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This universal meaning of expression Four straight muscles, attached at cardinal which, as the author elsewhere observes, is points, by combining their action, move it in to passion and the emotions of the heart every direction required for vision, and these what language is to thought and the opera- straight muscles, from weariness or exhaus
muscles are subject to the will. When the tions of the mind, is connatural with man. tion, cease to guide the eye, two other muscles It precedes the first inarticulate sounds of operate to roll it upwards under the eyelid : infancy; it hovers over the closing scenes these are the oblique muscles. Accordingly, of decay and death. It speaks when speech in sleep, in fainting, in approaching death, is silent. It is the common utterance of when the four voluntary muscles resign their the white man and the black, of the bonds- action, and insensibility creeps over the retina, man and the free, of savage and of civilized revolved, so as to expose only the white of the
the oblique muscles prevail, and the pupil is life. Artificial wanners may mask or con- eye. It'is so far consolatory to reflect, that straint degrade it; but they cannot obliter- the apparent agony indicated by this direction ate it, though for its highest development it of the eyes, in fainting or the approach of requires a life of liberty, cultivation and death, is the effect of encroaching insensibility truth. It even creates a tie of sympathy of objects impressed on the nerve of vision between man and the higher animals; for being no longer perceived. in all alike the upturned eye has supplica- al feelings, and when outward impressions are
“We thus see that when wrapt in devotiontion in it, the quivering muscles are relax- unheeded,' the eyes are raised, by an action ed by grief, the frame is knit and the teeth neither taught nor acquired. It is by this inset by rage. It gives to instinct the elo- stinctive motion we are led to bow with humilquence of intelligence; but it rises in man ity-10 look upwards in prayer, and to regard alone to the highest pitch of delicacy and the visible heavens as the seat of God. variety,--to laughter and to tears, -and Prayer is the upward glancing of the eye, gradually declines as it descends the vast
When none but God is near.' ladder of animated life, where it occurs as “ Although the savage does not always disthe invariable exponent of the vital powers. tinguish God from the heavens above him, Such observations as these have been de- this direction of the eye would appear to be the veloped with the greatest felicity in these source of the universal belief that the Supreme Essays. We select the example of the Being has His throne above. The idolatrous
Negro in praying for rice and yams, or that he eye:
may be active and swift, lifts up his eyes to “We have said that the eye indicates the the canopy of the sky. So, in intercourse with holier emotions. In all stages of society, and God, although we are taught that our globe is. in every clime, the posture and expression of ever revolving: though religion inculcates that reverence have been the same. The works of the Almighty is every where, yet, under the the great masters, who have represented the influence of this position of the eye, which is more sublime passions of man, may be adduced no doubt designed for a purpose, we seek as evidences: by the upturned direction of the Him on high. I will lift up mine eyes unto eyes, and a correspondence of feature and at the hills from whence cometh my help. ljude, they address us in language intelligible frame has influenced our opinions and belief;
“See, then, how this property of our bodily to all mankind. raised eyes are natural, whether in the dark- our conceptions of the Deity, our religious obened chamber or under the open vault of servances, our poetry and daily habits.” heaven.
Even the beard and hair have their ap“ On first consideration, it seems merely consistent, that when pious thoughts prevail, man propriate meaning and effect:should turn his eyes from things earthly to the " The stages of man's life are outwardly purer objects above. But there is a reason characterized. An opinion prevails that the for this, which is every way worthy of atten- form and lineaments of old age are a consetion. When subject to particular influences, quence of the deterioration of the material of the natural position of the eyeball is to be di- our frame; and that the resemblance so often rected upwards. In sleep, languor and de- drawn between an aged man leaning on his pression, or when affected with strong emo- staff and a ruin tottering to its fall
, is a perfect tions, the eyes naturally and insensibly roll one. It is not so; the material of the frame is upwards. The action is not a voluntary one; ever the same; years aflect it not; but infancy, it is irresistible. Hence, in reverence, in de- youth, maturity and old age have their approvotion, in agony of mind, in all sentiments of priate outward characters. Why should the pity, in bodily pain with fear of death, the forehead be bald and the beard luxuriant, if eyes assume that position.
not to mark the latest epoch of man's life ? or “Let us explain by what muscles the eyes what reason can be given for the hair not are so revolved. There are two sets of mus- growing on the chin during the vascular fulcles which govern the motions of the eyeball. ness of youth, but that it would be inconsist
ent with the characters of that time of life to i Albergo dei Poveri, in Genoa,-a fresco of the be provided with a beard ?
Saviour, in the arms of the Almighty, where • When these Essays were first written, the beard of the Father flows beautifully. In there was not a beard to be seen in England, short, the beard may become, with knowledge unless joined with squalor and neglect: and I and taste, the most characteristic part in a had the conviction that this appendage con- figure. cealed the finest features. Being in Rome, E.rpression in the Lips and Moustaches.however, during the procession of the Corpus Things familiar do not always give rise to Domini, I saw that the exprersion was not in their natural association. I was led to attend jured by the beard; but that it added to the more particularly to the moustaches as a seadignity and character of years. It was evi- ture of expression, in meeting a handsome dent that the fine heads by the old masters young French soldier, coming up a long ascent were copies of what were then seen in nature, in the Coté d'Or, and breathing hard, although though now but rarely. There were beards with a good humored, innocent expression. which nearly equalled that of the "Moses' of His sharp-pointed black moustaches rose and Michael Angelo in length, and which flowed fell with a calamountain look that set me to like those in the paintings of Domenichino and think on the cause. Correggio.
" Every one must have observed how the “ The beard is characteristic of nations. In nostrils play in hard breathing. We have the East it is honored, and to be shaved is the seen that there is a muscle which is the prinmark of a slave. A beard of three hands' cipal agent in this action; and it may be felt breadth is a goodly show; but to exceed that swelling during inspiration, when the finger is requires a life of repose: violent exercise in pressed on the upper lip, just under the nonthe field shortens the beard. The Turks have tril. It is the depressor ala nasi. The action a very poor beard. The Persians have noble of this muscle, under the roots of the hairs on beards, and are proud of the distinction. The the lip, sensibly moves them; and as all pasbeard of Futteh Ali Shah, the late king of sionate excitements influence the respiratory Persia, reached below his girdle, was full and actions, the nostrils and moustaches necessarily fine, and remarkable in a nation of beards for participate in the movement in violent pashaving no division in the middle.
sions. Thus, although the hair of the upper beard, during the active period of life, shows Tip does conceal the finer modulations of the finely on horseback ; being tossed over the mouth, as in woman, it adds to the character shoulders in the wind, and indicating speed. of the stronger and harsher emotions. In the natural beard, the hair has a peculiarity
"I continued to think of this in descending depending on the place from which it grows. the Rhone, in company with some French offiThe hair of the upper lip is more profuse, and cers; they were merry with wine, and I saw even in the oldest man is of a darker hue than their moustaches, black, red and white, anithat of the under lip; so that falling on the mated in their songs and laughter; and allower part, it can still be distinguished as it though with a farouche character, these apmixes with the purer white. Again, the hair pendages rather added to than' concealed descending from the sides of the face attains a expression. We see the pictorial effect in the greater length than that which comes from the hilarity of the Dutch boor.” chin; and this is inore especially the character
It will already have been perceived from “In the French regiments they set frightful the extracts we have given, that the science fellows, with axes over their shoulders, to of expression as it was understood by Sir march in front: on their heads is a black bear-Charles Bell, touched the confines of those skin cap, of the form and dimensions of a drum, and they select men with beards of the psychological studies, which demand for same hue, which grow in a bushi, the counter their discussion the strictest accuracy of part of that on their heads. But the face, as philosophical language and the careful luseen between the two black masses, is more lu- cidity of logical arrangement. To these dicrous than terrible, and has an effect very dif- abstruse inquiries, however, the peculiar ferent from what is intended. A common fellow's beard, like a common fellow's coun- did not lead him. It cannot but be regret
qualifications and purusits of the author tenance, is coarse.
“ Even in the Franciscan and Capuchin ted, for the sake of one of the most curious monks, the beard has not always the fine problems of metaphysical science, that Sir character displayed in the works of the old Charles Bell's attention does not appear to painters. Their models are gone with their have been directed to Descartes's Treatise times. Something excessive and ideal may he on the Passions, or to the few philosophical represented by the beard. Michael Angelo writers who have treated the subject, alhas, perhaps, followed Scripture, in the beard of his · Moses,' which floats below the girdle; though with scientific attainments very far
below his own. and in the fresco of Jeremiah, in the Sistine
We are inclined to susChapel. The finest painting of the beard that I pect that a more close examination of the have seen is by Correggio, in the Scala of the question would have induced him to modify
his opinion, that “the faculties owe their servation, which might have escaped a less development as much to the operation of watchful eye, went to illustrate speculations the instruments of expression as to the im- which originated in very different scenes. pressions of the outward senses.” Such a A man who should devote his life to purdoctrine would lead far into the blank laby- sue and to interpret the language of exrinth of secondary causes; it tends to con- pression, has at once before him an endless vert into a fallacious original what is in variety in a perpetual identity,—the variety truth a faithful copy or image of the mind. of human nature, the identity of man. To We cannot omit, however, one paragraph the great artists of Italy, similar scenes and which conveys a philosophical reflection in observations furnished the models they so very striking language :
admirably imitated : to the critic in his
humbler sphere, they furnish the true key “Pain is affirmed to be unqualified evil; yet to the appreciation of those works. The pain is necessary to our existence; at birth it Fouses the dormant faculties, and gives us following passage will be read with great inconsciousness. To imagine the absence of terest :pain is not only to imagine a new state o: being, but a change in the earth, and all upon it. "In the same day I made careful examinaAs inhabitant of earth, and as a consequence tions of the anatomical studies of Michael Anof the great law of gravitation, the human gelo, in the collection of the Grand Duke of body must have weight. It must have bones, Florence, and I compared them with his noble as columns of support, and levers or the action works in the tombs of the Medici. I observed of its muscles; and this mechanical structure that he had avoided the error of artists of less implies a complication and delicacy of texture genius, who, in showing their learning, debeyond our conception. For that fine texture viate from living nature. I recognised the uta sensibility to pain is destined to be the pro- most accuracy of anatomy in the great artist's lection; it is the safeguard of the body; it studies; in his pen-and-ink sketches of the makes us alive to those injuries which would knee, for example, every point of bone, musotherwise destroy us, and warns us to avoid cle, tendon and ligament was marked, and them.
perhaps a little exaggerated. But on survey“When, therefore, the philosopher asks ing the limbs of those fine statues, this pecuwhy were not our actions performed at the liarity was not visible; there were none of the suggestions of pleasure, he imagines man, not details of the anatomy, but only the effects of constituted as he is, but as if he belonged to a muscular action, as seen in life, not the musworld in which there was neither weight nor | cles. As, perhaps, this is the most important pressure, nor any thing injurious,--where lesson which can be given to the artist, I shall ihere were no dangers to apprehend, no diffi- venture to transcribe the notes I made at the culties to overcome, and no call for exertion, time. resolution or courage. It would, indeed, be a 6. The statue of Lorenzo di Medici, Duca curious speculation to follow out the conse- d’Urbino, by Michael Angelo, is in the Capelquences on the highest qualities of the mind, la di Principi, of the church of St. Lorenzo. if we could suppose man thus free from all Under the statue are two figures, one of Twibodily suffering."
light, the other of Daybreak. I observed in
the male figure, which is of very grand proFrom these topics it is agreeable to turn portions, the clavicle or collar-bone, the head to the vivid and graceful
of the humerus, the deltoid and pectoral mus
impressions, snatched alike from nature and from art, true in the anatomy. Such a shoulder was
cles developed beyond nature, yet singularly in the course of Sir Charles Bell's Italian never seen in man, yet so finely is it imagined. journey. There is not a higher gratifica- that no one part is unduly exaggerated; but tion in life,-and possibly it partakes of the all is magnified with so perfect a knowledge, enlarged pleasures of a better existence, that it is just as a whole, the bone and the musthan to pass, prepared for the change, into cle corresponding in their proportions. In the a region where the visions of the fancy and same chapel are the statues of Giuliano di the abstract truths of the intellect are real- X., with the recumbent figures of Day and
Medici, Duke of Nemoure, and brother of Leo ized in the most perfect forms of beauty. Night. It is in these finely conceived figures
As our author crossed France, the south- that we have the proof of Michael Angelo's ern enthusiasm kindled his artist's nature. genius. They may not have the perfect puriHe saw men in the novelty of various man- ty and truth that we see in the antique ; but ners, and the picturesque forms of warmer there is a magnificence, which belongs to him
alone. Here we see the effect of muscular climates. Sometimes in the common accidents of life, and more frequently in the knowledge. The back is marvellously fine.
action, without affected display of anatomical peculiarities of foreign gesticulation or the The position of the scapula, for example, ceremonies of the Catholic church, an ob- makes its lower angle throw up the edge of the latissimus dorsi, for the scapula is forced | culties of the art and throw the human body back upon the spine, in consequence of the into this position, or who could throw the position of the arm. Michael Angelo must shoulder into this violent distortion, and yet have carefully studied the anatomy in refer preserve the relations of the paris, of bone and ence to the changes produced in the living muscle, with such scientific exactness? We budy by the action of iis members: the shiti- have in this great master a proof of the maning of ihe scapula, with the consequent rising ner in which genius submits io labor, in order of the mass of muscles, some in action, some to attain perfection. He must have undermerely pushed into masses, are very finely gone the severe toil of the anatomist to acshown."
quire such a power of design, which it was “ Having just come from observing his hardly to be supposed could be sufficiently apsketches of the anatomy of the knee-joint, 1 preciated then or now. was curious in my observation of the manner 66 Without denying the beauty or correctin which he made his knowledge available in ness of the true Grecian productions of the the joints of these fine statues; and they gave chisel, they ought not to be contrasted with rise to the following remarks.
the works of Michael Angelo to his disadvan“If an artist, with a knowledge of the struc-tage. He had a noble conception of the auture, should look upon the knee in a bent posi- gust sorin of man: to my thinking, superior to tion, he will recognize the different bones and any thing exhibited in ancient sculpture. Visligaments. But if he look upon it in an ex-conti imputes inferiority to Buonarotti; and, tended position of the limb, or during exertion, to confirm his views, compares the antique he will not distinguish the same parts. The statues restored by him with the limbs and contour, the swelling of the integument, and the heads which he added. But I can conceive fulness around the joint are not produced by nothing less suited to the genius of the artist the forms of the bones, but by the rising up of than this task of modelling and adjusting a limb the parts displaced by the new position of the in a different position from that which is entire, bones. The faity cushions which are within and yet so as to preserve the proportions and and external to the knee-joint, and which serve character of the whole. The manner of his the
purpose of friction-wheels in the play of working, and the urgency of his genius for an the bones upon each other, no longer occupy unrestrained field of exertion, unfitted him for the same relative places; they are protruded that kind of labor, while it is a matter of necesfrom the depth of the cavity to the surface. sity that a copy shall be inferior to an original. How well Michael Angelo knew this, these it. What the figures of Night and Morning statues of Day and Night evince.
had to do before the degenerate son of the "In these statues, great feeling of art and Medici is another matter. They seem to have genius of the highest order have been exhibit-been placed there as mere ornaments, and in ed; anatomical science, ideal beauty, or rather the luxury of talent, to give the form and posgrandeur, combined. It is often said that Mi- ture of the human figure, 'per ornamento e chael Angelo studied the Belvidere Torso, and per solo spoggio di giacitura e de' forme.' that he kept it continually in his eye. That "When in Rome I was impatient until I fine specimen of ancient ari may have been the stood before the statue of Moses, so much had authority for his grand development of the hu- been said of its extraordinary merit, and also man muscles; but it did not convey 10 him the so much of its defects. It is a noble figure, effect which he produced by the throwing out with all the energy of Buonarotti displayed in of those magnificent and giant limbs. Here it. It is not the anatomy alone which constiwe see the vigor of this sculptor's stroke and tutes its perfection ; but there is the same mind the firmness of his touch, as well as his sublime displayed in the attitude, the habiliment, the conception of the human figure. We can im- beard, and all the accompaniments, as in the agine that he wrought by no measure or me- vigor of the naked shoulders and arms.
It is chanical contrivance; that he hewed out the the realization of his high conception of the marble as another would cast together his human figure.?" mass of clay in a first sketch. Many of his finest works are left unfinished; it appears that he found the block of inarble in some instances
Sir Charles Bell inclines to give to the 100 small, and left the design incomplete. For great sculptors of Italy a preference over my own part I feel that the finish and smooth-the artists even of Greece, probably from ness of the marble is hardly consistent with the the excellence of the former in that kind of vigor of Michael Angelo's conceptions; and 1 powerful expression and character which should regret to think that such a genius should he himself was best able to appreciate. Yet have wasted an hour in giving sofiness or polish his criticisms on the Laocoon' and the to the surface.
“Who is there, modern or ancient, that' Dying Gladiator' are of great value. We would thus voluntarily encounter all the diffi- can only make room for the latter :
*" I might make similar remarks on the statue “ The Dying Gladiator is one of those by John of Bologna, -Januarius sitting, shiver- masterpieces of antiquity which exhibits a ing under a shower, in a fountain in the Villa knowledge of anatomy and of man's nature. Petraia, near Florence.”
He is not resting; he is not falling; but in the
position of one wounded in the chest, and tion of antiquity; for how natural to supseeking relief in that anxious and oppressed pose, when this girl again falls into a state breathing which attends a mortal wound with of torpor, anil sits like a marble statue, pale, loss of blood. He seeks support to his arms, exhausted, taciturn, that the spirit has left not to rest them or to sustain the body, but to her. The transition is easy; the priests fix them, that their action may be transferred take her under their care, watch her ravings 10 the chest, and thus assist the laboring res- and give them meaning, until she sinks piration. The nature of his sufferings leads to again into a death-like stupor or indifference. this attitude. In a man expiring from loss of Successive attacks of this kind impress blood, as the vital stream flows, the heart and the countenance indelibly. The painter has lungs have the same painful feeling of want, to represent features powerful, but consistent which is produced by obstruction to the breath- with the maturity and perfection of feminine ing. As the blood is draining from him he beauty. He will show his genius by portraypants and looks wild, and the chest heaves ing not only a fine female form with the convulsively. And so the ancient artist has grandeur of the antique, but a face of peculiar placed this statue in the posture of one who character ; embodying a state of disease often suffers the extremity of difficult respiration. witnessed by the physician, with associations The fixed condition of the shoulders, as he derived from history. If on the dead and unisustains his sinking body, shows that the pow-form paleness of the face he bestows that deep erful muscles, common to the ribs and arms, | tone of interest which belongs to features inhave their action concentrated to the strug- active, but not incapable of feeling; if he can gling chest. In the same way does a man af- show something of the imprint of long suffering Aicted with asthma rest his hands or his el- isolated from human sympathy, throw around bows upon a table, stooping forwards, that the her the appropriate mantle, and let the fine shoulders may become fixed points; the mus- hair fall on her shoulders, the picture will recles of the arm and shoulder then act as quire no golden letters to announce her charmuscles of respiration, and aid in the motion of acter, as in the old paintings of the Sybil or the chest, during the heaving and anxiety the Pythoness." which belong to the disease."
To such fragments as these nothing need We conclude with a passage which has be added. It is well that the discoveries much of the grandeur of those exalted and the reflections of such a mind should works by which it appears to have been be placed within the reach of the public at suggested :
large in an accessible and attractive form. “There is a link of connection between all The truest acknowledgment of the services liberal professions. The painter may borrow rendered by such men is the respect which from the physician. He will require some- every one may pay to their literary remains; thing more than his fancy can supply, if he and we are persuaded that the success of has to represent a priestess or a sybil. It this volume will not be inferior to that of must be the creation of a mind, learned as well the admirable treatise on the Hand, and not as inventive. He may readily conceive a female form full of energy, her imagination at unworthy of its accomplished author's lastthe moment exalted and pregnant, so that ing fame. things long past are painted in colors as if they stood before her, and her expression becomes bold and poetical. But he will have a more true and precise idea of what is to be depicted, if he reads the history of that melan
SONNET.-TO MEMORY. cholia which undoubtedly, in early times, has given the idea of one possessed with a spirit. A young woman is seen constitutionally pale
From the Metropolitan. and languid ; and from this inanimate state no show of affection or entreaty will draw her into Come, pensive spirit, moonlight of the mind, conversation with her family. But how chang- Hallowing the things of earth with touch refined, ed is her condition, when instead of the lethargy Unfold thine ample page, and let me dwell and fixed countenance, the circulation is sud- Upon the days that were : I love thy spell, denly restored, the blood mounts to her cheeks, And own thee mistress of the magic ari and her eyes sparkle, while both in mind and That breathes a fresh existence o'er the heart. body she 'manifesis an unwonted energy, and Mume the dullness of the passing hour;
Come, then, enchantress! with thy scenic power, her whole frame is animated. During the con- Act o'er again what time has swept away, tinuance of the paroxysm, she delivers herself And give me back each smiling former day; with a force of thought and language, and in a Call up the rosy hours that danced along, tone so greatly altered, that even her parents Gay as my spirit, joyous as my song, say, She is not our child, she is not our when youth and health and golden hopes were daughter, a spirit has entered into her.' This mine, is in accordance with the prevailing supersti- Heaping with od'rous gifts home's hallow'shrine.
BY MRS. CRAWFORD.