and the carriage withoutshould connect the motive power within the side, sufficiently air-tight for the object retube with the bodies to be propelled on its quired. On the 3d of January, 1839, Mr. outside, to pass freely along an opening in Clegg took out his patent, which we shall this tube.
presently describe, and on the third of AuPreviously, however, to the appearance of gust following Mr. Pinkus took out a third Mr. Medhurst's second tract, a patent was patent, in which he introduces a valve in taken out by Mr. Vallance in 1824 for a every respect similar to that of Mr. Clegg, plan of locomotion by atmospheric pressure. and further proposes to seal it with a comThis was merely a modification of Mr. position to be alternately fluid and solid, as Medhurst's first scheme of exhausting a described in Mr. Clegg's patent, with the tunnel large enough to contain a train of only difference that the composition was to carriages : a stationary engine was to be be melted by a galvanic wire instead of a erected at one end of this tunnel, which, heater. This patent was enrolled eight it was supposed, would create a sufficient months after the publication of Mr. Clegg's vacuum for the pressure of the air acting specification. on a piston attached to the first carriage to All the attempts hitherto made to overimpel the whole train forward. It is aston- come the difficulty we have mentioned had ishing that a plan, for many reasons so failed, until the invention of Mr. Clegg effectpalpably impracticable, engaged the at- ed this, in a manner which, from subsequent tention of any man of sense, or was made experiments, removes any doubt as to the practicability of the atmospheric railway, coulter. In this position, if part of the air be and opens a new prospect of advantages, withdrawn from ihat length of pipe in front of the extent of which cannot at present be the piston by an air-pump, worked from a stacalculated. The principal feature of this tionary engine or by other mechanical means, invention consists in “a method of con- of pressure on the back of the piston (being
placed at a suitable distance, a certain amount structing and working valves in combina- the locomotive force) will take place, proportion with machinery," to be applied to tioned io the power employed. In practice, “railways or other purposes, by a line of and to work economically, il will be sufficient partially exhausted pipes, for the purpose to produce an exhaustion of air in the pipe, of obtaining a direct tractive force to move equal to causing a pressure from the aimosweights, either on the railway or otherwise.” phere, upon or behind the travelling piston, of The following extract from Mr Clegg's half the pressure due to a vacuum. Suppos.
8 lbs. per square inch, which is only about onespecification explains this :
ing the main pipe to be of 18 inches internal “My improvements consist in a method of diameter, it will receive a piston of 254 superconstructing and working valves in combina- ficial inches area, on which, with the above tion with machinery. These valves work on a pressure, a tractive force of 2,032 lbs. is consehinge of leather, or other flexible material, quently obtained ; and this is capable of prowhich is practically air-tight (similar to the pelling a train weighing 45 tons (or eighi to valves commonly used in air-pumps), the ex
nine loaded carriages), at the rate of 30 miles tremity or edge of these valves is caused to an hour, up an acclivity of 1 in 100, or 53 feet fall into a trough containing a composition of per mile. The iron coulter being fixed to the bees' wax and iallow, or bees' wax and oil, or travelling piston within the pipe, and also to any substance or composition of substances the leading carriage of the train, connects which is solid at the temperature of the atmos- them together, moving through an aperture phere, and becomes fluid when heated a few formed in the top, and along the whole length degrees above it. After the valve is closed, of the pipe; while one set of vertical rollers and its extremity is laying in the trough, the attached to the piston rod, at some little distallow is heated suthcienīly to seal up or ce- tance behind the piston, progressively lift up ment together the fracture round the edge or for the space of a few feet, and another set of edges of the valve, which the previous opening rollers attached to the carriage close down of the valve had caused; and then the heat again, a portion of a continuous flexible valve being removed, the tallow again becomes hard, or flap, of peculiar construction, covering the and forms an air-tight joint or cement between aperture; and it is the very simple, ingethe extremity of the valve and the trough. nious, and efficient mode of successively openWhen it is requisite to open the valve, it is ing, and closing down and hermetically sealing done by lifting it out of the tallow, with or this valve, as each train advances and moves without the application of heat, and the before on, that constitutes the merit of the invention, named process of sealing it, or rendering it and the foundation of the patent; the operaair-tight, is repeated every time it is closed. tion consisting first, in opening the valve to This combination of valves, with machinery, admit the free admission of the external air, to is made in the application of these valves to press on the back of the piston, and produce railways, or other purposes, by a line of par. and sealing the valve again,
so as to leave the
motion; and then in effectually closing down tially exhausted pipes for the purpose of obtaining a direct tractive force to move weights, pipe in a fit state to receive the travelling piseither on the railway or otherwise."
ton of the next train, and ready to be again ex
hausted of its air. Stationary engines of sufIn a pamphlet printed in 1841, Mr. Pim, ficient power, proportioned to the amount of the treasurer of the Dublin Railway Com- traffic and speed required, would, in practice, pany, addressed a letter to the Earl of Ri. be placed at intervals of about three miles pon, then President of the Board of Trade, that length, alternately on either side of their
apart, and be arranged to work the railway to on the subject of the atmospheric railway. position, as might be required.”—Pages 6-8. From this work we shall extract a simple description of the invention.
The means of stopping a train and pass“ On this system of working railways, the ing from one section of pipe to another are moving power is communicated to the trains
as follows:by means of a continuous pipe or main, of suit- “When it becomes necessary to stop or reable diameter, laid in the middle of the track, tard the carriages, in addition to the use of a and supported by the same cross-sleepers to common break, a valve in the travelling piston which the chairs and rails are attached. The may be opened by the guard or conductor if internal surface of the pipe being properly the train, whereby, the external air being adprepared by a coating of tallow, a travelling mitted in advance of the piston into the expiston made air-tight by leather packing, is in- hausted portion of the pipe, the propelling troduced therein, and is connected to the lead- power is at once destroyed. The separating ing carriage of each train by an iron plate or valves, in the main or pipe between each sec