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ing about two hours asore day, he opened hisi He likewise commanded Mr. Herbert to curtain to call Mr. Herbert; there being a give to the Princess Elizabeth “ Doctor Angreat cake of wax set in a silver bason, that drews' Sermons,Archbishop Laud against then, as at all other times, burned all night; Fisher the Jesuit,which book (the king said) so that he perceiv'd him somewhat disturbid would ground her against Popery, and “ Mr. in_sleep; but calling him, bad him rise; Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity. To the Duke “ For,” said his Majesty, "I will get up, hav- of Gloucester, “King James's Works," and ing a great work to do this day;" however, he “ Dr. Hammond's Practical Catechism."'. would know why he was so troubled in his Herbert, p. 126. sleep? He reply'd, "May it please your Majesty, I was dreaming.” “I would know your (V.) ·His Majesty then bade him withdraw; dream,” said the king; which being told, his for he was about an hour in prirate with the Majesty said, “It was remarkable. Herberi, Bishop ; und being calld in, the Bishop went this is my second marriage-day; I would be to prayer; and reading also the 27th Chapter as trim to day as may be; for before night 1 of the Gospel of St. Matthew, which relateth hope to be espoused to my blessed Jesus.He the Passion of our Blessed Saviour. The then appointed what cloaths he would wear; king, after the service was done, ask'd the “Let me have a shirt on more than ordinary,” Bishop If he had made choice of that Chapsaid the king, "by reason the season is so ter, being so applicable to his present condisharp as probably may make me shake, which tion?" The Bishop reply'd, "May it please some observers will imagine proceeds from your Gracious Majesty, it is the proper lesson fear. I would have no such imputation. I for the Day, as appears by the Kalendar;" fear not Death! Death is not terrible to me. which the King was much affected with, co I bless my God I am prepard."

aptly serving as a seasonable preparation for "These, or words to this effect, his Majesty his death that day. spoke to Mr. Herbert, as he was making ready. Soon after came Dr. Juxon, Bishop of London,

So as his Majesty, abandoning all thoughts precisely at the time his Majesty the nighi of earthly concerns, continued in prayer and before had appointed him. Mr. Herbert then meditation, and concluded wilh a cheerful subfalling upon his knees, humbly beg'd his Ma- mission to the will and pleasure of the jesty's pardon, if he had at any time been Almighty, saying, He was ready to resign negligent in his duty, whilst he had the honour himself into the hands of Christ Jesus, being, to serve him. The king thereupon gave him with the kingly Prophet, shut up in the hands his hand to kiss, having the day before been of his enemies ; as is expressed in the 31st graciously pleased, under his royal hand, to Psalm, and the 8th verse." —Herbert, p. 132. give him a certificate expressing that the said Mr. Herbert was not impos'd upon him, but by

(VI.) The Chapter of the day fell out to be his Majesty made choice of to attend him in that of the Passion of our Saviour, wherein it his bed-chamber, and had serv'd him with was mentioned that they led him away for time his Majesty also delivered him his Bible, he found it was the Canon of the Rubric, he faithfulness and loyal affection. At the same envy and crucified their king, which he thought

had been the Bishop's choosing; but when in the margin whereof he had with his own hand writ many annotations and quotations, put off his hat, and said to the Bishop, “God's and charged him to give it the Prince so soon

will be done."! - Warwick's Memoirs, p. 385. as he returned; repeating what he had enjoyned the Princess Elizabeth, his daughter,

(VI!.) Upon the king's right hand went the that he would be dutiful and indulgent to the Bishop, and Colonel Tomlinson on his left, queen his mother (10 whom his Majesty writ with whom his Majesty had some discourse by iwo days before by Mr. Seymour), atfectionate the way; Mr. Herbert wae next the king; after to his brothers and sisters, who also were to

him the Guards. In this manner went the king be observant and dutilul to him their sove.

through the Park; and coming to the stair, the reign; and for as much as from his heart he king passed along the galleries unto his bedhad forgiven his enemies, and in perfect chamber, where, after a little repose, the Bishop charity with all men would leave the world, went to prayer; which being done, his Majeshe had advised the prince his son to exceed in ty bid Mr. Herbert bring him some bread and mercy, not in rigonr; and, as to episcopacy, it wine, which being brought, the king broke the was still his opinion, that it is of Apostolique manchet, and eat a moutlıful of it, and drank institution, and in this kingdom exercised from

a small glassful of clarel-wine, and then was the primitive times, and therein, as in all other some time in private with the Bishop, expecting his affairs, pray'd God to vouchsafe him, both when Hacker would the third and last time give in reference to Church and State, a pious and warning. Mean time his Majesty told Mr. a discerning spirit ; and that it was his last Herbert which satin night-cap he would use, and earnest request, that he would frequently which being provided, and the king at private read the Bible, which in all the time of his prayer, Mr. Herbert address'd himself to the affliction had been his best instructor and de- Bishop, and told him, " The king had ordered light; and to meditate upon what he read;

him to have a white satin nightcap ready, but as also such other books as might improve his he was not able to endure the sight of that knowledge.

violence they upon the scaffold would offer the

king.” The good Bishop bid him then give work of Hume.' Then pause, and decide him the cap, and wait at the end of the Ban- whether the following answer does not conqueting-House, near the scaffold, to take care tain the opinions which Hume has taught of the king's body ; " for," said he, “that, and his interment, will be our last office." -"Her you to deduce and to form. bert, p. 134.

(VIII.) "" I think it my duty, lo God first and to my country, for to clear myself both as RELIGIOUS AND MORAL CHARACTER OF an honest man and a good king, and a good CHARLES I. AS DEDUCED FROM HUME. Christian. I call God to witness, to whom I must shortly render an account, that I never

"That the virtue of Charles I. was in some did intend to encroach upon their privileges degree tinctured by superstition, cannot be deAs to the guilt of those enormous crimes which nied; but whilst the elegant historian, whom are laid against me, I hope in God that God we deservedly consider as the soundest chamwill clear me of it. God forbid that I should pion of monarchy, most candidly admits this be so ill a Christian as not to say that God's tendency as the chief defect of the king's charjudgments are upon me. For to show you that acter, it is equally evident that the blemish I am a good Christian, I hope there is a good existed only in the smallest degree, so as to be man,” pointing to Dr. Juxon, " that will bear an evanescent quantity, scarcely to be discernme witness that I have forgiven all the world, ed. Possibly nothing more than the doubt, the and even those who have been the chief causes uncertainty, the suspense of judgment, natuof my death: who they are God knows, I do rally resulting from our most accurate scrutiny not desire to know; I pray God forgive them. into religion. I pray God with Saint Stephen, that this be not Consider the manner in which Charles passlaid to their charge. Sirs, to put you in the ed the three awful days allowed to him beright way, believe it you will never do right, tween his sentence and his execution. Lay nor God will never prosper you, until you give your hand upon your heart, and, after giving him his due. You must give God his due by the most serious consideration to the natural regulating rightly his Church according to his history of religion, as exemplified in the whole Scripture. A national synod, freely called, history of the human race, declare whether freely debating amongst themselves, must do you can think that the king's conviction apthis. I declare before you all that I die a proached in any degree to that solid belief and Christian according to the profession of the persuasion, which governed him in the comChurch of England as I found it left me by my mon affairs of life. He now avowed by his fathers." ?Whitelock's Memorials, p. 375.

acts the doubts he entertained ; and fully

showed, that, whatever assent his outward de Has the reader performed our injunction ? meanor inay at any previous time have given Has he compared Hume with the original to the doctrines of superstition, it was an unauthorities ; and will not the comparison accountable operation of the mind between convince him, that Hume's narrative, tran- nearer to the former than to the latter. Charles,

disbelief and conviction, but approaching much quil, clear, and pathetic-unquestionably in the awful hour of death, never betrayed any possessing a very high degree of rhetorical weakness which a philosopher would despise. merit-persuasive without the show of ar- "When dissolution is brought on by the orgument, solemn without affectation, digni- dinary course of malady or the decay of nafied without grandiloquence, the more im- ture, the last symptoms which the intellect dispressive from its apparent simplicity-com- and stupidity, the forerunners of the annihila

covers are disorder, weakness, insensibility, bines every species of untruth : the suppres- tion of the soul; and it is then always most sio veri, the suggestio falsi, and the fallacy, susceptible of religious fictions and chimeras. more efficient, because less susceptible of The griefs and afflictions which Charles had detection, than either—the artificial light sustained, the horror of a public execution, thrown on peculiar incidents, for the pur- might have troubled his mind even more than pose of disguising others by comparative pain or sickness; yet-instead of making any

of the preparations suggested by popular creshade?

dulity, whether nursed by superstition or inBut now we must venture to impose a Aamed by fanaticism, as the means of appearsecond injunction. In order to test the ef- ing an unknown and vindictive being—the fect which this wonderful piece of sophis- main, and, as it should seem, almost the only try is intended to produce, read Hume again, object which occupied his thoughts, was securcompare Hume with Hume, and throw your- ing the succession of the throne to his son, by self into the mind of a student required by the morning of his execution, during his most

the prerogative right of primogeniture. On the examination-paper, to 'Give the reli- pathetic interview with his infant children, his gious and moral character of Charles I. as mind was wholly engrossed by that object

. exemplified in his death; and state the rea- Young as these infants were, he would, had sons of your opinion as deduced from the religious conviction predominated over doubt

have endeavored, at such a solemn moment, sincere in his religious convictions—and let it to impress on their tender hearts some notions be recollected, that the great lesson to be deof the faith which has been ascribed to him. rived from the contemplation of the death of No such effort was made by him. Equally Charles I. is the absence of any practical influremoved from superstition and fanaticism, he ence possessed by religious tenets-he might may bave endeavored to comfort them by the have afforded the most efficient caution to his Usual commonplaces ; but he received them children, without expressing the slightest want without a blessing, and dismissed them for of confidence in their mother, or even menever without a prayer.

tioning her name. Amongst the works of Indeed, there are no incidents in the life of Laud is his celebrated reply to Fisher, which the King that more strongly mark the noble all zealots must consider as the most cogent indepenuence of his mind, than the minuter refulation of Popery ever produced; for whilst circumstances attending this, the most affect the crafty archbishop annihilates his antagoing passage in his history. One of his own nist, he never uses any argument which could chaplains, Hammond, had been remarkable be employed against the superstition of the for his diligence in catechising youth, that is Church of England by the fanatics; yet to say, instructing them in the nonsense which Charles, anxious, no doubt, that his children passed for religion.-Did Charles deem it should be preserved, as far as possible, from right to enable his infant boy, the Duke of the contagion of all religious opinions, never Gloucester, to obtain any perplexing know- even alluded 10 a book which might have inledge of such absurdities? No! Charles fluenced their conscience in favor of any posiwholly discarded it. The Princess Elizabeth tive belief. was a child endowed with judgment beyond On the scaffold, his dying words contained her years, and capable of appreciating any a most earnest exhortation to his subjects to advice which he might have bestowed, and of pay obedience to his son as their lawful king. understanding the doctrinal works advocating Whilst he thus employed the last moments of the theological extravagances then so much bis existence in laboring to support the royal in vogue. "But when any man of sense takes prerogative, by the sympathy which his fate up a volume of divinity, what are the ques- excited amongst his bitterest enemies, he purtions which he asks ?-Does it contain any ab- posely, deliberately, and advisedly abstained stract soning concerning qua or num- from any expression or exhortation displaying ber? No. Does it contain any experimental any attachment or feeling of duty towards the reasoning concerning matter of fact and exist- Church, for which he had contended so earence? No. Commit it then to the flames, nestly, when its interests were connected with for it contains nothing but sophistry and illu- the rights of the crown. sion. So thought Charles, now that intellect • The total want of any allusion to the late asserted her full empire. Of these writers, established religion is most remarkable. The many were familiarly known to Charles, both more we investigate the character of Charles through their works and his personal connex- as delineated by Hume, the more shall we be ion with the men; and he had quoted them confirmed in the opinion that his superstition with sufficient point, when he could employ their had now entirely passed away; at least not a arguments against his political enemies. But trace of it can be found in Hume's accurate what was his conduct now ?–Did he attempt narrative. The only incident which might to strengthen the religious obedience of his child tend to show that Charles had the slightest by recommending to her the sophistries of recollection of the Church of England, any Hooker? No.-Did he teach her to seek con- veneration for its priestcraft, is the circumsolation in the superstitions of Andrews ? No. stance that Bishop Juxon assisted him in some

- With philosophical contempt he rejected species of devotion when on the scaffold. them all.

Yei, as far as we can discover from the conIndeed many men of sense might think that duct of Charles, he justly regarded priests as Charles carried his indifference almost too far, the invention of a timorous and abject superconsidering the need of conciliating the pre- stition. Rejecting the foundation of a priestdominant opinions of the vulgar. The mere hood, the absurd superstructure of an apostolic suspicion of being inclined to the Popish super- succession would of course fall to the ground. stition had been most calamitious to him ; and We have no reason to suppose that Bishop he was now consigning his children to the care Juxon was chosen by the king, or that Charles of a mother zealously affected to that supersti- would not equally have accepted of what were tion, and yet without bestowing the slightest then termed spiritual consolations from the caution against the errors which she might fanatical ministers, or indeed that he required instil into their minds. But it will be an any religious consolation at all. It was only swered, Was it to be expected that Charles, in the capacity of a friend that the bishop with his dying breath, would adopt any course paid the last melancholy duties to his sovewhich might diminish the affection of his chil- reign. In every respect the conduct of dren towards the wife whom he so tenderly Charles, in repudiating all adherence to the loved, or encourage them to depreciate the superstitions of the Church of England, was parent whom he taught them to respect and calm and solid. The period of dissimulation honor? Certainly not; but, had he been had passed by. Whatever ridicule may, by a philosophical mind, be thrown upon pious cer- ed in Charles; and he died without making emonies, they are ungestionably advantageous the slightest, the most remote, the most tranto the rude multitude; and upon that ground, sient profession of Christianity' no doubi, Charles I. had so strenuously contended for the share of popish ceremonies which the Church of England, as is well known, had retained. They were now wholly

Such, then, are the inferences intended and entirely cast off. Charles discarded all the mummery of a liturgy, all the solemn to be deduced by Hume, who, in his most farces of lessons and gospels, rubrics and set dishonest statement, has, as will be seen by förms of prayer; and freeing himself from all comparison with his sources, purposely superstitious influences, he disdained to par- omitted every historical memorial or retake of the Communion which, according to cord testifying either the king's allegiance the rites of the Church of England, he was

to the Church, or his unshaken faith as a enjoined to have sought in his dying hour.

Christian. * No philosophical mind can doubt the origin

Charles truly suffered death for of the works which superstition and fanaticism the belief that Christianity, according to equally receive as the production of those who the profession of the Church of England, have been tempted to appear as prophets or was the fundamental law of the state, unambassadors from Heaven: books presented changeable by any political or constitutionto us by a barbarous and ignorant people, al power, being an obligation contracted written in an age when they were still more with the Almighty, from which he could barbarous, and resembling those fabulous ac

not be absolved by any human authority. counts which every nation gives of its origin. Charles fully appreciated the insufficiency of Let it further be remarked, that, whilst such testimony. We have the strongest proofs Hume falsifies the narrative by expunging all that he never entered into the delusion, from the particulars teaching the reader to profit the marked circumstance, that, during the by the religious sentiments of the monarch, three days which, as before mentioned, were he endeavors to excite a factitious sympathy, allowed him between his sentence and his exe

by the false and theatrical representation of tranquillity, the Scriptures, as they are called, the king's hearing the noise of the scaffold, were never in his hands ; nor did he, accord- which authentic accounts entirely disaping to the practice of all religionists, whether prove.* And, for the same purpose of guided by superstition or fanaticism, seek any effect, whilst Hume gives to the interview comfort in his afflictions from a book so contrary with the children more prominence of deto human reason. Charles neither saw the Bible, tail than its relative importance requires, he nor heard the Bible, nor read the Bib!e, nor touched the Bible, norexpressed any belief in the suppresses that portion of the king's advice Bible, nor recommended the Bible to his chil- which most peculiarly discloses the mind of dren or his friends. Do we need any stronger the dying father, namely, the recommendaproof that Charles was a philosopher in the tion made by Charles of Hammond, Hooker, fullest sense of the term ? His devotions, as Andrcws, and Laud, as the expositors of we must style them according to the conven the doctrines of that Protestant Church of tional language of society, appear to be noth- England, for which he and Laud equally ing more than that reverence which every died as martyrs. philosopher renders to the hypothesis by

Detrimental as Hume may be, when which he endeavors to account for the unalterable and immutable order of the universe. speaking his own sentiments in his own His allusions to passing from a corruptible book, the evil which he effects in person is to an incorruptible crown, where no disturb- small when compared to the diffusion of his ance can take place, if they mean any thing irreligion, by those who are frequently unbeyond a species of rhetorical play upon words, conscious of the mischief which ihey perpeonly imply that he contemplated the eternal trate ;-we mean the writers who have rest of annihilation. For they were wholly been guided by him in what is at this day detached from any other expressions implying any belief in a future state. Charles may the most important branch of our literature have admitted its possibility, but nothing more. -the numerous compilers of educational And how could it be otherwise ? Even at this works; and, in order that our readers may day, the Christian religion cannot be believed pursue the inquiry for themselves, we wish by any reasonable person without a miracle; them to consult three of the most popular and whoever is moved by faith to assent to it, histories of this class, Keightley, Gleig, and is conscious of a continued miracle in his own Markham ; and selecting the death of person, which subverts all the principles of his understanding, and gives him a determination

* This has been done so effectually by Mr. Broto believe what is most contrary to custom die, and by Mr. Laing, that it is annecessary to and experience. This miracle was not work

go into further particulars.

Charles I., judge for themselves whether not in the least doubt, from a close examthis event-of all others in our annals, the ination of the work, that when the author most interesting to the imagination-has began it for the use of her own children, been presented by those writers to the ris-she resorted at once to the historian whom ing generation in such a tone or spirit as she had been taught to consider as her philto inculcate any dutiful affection towards osopher and guide. From her father, the the Church, or aid the parent in bringing inventor of the power-loom, she may have up the child in the nurture and admonition heard the name of Adam Smith mentioned of the Lord.

with the highest honor; and Adam Smith, These three writers may in some meas in the letter prefixed to the History, has ure elucidate the manner in which Hume's told her—as he tells our children, if we influence has operated upon his successors, place Hume in their hands—that Hume's according to their individual characters character approached as nearly to the idea and opportunities. Mr. Keightley, a man of a perfectly wise and virtuous man as perof considerable diligence and energy, has haps the nature of human frailty will perbeen taught by Hume's scepticism to boast mit; and therefore there is hardly any porthat he belongs to no sect or party in reli- tion of the work in which the professors of gion or politics ;' hence he gives only a religion are mentioned, into which the senmoderate preference to the Church of En-timents of Hume are not infused. These gland, without taking upon him to assert passages are fortunately not numerous ; that it absolutely is the best ;' and the same and we do most earnestly hope that, if a indifference has caused him, in his Out- production, in many respects so useful, and lines of history, to obtrude upon youth some which has obtained so much currency, of the most offensive doctrines which Ger- should come to another edition, they may man neology can afford. In the death of be all modified or expunged. Charles, all he finds edifying is that Hugh Hume has been, and is still, valued by Peters prayed for him!

many, as a defender of monarchical princiMr. Gleig is an amiable and most pleas- ples; but his support kills the root of loying writer; when he works freely upon his alty. By advocating the duty of obedience own ground, speaks his own sentiments, to the Sovereign, simply with reference to and embodies his own observations, he pro-human relations, he deprives allegiance of duces "narratives of rare and unaffected the only sure foundation upon which it can vigor and elegance;* but when he is tempt-rest. ed to put on the sleeves and apron

of a

Perhaps the speculative atheism of Hume bookmaker, his genius deserts him. He is -for it is a violation of the warning not to above such work, and goes about it accord-call evil good, if, when required to pass ingly. The circumstances under which he judgment, we designate his principles by produced his 'Family History, as a mere any other name-may render his history, bespoken task, to be put on the list of a in some respects, more pernicious, if that Society, rendered it, we can suppose, need be possible, than the ribald aggressive infiful that he should take what he found most delity of Gibbon. Arsenic may warn us by ready at hand. He perhaps went a step the pain which the poison occasions, but beyond Hume; but the only word of in- narcotics steal life away. Hume constantstruction which he can insert in the narra ly tempts us to deny the existence of the tive of the death of the royal martyr, is the Supreme Being, before whom he trembles. dry historical fact, that Charles avowed He raises his foul and pestilential mists, himself a member of the Protestant Church seeking to exclude from the universe the of England. There is nothing positively beams of the Sun of Righteousness, whom wrong in Mr. Gleig's work-but, out of he hates and defies. The main object and sight, out of mind; Christian knowledge is end of history is the setting forth God's as diligently weeded out from this 'Family glory, so as to show that national happiness History' as Hume himself could desire.

arises from doing His appointed work, and Yet perhaps the strongest case of the that national punishments are the results of treacherous seductions of Hume, is to be national sins; yet let it not be supposed found in Mrs. Markham's history. We do that, in order to render history beneficial,

it must of necessity be expressly written * We are pleased to notice · The Light Dragoon' of the present season, as entirely worthy of upon religious principles, still less that facts the pen that wrote "The Subaltern, and the should be coarsely and presumptuously • Narrative of the American Campaign in 1814.'

wrested, for the purpose of justifying the JULY, 1844.


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