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another proof of the prevalence of eastern fable end was, that Hildigunne was promised to Hioramong the descendants of Odin-for a story pre-vard, and the wedding followed soon after." cisely similar will be found among the earliest Hindoo legends:
"King On returned to Upsal when he was sixty years of age. He made a great sacrifice, and in it offered up his son to Odin. On got an answer from Odin, that he should live sixty years longer; and he was afterwards king in Upsal for twenty-five years. Now came Ole the Bold, a son of King Fridleif, with his army to Sweden, against King On, and they had several battles with each other; but Ole was always the victor. Then On fled a second time to Gothland; and for twenty-five years Ole reigned in Upsal, until he was killed by Starkad the Old. After Ole's fall, On returned to Upsal, and ruled the kingdom for twenty-five years. Then he made a great sacrifice again for long life, in which he sacrificed his second son, and received the answer from Odin, that he should live as long as he gave him one of his sons every tenth year, and also that he should name one of the districts of his country after the number of sons he should offer to Odin. When he had sacrificed the seventh of his sons he continued to live; but so that he could not walk, but was carried on a chair. Then he sacrificed his eighth son, and lived thereafter ten years, lying in his bed. Now he sacrificed his ninth son, and lived ten years more; but so that he drank out of a horn like a weaned infant. He had now only one son remaining, whom he also wanted to sacrifice, and to give Odin Upsal and the domains thereunto belonging, under the name of the Ten Lands, but the Swedes would not allow it: so there was no sacrifice, and King On died, and was buried in a mound at Upsal."
The following episode resembles the apocryphal story of Vortigern and the fair Rowena. King Hiorvard, sailing with his fleet near Sweden, was invited by King Granmar to a feast, and royally entertained:
The first Saga is considered apocryphal, as indeed the early history of nations always is. With "Halfdan the Black's Saga," we enter on the historical period, his reign commencing in 841. The third Saga, relating the deeds and prowess of his son, Harald Haarfager, who reigned from about 861 to 931, (succeeding his father when but ten years old)-is characteristic and amusing. This Harald has been made known to the English reader, as the composer of a ballad with the refrain of
Yet the Russian maiden scorns me.
And in this he certainly appears as closely approximating to the knight of Romance. In his saga, however, no such character is displayed by him, except, perhaps, in valor, and respect for his word-but this is the "true and particular account" of the bold Viking's courtship:
"King Harald sent his men to a girl called Gyda, a daughter of King Eric of Hordaland, who was brought up as foster-child in the house of a great bonder in Valders. The king wanted her for his concubine; for she was a remarkably handsome girl, but of high spirit withal. Now when the messengers came there, and delivered their errand to the girl, she answered, that she would not throw herself away even to take a king for her husband, who had no greater kingdom to rule over than a few districts. And methinks,' said she, it is wonderful that no king here in Norway will make the whole country subject to him, in the same way as Gorm the Old did in Denmark, or Eric at Upsal.' The messengers thought her answer was dreadfully haughty, and asked what she thought would come of such an answer; for Harald was so mighty a man, that his invitation was good enough for her. But although she had replied to their errand differently from what they wished, they saw no chance, on this occasion, of taking her with them against her will; so they prepared to followed them out, Gyda said to the messengers, return. When they were ready, and the people
"King Hiorvard's high seat was placed right opposite to King Granmar's high seat, and on the same bench sat all his men. King Gran-Now tell to King Harald these my words,—1 mar told his daughter Hildigunne, who was a will only agree to be his lawful wife upon the remarkably beautiful girl, to make ready to condition that he shall first, for my sake, subject carry ale to the vikings. Thereupon she took to himself the whole of Norway, so that he may a silver goblet, filled it, bowed before King rule over that kingdom as freely and fully as Hiorvard, and said, 'Success to all Ylfingers: King Eric over the Swedish dominions, or King this cup to the memory of Rolf Krake,'-drank Gorm over Denmark; for only then, methinks, out the half, and handed the cup to King Hior can he be called the king of a people.' Now vard. He took the cup, and took her hand, and came the messengers back to King Harald, said she must sit beside him. She says, that is bringing him the words of the girl, and saying not viking fashion, to drink two and two with she was so bold and foolish that she well dewomen. Hiorvard replies, that it were better served that the king should send a greater troop for him to make a change and leave the viking of people for her, and inflict on her some dislaw, and drink in company with her. Then Hil- grace. Then answered the king, 'This girl digunne sat down beside him, and both drank hath not spoken or done so much amiss that together, and spoke a great deal with each other she should be punished, but rather she should during the evening. The next day, when King be thanked for her words. She has reminded Granmar and Hiorvard met, Hiorvard spoke of me,' said he, of something which it appears his courtship, and asked to have Hildigunne in to me wonderful I did not think of before. marriage. King Granmar laid this proposal be- And now,' added he, 'I make the solemn vow, fore his wife Hilda, and before people of con- and take God to witness, who made me,* and sequence, saying they would have great help and trust in Hiorvard; and all approved of it highly, and thought it very advisable. And the
* This appears a Christian interpolation; at least we find no such vows among the other saga heroes of the Odin religion.
rules over all things, that never shall I clip or comb my hair until I have subdued the whole of Norway, with scatt, and duties, and domains: or if not, have died in the attempt.' Guttorm thanked the king warmly for his vow; adding, that it was royal work to fulfil royal words."
The long-haired monarch forthwith swept the seas with his fleet, dealing death around, and gaining many battles-all of which are told by Snorro with a glee and spirit, that shows he quite entered into the feelings of the hardy Viking. There are many snatches of poetry scattered here and there—relics of ballads made at the very time, and by men who had both fought in the fight, as well as celebrated it in the mead hall-here is part of one:
"Has the news reached you?-have you heard
Their fleet sweep o'er the dark-blue sea;
Whose snow-white targets shone from far;
got his kingdom, and all that belonged to his high dignity. They had four sons; the one was Sigurd Rise; the others Halfdan Haaleg, Gudrod Liome, and Rognvald Rettilbeen. Thereafter Snæfrid died; but her corpse never changed, but was as fresh and red as when she lived. The king sat always beside her, and thought she would come to life again. And so it went on for three years that he was sorrowing over her death, and the people over his delusion. At last Thorlief the Wise succeeded, by his prudence, in curing him of his delusion, by accosting him thus:-It is nowise wonderful, king, that thou grievest over so beautiful and noble a wife, and bestowest costly coverlets and beds of down on her corpse, as she desired; but these honors fall short of what is due, as she still lies in the same clothes. It would be more suitable to raise her, and change her dress.' As soon as the body was raised in the bed, all sorts of corruption and foul smells came from it, and it was neces sary in all haste to gather a pile of wood and burn it; but before this could be done the body turned blue, and worms, toads, newts, paddocks, and all sorts of ugly reptiles came out of it, and it sunk into ashes. Now the king came to his understanding again, threw the madness out of his mind, and after that day ruled his kingdom as before."
This story is similar to one told by an old monkish writer of Charlemagne, and which, as the reader may probably remember, is made use of by Southey in one of his ballads. King Harald after this had a son in his old age, who was very beautiful, and he was named Hakon.
"At this time a king called Athelstan had taken the kingdom of England. He sent men to Norway to King Harald, with the errand that the messengers should present him with a sword, with the hilt and handle gilt, and also the whole sheath adorned with gold and silver, and set with precious jewels. The ambassadors preAt length Norway was subdued, and their sented the sword-hilt to the king, saying, 'Here King Harald "remembered what that proud is a sword which King Athelstan sends thee, girl had said, and sent and took her." King with the request that thou wilt accept it.' The Harald, however, only made her one of many king took the sword by the handle; whereupon wives, for polygamy-another Asiatic character- the ambassadors said, 'Now thou hast taken the istic-prevailed among the kings, at least, to a sword according to our king's desire, and therevery late period of Scandinavian history. All fore art thou his subject, as thou hast taken his Norway being now subdued, "at a feast given sword.' King Harald saw now that this was a by Earl Rognvald, King Harald bathed and jest, for he would be subject to no man. But had his hair cut, which had been uncut and un-he remembered it was his rule, whenever any combed for ten years, and therefore the king was called 'ugly head. But then Earl Rognvald gave him the distinguished name, Harald Haarfager, and all who saw him agreed to its truth, for he had the most beautiful and abundant head of hair."
thing raised his anger, to collect himself, and let his passion run off, and then take the matter into consideration coolly. Now he did so, and consulted his friends, who all gave him the advice to let the ambassadors, in the first place, go home in safety. The following summer King One Christmastide, King Harald was sitting Harald sent a ship westward to England, and down to table, when a Laplander came, and gave the command of it to Hauk Haabrok. He prayed the king to go with him. The king fol- was a great warrior, and very dear to the king. lowed him to his hut, and there stood his daugh-Into his hands he gave his son Hakon. Hauk ter, a most beautiful girl, who presented a cup proceeded westward to England, and found the of mead to him. No sooner did he touch the king in London, where there was cup and her hand, than he fell most violently in love with her; and then her father demanded that she, although so mean in station, should become the king's wife :
just at the time a great feast and entertainment. When they came to the hall, Hauk told his men how they should conduct themselves; namely, that he who went first in should go last out, and all "Now King Harald made Snæfrid his lawful should stand in a row at the table, at equal diswife, and loved her so passionately that he for-tance from each other; and each should have
his sword at his left side, but should fasten his cloak so that his sword should not be seen. Then they went into the hall, thirty in number. Hank went up to the king and saluted him, and the king bade him welcome. Then Hauk took the child Hakon, and set it on the king's knee. The king looks at the boy, and asks Hauk what the meaning of this is. Hauk replies, Harald the king bids thee foster his servant girl's child.' The king was in great anger, and seized a sword which lay beside him, and drew it, as if he was going to kill the child. Hauk says, 'Thou hast borne him on thy knee, and thou canst murder him if thou wilt; but thou wilt not make an end of all King Harald's sons by so doing. On that Hauk went out with all his men, and took the way direct to his ship, and put to sea, for they were ready,-and came back to King Harald. The king was highly pleased with this; for it is the common observation of all people, that the man who fosters another's children is of less consideration than the other. From these transactions between the two kings, it appears that each wanted to be held greater than the other; but in truth there was no injury to the dignity of either, for each was the upper king in his own kingdom till his dying day."
King Athelstan acted a father's part toward his unwished-for foster child. He caused him to be baptized, and well educated, and he also gave him a splendid sword, with the characteristic name of "Quern Biter," because with it "Hakon cut down a mill-stone to the centre." No wonder was it that the possessor of such a sword should be chosen king, when at length his father, after so many battles, peaceably died in his bed.
in this banishment. Sigurd, the son of Eric,
A period of great confusion seems to have followed the death of Hakon; and in the opening Meanwhile his mother underwent equal vicisof King Olaf Tryggvesson's Saga, a vivid pic-situdes; having been twice sold as a slave, but ture of the reverses to which the greatest were at length redeemed by a rich merchant. In this exposed, is given. Queen Astrid and her infant Saga of King Olaf, we are introduced to an imchild take refuge on a small island in a lake, portant personage in Anglo-Saxon historyuntil winter compels them to seek shelter; she Sweyn, the father of Canute. But we must conis pursued from place to place, and after two clude for the present: hereafter we shall trace years' wanderings, at length determines to seek the progress of Olaf, the wars and reign of out her brother in Russia. Canute the Great, and the deeds of the Vikings in England.
THE SCOTT MONUMENT AT EDINBURGH.-A
"Astrid had now a great inclination to travel to her brother there. Hakon the Old gave her good attendants, and what was needful for the journey, and she set out with some merchants. She had then been two years with Hakon the Old, and Olaf was three years of age. As they sailed out into the Baltic, they were captured by vikings of Esthonia, who made booty meeting of the contributors towards the erection of both of the people and goods, killing some, and the monument of Sir Walter Scott in Prince's-st., dividing others as slaves. Olaf was separated and of the public generally, is to be held on Monfrom his mother and an Esthonian man called Klerkon got him as his share along with Thoralf and Thorkils. Klerkon thought that Thoralf was too old for a slave, and that there was not much work to be got out of him, so he killed him; but took the boys with him, and sold them to a man called Klærk for a stout and good ram. A third man, called Reas, bought Olaf for a good cloak. Reas had a wife called Rekon, and a son by her whose name was Rekoni. Olaf was long with them, was treated well, and was much beloved by the people. Olaf was six years in Esthonia
day next, at the request of the committee, for the purpose of laying before the meeting a report on the progress of the structure, state of the funds, &c. We believe it will be shown that there is still a deficiency of funds to finish the monument on the magnificent plan of the architect; but we have no doubt the call of the committee on this occasion will be promptly answered. It is impossible to look on that portion of the noble structure already built, its magnificence of design, and richness of ornament, and to entertain for a moment the idea that it can be left in an unfinished state for want of means to complete it.-Caledonian Mercury.
ACQUEDUCTS AND CANALS-DUKE OF guide we have recommended, he finds that
From the Quarterly Review.
1. Nismes et ses Environs à vingt Lieues
3. Histoire du Canal du Midi.
Par le Gén
éral Andréossi. Paris, 1804. 4. Memoir of James Brindley. By Samuel Hughes, C. E. Published in 'Weale's Quarterly Papers on Engineering.' Part
I. London, 1843. 5. A Description of the Canals and Railroads of the United States. By H. S. Tanner. New York, 1840.
this massive pile, with its triple tier of arches, from whose summit he has looked down on the Gard beneath at the risk of vertigo, was reared to convey a rill to the town of Nismes, and this probably for the holiday purposes of the Naumachia rather than for domestic uses, he may be at first disposed to cavil at the insignificance of the result as compared with the means. If practised, as English gentlemen are wont to be, in directing provincial public works in his own country, he will perhaps wonder at the oversight of those who neglected to combine in a structure of such labor and expense the usual purposes of a bridge with the original intention of an aqueduct; an omission which modern utilitarian skill has supplied with a vengeance, and to the great detriment of the We have included in our list the work of picturesque. If he possesses a smattering of Mr. Frossard, rather for the sake of recom- hydraulics, he will perhaps talk to his wife mending it to notice as one of the most in- or daughter of pipes and syphons, and pity teresting topographical publications we have the ignorance of Agrippa and his forgotten met with, than with any purpose of detailed architect. Now with respect to iron pipes, review. As a hand-book for the antiquarian our countryman will have it all his own way who visits a district scarcely rivalled in Italy-but if he comes to lead, let him beware. itself for its wealth of Roman remains, or for We, or any other Martinus Scriblerus who the naturalist who explores the scorched rocks stands up for antiquity, will brain him with where the mason-spider builds his guarded the inverted syphon used in the Claudian domicile, and those marshes of the Rhône aqueduct of Lyons, a fragment of which is still colonized by the beaver and haunted by preserved in the Museum of that city. Nearer the ibis and flamingo, this work will be too at hand, in the Museum of Arles, he will found invaluable. Nor will the moralist find find a most respectable length of leaden pipe matter less interesting in the reflections de- fished up from the Rhone by the anchor of a rived by the Protestant pastor from a state of trading vessel, and with the name of the Rosociety which, scarcely less than Ireland man plumber who made it at every juncture. itself, displays the open wounds of yet unex- It is supposed to have been used to convey hausted religious strife. Let no traveller water across the bed of the Rhône, there decline to purchase the volumes, if still pro- some 600 feet wide and 40 feet deep, from a curable at Nismes. The purchaser will source at Trinquetaillade to Arles. It was not thank us for our advice, and, reading, will then entirely from ignorance of hydraulics, but learn, among other things, the curious fact partly at least from choice, that the Romans that there exist in that city many respectable employed the mason at such expense, and persons who have never once paid a visit to that choice was perhaps wisely governed by the neighboring and wondrous relic of Ro- their knowledge of the dangerous properties man magnificence, the Pont du Gard. Let of lead when used for the transport of water him equally avoid the example of the French for long distances. We have indeed other resident who, as he lounges about some Pro- works of public utility to boast of, which testant or Romish café-(for in Nismes these may vie with any of ancient times. We resorts are as rigidly distinguished as the may without unbecoming pride rejoice that churches)-cares to see nothing beyond the we belong to an age and country in which smoke of his cigar, and of the British tra- the wasteful magnificence of imperial and veller, who sees every thing and nothing other despots is rivalled by the better-directed well. Even should his after residence at energies of free subjects. When the first Rome be curtailed by a day, that period of barge passed over the Barton aqueduct, time will have been well employed in exploring this most graceful monument. Scarcely from the Coliseum or from the surviving aqueducts of the Campagna will he derive a deeper impression of the bygone greatness of Rome.
When indeed, referring perhaps to the
Bridgewater and Brindley might have still better reason for pride than Agrippa and his architect, when from the last stone of the Pont du Gard they looked down on the sav age ravine on which a freak of Roman vanity had chosen to exert its art pontifical. Al
lowing all this, we shall still have to confess | 22,000. Various plans were proposed from that in this particular matter, not of the use time to time, but successively abandoned. of water for the conveyance of goods, but of Meanwhile population increased, yellow fever its own conveyance, we have little cause for paid occasional visits, but it was not till that triumph. It is not in England that we can very potent scavenger, the cholera, appeared find a fit subject of direct comparison with in 1832, that the energies of the Town Counthe Pont du Gard or the aqueducts of Italy. cil were effectually roused. At the instance We fear our science has only taught us to be of this body a Commission was appointed by niggardly in its application, to substitute for the Legislature early in 1833, which in 1835 value in use, value in exchange, and to sell finally reported in favor of the plan since by the quart what Romans supplied gratis executed, and received authority to underby the tun. Till London with all its water take the work. As might be expected in a Companies is as well supplied with accessi- country rich in what Americans call water ble water as modern Rome is by only two of privileges, various plans had been considered the aqueducts, whether fourteen, as some by the commission during its two years of count them, or twenty, which ancient Rome deliberation. Some were dismissed on the possessed, we must content ourselves, Anglo- ground of engineering difficulties; one, which Saxon as we are, with resorting to New York promised a supply from sources some twenty for our wise saw and modern instance, and miles nearer than the Croton, failed because, must lead our readers to drink at the Croton among other reasons, it involved an arrangeaqueduct. ment with the state of New Jersey; another, as interfering with the navigation of the Hudson to an extent which might call for the interference of Congress. A captious critic might adduce these instances as examples of the vexatious working of a Federal Union. We notice them rather as illustrative of the manner in which the members of a free community, however limited in territory, can meet and overcome difficulties. The difference between their proceedings and those of an arbitrary government is that which Schiller describes when he compares the course of the cannon-ball with that of the winding highway :
'My son, the road the human being travels,
That on which blessing comes and goes, doth follow
The advantages of such an undertaking as this great public work are not confined to the community which executes it. Its history furnishes a most profitable study to the philanthropist and the engineer, the deviser and the instrument of similar schemes of public benefit of other countries. For a very able compendium of that history, and well illustrated description of the work, we stand indebted to Mr. Tower. May we add that our obligation to him would be increased, if to any future edition of his work a map were appended, showing not only the localities at present concerned, but as much of the neighborhood as would enable us the better to understand the summary he gives us of the various schemes to which the present was ultimately preferred. We are almost led by rumors to fear that the obligation science will be under to the American engineers may be greater than for their sakes we could wish. In some particulars, which we sinThe Croton river finally triumphed over This stream derives cerely hope may prove unimportant, their skill all competing sources. is disputed and their full success questioned. its waters from some twenty natural reHot discussion has commenced, we believe, in servoirs, presenting an aggregate surface of America, but we have no defence before us nearly 4000 acres. At a spot forty miles by the parties whose skill is impugned, nor from New York, where the minimum flow will it probably be possible to arrive at posi-equals 27,000,000 gallons in twenty-four tive conclusions till further progress shall have been made in the distribution of the supply hitherto obtained. Under these circumstances we are content to take Mr. Tower's description as it stands for the purpose of calling the attention of our readers to a work which, whether completely successful or not, is worthy of great admiration.
The river's course, the valley's playful windings,
hours, aud the medium 50,000,000, it was found possible, by a dam raised thirty-eight feet above the natural level, to throw back the waters six miles, and form a fountain reservoir of 400 acres.
The next point for consideration was the mode of conveyance: -The following modes,' says Mr. Tower (p. 78), were preThe subject of an additional supply of sented. A plain channel formed of earth, water to the city of New York had forced it-like the ordinary construction of a canalself on the attention of its inhabitants so ear
Schiller's Piccolomini,' Act I., Scene 4: Cole
ly as 1744, when their numbers only reached ridge's translation.