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seated on the throne, after the decisive battle near rise to their institution, though the Knights of the walls of Toro, she exacted from many of the Santiago were originally intended to protect pilnobles-especially the Marquis of Cadiz-the full grims from the incursions of the Saracens on their restitution of the domains, and royal fortresses way to the shrine of St. James at Compostella, in which had been wrested from the crown. (See Galicia. Theseorders gradually became so rich and Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella, vol. i. p. 255, ed. so powerful, that in the time of Ferdinand and IsaLondon, 1849.) Similar concessions were de- | bella, the rents of the Mastership of Santiago manded and obtained from the Duke of Medina amounted to 60,000 ducats, those of Calatrava to Sidonia. Moreover, " the grandees were prohi 45,000, and those of Alcantara to about 40,000; bited from quartering the royal arms on their while, at the same time, there was hardly a district escutcheons, from being attended by a mace or province which was not covered with their bearer and a body guard, from imitating the regal | castles and religious houses. Hence the possessors style of address in their written correspondence, of the “Grand Masterships," from the extensive and other insignia of royalty which they had patronage and the authority which they obtained, arrogantly assumed ” (ut suprà, p. 268.)
were raised almost to the level of royalty itself. It was necessary, however, to proceed with great! Isabella, by the assistance of the Pope, gracaution in dealing with such a powerful and jeal- | dually managed to have the control of these ous body as the Castilian aristocracy. The Ca- military orders vested in herself and her consort, tholic sovereigns, by little and little, soon cur- who were thereby enabled to reform the various tailed the immense power of the turbulent nobility. | abuses which had impaired their ancient discl. Two measures especially promoted this important pline. Afterwards, the affairs of these orders were object to a great extent. The first consisted in conducted by a tribunal called the “Council of måking all Official appointments to posts of re- | Orders,” which took cognizance of all their tema sponsibility, depend more on personal merit than poral and ecclesiastical concerns. upon noble birth and rank. Hence we find that Fer Charles V. reduced the number of grandees to feet.'»
ua oiten passed over the grandees / sixteen families, viz. Medina-Sidonia, Albuquer of the court, and promoted individuals of humble que, Escalona, Infantado, Naxera, Alva, Arcos, origin, but of commanding virtues and talents, Bejar, Medina del Rio-Seco, Frias, Astorga to the highest civil and ecclesiastical dignities. Aquilar, Benevente, Lernos, and the Dukeso, A remarkable instance of this wise measure occurs / Segorba and Montalto. (See Dunlop's Memoirs in the case of the great Cardinal Ximenez, who, Spain during the Reigns of Philip IV. and Charles though not noble by birth, was elevated to the II. vol. ii. p. 378, ed. Edinburgh, 1834.). ERE archiepiscopal see of Toledo after the death of noble was not necessarily a grandee. Grandees Cardinal Mendoza. This high post had before of the “ first class" were elevated far above the been always filled by men of rank and opulence. rest of the nobility, by their ancient privilege of But in Ximenez, though nobility of birth would remaining covered in presence of their sovereigis. have been an accidental advantage to him, yet its | This was the most prized of all their privileges. absence was amply compensated for by the united | Those, however, who possessed it were divided splendour of his virtue and talents.
three classes : 1. Grandees, who covered them • The other measure which the Catholic sove- / selves at once, before addressing the king reigns adopted was the boldest of all, viz. that Grandees, who covered themselves after they will by which the nobles were compelled to contribute | spoken, but before they received their answer: a part of their revenues towards replenishing the 3. Grandees, who were only permitted to come funds of the royal exchequer, the annual revenues | when they had made their last obeisance. of which, under Henry IV, amounted to no more | mingled with the crowd of courtiers. than 30.000 ducats. The retrenchment seems to | titles might be Duke, Marquis, or Count; but have been conducted with strict impartiality. grandee always bore the ducal coronet, anam
(See Crónica del Gran Cardenal de España, cap. addressed by the appellation of Excellencia. Lue 51, Toledo, 1625, por Señor Doctor de Salazar y same privileges are still enjoyed by certain grande Mendoza.)
dees in the court of her Catholic Majesty, Isu The policy adopted by Ferdinand and Isabella, bella II. in reference to the military orders of Castile, also I believe that the title of Duque necessarily tended to curtail the power of the grandees, and implies “grandeeship,” but it by no means 1 to centre it solely in the sovereigns. The subject lows that every grandee is a duke The rally is fully discussed by Spanish writers, and also by of a grandee is conferred by the sovereign 10 Mr. Prescott. The history of the three great mili- | dressing the individual with the word cubrao, tary orders in the peninsula is exceedingly interest- “cover yourself.” Hence the dignity, as in in ing. They were composed of the Order of Santiago case of a cardinal, is called a hat. It was (and of Compostella, of the Knights of Calatrava, and of no doubt is still) the ambition of many gralla the Order of Alcantara. The Moorish wars gave dees, to unite in themselves as many grandes
ships as possible, by the marriage of heiresses, with my life and family, I lay at your Excellency’s &c.; for dignities descend through females, ad infinitum, and the names and titles are assumed by Most of the grandees of the present day reside the husbands, who take great pride in having at Madrid. A great improvement has taken place “ four or five bats." Each hat brings with it a amongst them, both as regards their piety, literary whole string of family names, whence comes the pursuits, loyalty, and love for their country's wel. amusing story of a benighted grandee, who | fare.
J. DALTON. knocked at a lonely inn; and being asked the
A LETTER OF S. T. COLERIDGE.
“N. & Q." is the new Foundling Hospital for “In that case,” interrupted the landlord, shutting Wit; the receptacle, not only of original articles, his window, “ go with God; there is not room for but of literary waits and strays of every kind — half of you." (See an article in the Quarterly, an universal anonymiana, scrapiana, omniana, and No. cxxiii. entitled “Spanish Genealogy and He- | de-quibusdam-rebus-ana. Here are garnered flyraldry." It is there that Mr. Ford, who evidently leaf scribblings and marginalia of old-world bookwrote the article, mentions this story.) .
lovers, unpublished (why do people say “ unSpanish beralds classify blood, like we do Ad | edited,” which ought to mean, if English at all, mirals, into red and blue. Simple blood is the l quite a different thing ?) letters of eminent men, vulgar blood of the base-born plebeian; but red and their forgotten anecdotes, “ deedes, and blood is tbe noble fluid which is found only in the gestes." Here, too, are appropriately localised, veins of the hidalgo ; while the sangre azul, the
as it were, matters of interest and importance to blue blood, par excellence, flows only in a grandee | literary men, which, although actually in print, of the first class! The least mixture of Moorish
are buried in scarce, forgotten, ephemeral, or or Jewish blood is supposed to taint a whole purely local publications unknown or inaccessible, family to the most distant generations. A person and to wbich reference neither could nor would be free from tainted blood is defined by law 'Chris- | made; while, on the other hand, no future editor tiano viejo, limpio de toda mula ruza y mancha,
or biographer will consider his duty performed “An old Christian, clean from all bad race and
till he bas searched the Index of “ N. & Q." for stain." (Doblado's Letters from Spain, Letter II. | anything that may give value and completeness to London, 1822.) It is, however, quite true that
| his own labours. many of the Spanish grandees derive a large
Thus it is that I have thought fit to transcribe portion of their blood both from Moors and Jews. a most interesting letter of S. T. Coleridge, which, In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the
so far as I know, has only appeared in a defunct wealth of the grandees was almost fabulous. local periodical--The Birmingham Iris and MidMost of their families were connected with indi
land Counties Monthly Magazine for April 1839. viduals who were or had been viceroys in Mexico | This magazine - one of the thousand-and-one or Peru, and hence enormous quantities of gold abortive attempts to establish a local literary and silver plate were exhibited on their side- | periodical in this town—was set on foot by Mr. T. boards on grand occasions. Some grandees, it is
J. Ouseley, then resident here as editor of a said, possessed 1200 dozen of silver dishes, and as local newspaper, but became extinct after a strugmany plates ; indeed, a nobleman was considered to gling existerce of four months. The letter, adbe poorly provided, who had not at least 800 dressed to the editor himself (?), conveys its own dozen of dishes, and 200 dozen of silver plates ! (Dunlop's Memoirs of the Court of Spain, vol. ii.
“2nd September, 1826. p. 381). The pride and indolence of many of the
“Oh it is sad, Sir, to know distress, and to feel for it, grandees were almost as proverbial as their opu
and yet to have no power of remedy. Conscious that my
circumstances have neither been the penalty of sloth, lence. Lady Fanshawe, in her Memoirs (ed. I
nor of extravagance, or vicious habits, but have reLondon, 1830, p. 168), gives a curious instance of suited from the refusal, since earliest manhood, to sacrithe former in the following account:
fice my conscience to my temporal interest, and from a
practice of writing what my fellow citizens want, rather « That afternoon the Duke of Albuquerque came to visit | than what they like. I suffer no pang of shame, in my husband, and afterwards me, with his brother, Doning to you that I do not possess as many shillings as you Melchor de la Cueva. As soon as the duke was seated mention pounds: and that if I were arrested for a debt of and covered, he said: Madam, I am Don Juan de la eight sovereigns, I have no other means of procuring the Cueva, Duke of Albuquerque, Viceroy of Milan, of His |
money but by the sale of my books, – that are to me the Majesty's Privy Council, General of the Galleys, twice
staff of life. The whole of my yearly income does not Grandee, the first Gentleman of His Majesty's Bed
amount to the prime cost of my necessary maintenance,chamber, and a near kinsman to His Catholic Majesty, clothes, shelter, food, and medicine; the rest I owe to the whom God long preserve!' and then rising up, and make more than brotherly regard of my disinterested friend, ing me a low reverence, with his hat off, he said-'These, Mr. Gillman; to whose medical skill I owe it, under God,
that I am alive; and to whose, and his amiable wife's Georgio Mylio.” It is dedicated to Augustus, unceasing kindness, I am indebted for all that makes life | Duke of Saxony. This also had belonged to endurable. Even when my health is at the best, I can
Melanchthon, as it contains very many notes in his only exert myself for a few hours in the twenty-four, and these I conscientiously devote to the completion of the
handwriting. Both these works are beautiful great works, in the matter and composition of which, I copies, but they had been bound after leaving the have employed the last twenty years of a laborious life possession of the original owner, and the careless if hard thinking and hard reading constitute labour. But | binder had slightly cut in some places the margin, for the last six months such has been the languor and and thuis inin
and thus injured partially some of the notes. debility of my frame-languor alternating with severe pain, that I have not been able to maintain the scanty |
Bayle, in a note on the life of Melanchthon, men. correspondence with the few friends I possess. By publi- tions his daughter's marriage to Sabinus; and cations I, or rather two or three generous friends, have after eulogising the poetry of the latter, reveals lost about 3001.; for I cannot, at least will not, write in re- the heart-burnings between the son-in-law and views; and what I can write, the public will not read.
the father, arising out of Melanchthon declining in So that I have no connection with any magazine, paper, or periodical publication of any kind; nor have I had
any way to assist him in his ambitious views. interest enough to procure, in any review or journal, even
This family discord is singularly confirmed by the the announcement of my last work—the 'Aids to Re autograph statement of Melanchthon in the very flection. I neither live for the world nor in the world. remarkable note which he has written on the title “I read your poem not without pleasure, or what would
of the poems. have been pleasure, could I have detached the lines from the distress of their writer. My utter want of access to
Sabinus's wife, Anne, died at Königsberg in all the editors of magazines, and of influence with the
1547 ; Sabinus died in 1560, the same year with London publishers, will explain my remitting them to his father-in-law. His wife was but fourteen you, together with your letter, which no eyes but mine when he married her at Wittenberg, Nov. 16, 1536. have seen since its receipt; and with most sincere wishes She was an excellent Latin scholar, and very that the occasion of this correspondence may be of short continuance, and that I may, without knowing it, here
beautiful. His only sister married Gaspar Peucer after meet you more than a conqueror over your present
in 1550. Of Melanchthon's genuine piety and perplexity, I remain, Sir, with every kind wish, and dis amiable disposition, Bayle has this anecdote. A tressed that I have that only to offer,
gentleman one day found Melancthon with a book “Yours respectfully,
in one hand, and rocking a child with the other. “S. T. COLERIDGE.”
Observing the surprise of his visitor, this excel,
WILLIAM BATES. lent man discoursed so piously on the duties of Edgbaston.
parents that the stranger went away deeply pressed by what he saw and heard.
J.M. PHILIP MELANCHTHON AND HIS SON-IN-LAW.
A notice of a literary curiosity of some interest may not be unacceptable to the readers of
EARLY SURNAMES. “ N. & Q.” It is the first edition of the poems of
[No. IV.] George Sabine, the son-in-law of Philip Melan The subjoined surnames are to be met with in chthon, in whose possession it had been, and who the Court Rolls of the Manor of Gillingham, Dior, seems to have carefully perused it.
set, now in the possession of the Marquis or The following is a copy of the title :
Westminster. These records form a very fine and “Georgii Sabini Brandeburgensis Elegiæ, argumentis almost unbroken series between the years 129 utiles ac variæ, et carminibus elegantibus compositæ, et and 1690, and are about 400 or 500 in number. nunc primum conjunctim expressæ. Lipsiæ, in officina | In selecting the following specimens of curl Valentini Papæ. Anno MDL.”
nomenclature, most of which do not appear 14 On the title-page is written in the distinct hand | Mr. Lower's standard treatise, it has been dee. of Melanchthon —
unnecessary to give more than the reign in which “ Sabinus Philippi Melan. gener factus, anno c. 1536.” the names occur, in order to avoid a complication This was evidently written shortly after the pub- of figures: -lication; and at a later period there was added - Edw. I. -Amicia Godesengel, Gilbert le Snake, “Qui postea semper ad magnas dignitates et opes as
Joh. de Cruce (Cross is a modern Dorset name! pirare cæpit, donec a socero per discidium separatus in Anastasia Scoketilor Skoketil, John le Glywere, 1 Borussiam ad Academiam venit. Socer non ægre ferebat cholas, son of William le Eorl : Peter le Cheyndut, ejus insolentiam ut qui semper humilitatem amare et sec | William Wlechwater, John le Vilur, John Pley, tari solebat. o. M."
stret, Walter Gompe, Thomas le Melkere, Richard It bears evidence of Melanchthon's anxious re- le Packere, John and William le Coyt, Hugo vision, and is full of his autograph notanda. Pipe, Robert le Wulfische, Roger le Gandere, There is bound up with it “Declamatiuncula cum Robt. le Gentil, Hen. le Dykere, Rog. le Ghonger carmine elegiaco et Sapphico de salutifera nativitate | John Fughelere, Will le But. Hen. le Sope, Thos: servatoris ac domini nostri Iesu Christi. Autore le Vox (Fox occurs further on in the rolls), Wallo
le Ermite, Ric. Schaunk, Matilda le Swones, Wm.
“KING RICHARD III. :” “PUSH ALONG-KEEP set (there are Dogerels even yet at Gillingham);
MOVING." Thos. Blikenin, Hugh le Yrays (Irish still exists in the county), Thomas Strikemeche, Wm. Lote In the good old city of Durham some forty-five rype, Joh. Blakyernstak, Roger le Swynbeler (al years ago there was a favourite comedian, whose sopig doctor ?), Walter Shepeshened, Constantia le briquet of “ Push along--Keep moving "had been Balleres, Christina la Lormineres, Ric. le Nor- acquired by his habit of singing that then popular therne, Jobn Tougud (Too-good), Ric. le Wym song on all possible occasions. It chanced that plere, William Bakerman, William le Priche, towards the end of a theatrical season the actor Adam le Pope, Benedict de Piro, Joh. Charen- was waited upon by some of the merry “wags of chons.
Durham," who promised him a bumper if he would Edw. II.--Hen. le Soper, Godwin Gulofr, Thos. / play Richard at his approaching “ benefit.” (These le Deer, Peter Damegoude, Hen. le Cholomr, Thos. were the same “wags " who so strongly insisted le Hopere of Byndon, Wm. Levelief, John Lyte- that the “monody on the burial of Sir John grey, Thomas le Somenour; Adams, son of John Moore" was written by Dr. Marshall of DurFynybird, Wm. Musket, Wm. Makepays, Alice ham.) After some misgivings and demưrs, the Tredegold, John Metegod, John fil John Atte actor, who really was a worthy obliging fellow, Bottine, Alice Faderes, Robt. Hyldebrond, Thomas consented for that particular occasion to exchange le Smeremonger (smeremonger means a seller of the sock for the buskin. The eventful night at butter, oil, cheese, &c.), John le Porkere, Ric, le length arrived, and the little theatre was crammed Saghiere (sawyer ?), Thomas Boderstak.
from floor to ceiling by an audience impatient for Edw. III.-Thomas le Oxenburde (Cowhurd the fun. On the rising of the curtain, Gloucester occurs in these rolls), Roger Melksopp, Joh, le was so bewildered by the unusual compliments Lord, Ric. fil Ric. le Halte, Walter Toulth, Steph. le which greeted him, that he for some minutes Weytere, Mich. le Pleire, Agnes Faderfadul, John stood with rolling eyes, and open mouth, quite Twentimark, Robt. Schermtail, Thomas le Hosti- | unable to comply with a request from the “wags" ler, Joh. le Taverner, Wm. Hyllary, Edith Fayr- in the pit, to “leave off his damnable faces and place, Joh. Peccator, 'Roger Holylond, Joh. le begin," or of one from “ the gods,” to “push along Threscher, Joh. Bakhous, Robt. le Sunyere, Wm. -keep moving." At length, by a frantic effort Wellifedde, Ric. le Bolte, Robt. le Senyoghere “ to do or die," he look up to the ceiling, waived (senior ?), Walter Pylewyne, John Chacebal, 1 his arms affectedly, and shouted “Now is the Roger le Hoy, Roger Porcheman, Richard Cuke- winter,” &c. in tones so sepulchral, and style so man, William Broketouth, Joh. de Culverhous, absurdly bombastic, that his hearers actually Wm. Mureweder, Walter Lugg, Margery Alte roared again ; and, until his death on the stage, to Wodesend (local in Gillinham), Walter Peny- display his swordmanship, such a “ Richard " was strong, Thos. Reynaldyn, Thomas Sureman, John "in the field ” as would have greatly astonished Springalday, John Verkeday, John Bonswayn, the shade of Shakspeare had it been present, John Goldwegg, Joh. le Threscher.
Richard, poor fellow, fought well, but Richmond Rich. II. _ Ric. Workman, Joh. le Man, John was too much for him ; and he was killed, and Doo or Do, Joh. Canyngmerch, Joh. Sleywroghte, | about to be taken away to be buried prematurely, Geoffry Knappecalte, Joh. Goldhoppe, Ríc. North- | wlen, on a simultaneous demand by pit, boxes, most, Robert Dogg, Alice and Robt. Bryghtnet, , and gallery for “ Push along-keep moving," up Joh. Sexteyn, Nic Spelemaker, Joh. Kullepeke,
| jumped the dead monarch, and gave the song in John Aquebagelus (aque-bajulus, water carrier ?), 1 his best style. Having accomplished this astoundThomas Gondsgrom.
ing feat, he very gravely lay down again, stiffened Hen. IV.-Joh. Hogeman, Wm. Goldreve.
his limbs, and was carried off feet foremost amid a Hen. V.-Joh. Cutberd, Hugh Proteman.
demonstration of approval which threatened the Hen. VI.-Simon de Peterespeny, Thomas Tu- | safety of the house. There was a great attempt berer, John Homer, Jane, wife of Thomas Dawe to encore this “sensation” scene, but the actor (“ a common scold, and disturber of the peace.") was only too glad to escape by making the bearers · Edw. IV.-Joh. Dur (“ native of the Abbot of “push along-keep moving” until he was seen Middleton ”), John Spedehome.
no more. The actor, now à veteran artist of no Hen. VIII. Thomas Hony ball.
mean note, is still alive, and is wont to amuse his It will be observed that the more peculiar sur- friends at social gatherings with the story of Richard names become very much rarer after Edward III. | III. and “Push along - keep moving;” but I until they are almost lost, comparatively speaking, never could learn if his Richard was a serious or in the days of the later Henries. Y. Y. a comic effort.
R. W. Dixon. Seaton-Carew, co. Durham
TEXT OF WALTER SCOTT'S NOVELS.
the proposal that he should alter Walter Scott
was hardly out of his face when he told me of it I have been from boyhood a reader of these a few hours after - even the alterations made works, and I look upon any tampering with the during Scott's life should be looked at with sustext as a literary offence of serious character. | picion. For he may have left more to his son-inBefore proceeding to point out one, of a very llaw than he intended
law than he intended.
A. DE MORGAN. aggravated kind, I will state an anecdote told me by Dr. Lardner at the time when it happened.
As soon as the “History of Scotland" appeared in the Cabinet Cyclopædia, Mr. Lockhart called
Minor Notes. on Dr. Lardner, the editor, in somewhat of a
New EDITION OF Bishop BERKELEY'S “Works." fume. He pointed out scotticisms, solecisms, &c., / I beg to inform you that a new edition of Bishop and asked how they could possibly have been | Berkeley's Works has been undertaken by Proallowed to pass. “Why, what could I do?" said fessor Fraser of Edinburgh, for the delegates of Lardner. “Do !” returned Lockhart, "alter them,
the Oxford Clarendon Press. Professor Fraser to be sure !” “ Alter Scott's writing!" said Lard will have access to important unpublished MSS., ner; “ I should never have thought of taking such | including the Bishop's Commonplace Book, and a liberty !” “ We always do it,” replied Lock
other matter in possession of the Rev. H. J. Rose. hart; “Scott is the most careless fellow in the It will much enhance the value of this edition, if world, and we look at all his proofs."
those of your readers who are in possession of This was all very well, as long as Scott was biographical facts, letters, or important annotated alive to sanction the alterations. A search through editions, or any unpublished works of Berkeley: editions, will ascertain whether what follows was not hitherto included in collected editions, will permitted by him: if so, his right hand had for-/
communicate to the editor, Professor Fraser, 12, gotten its cunning; if not, there is proof of med
Rutland Street, Edinburgh, or to me. dling not guided by knowledge. I think it not
ALEXANDER MACMILLAN, improbable that a practice tolerated during Scott's
Publisher to the University of Oxford. life may have been continued, after his death, in
23, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. a mode to which writers in general would not THE OSTRICH, AN EMBLEM OF Faith. — have been subjected.
“ From the drum of the cupola hangs an elegant brass In the Antiquary, as all know or ought to know, coronal, and from this are suspended silver lamps, small Mr. Dousterswivel attempts an astrological dis- | Byzantine pictures, and ostrich eggs, which are sand covery of hidden treasure. He writes on a silvor | symbolise faith according to a strange but beautiful table, plate: “Schedbarschemoth Schartachan, dat is,
that the ostrich hatches its eggs by gazing steadfastly at
them.” — H. F. Tozer's Visit to Mount Athos : Vacation de Intelligence of the Intelligence of de Moon ; | Tourists, p. 103. and I make his picture like a flying serpent, with
E. H. A. a turkey-cock's head.” In the first edition (1816)
THE SKY AT SUNSET. - I have frequently it was '“ Intelligency of the Intelligence :” this
noticed at sunset that the sky, though blue, and was soon altered, as above. In all the recent editions, it is altered into “ Emblem of the Intelli
perhaps intensely blue elsewhere, yet, in the neighgence;" in which are two gross blunders. First,
bourhood of the setting sun, and for some degrees the flying serpent is made to be the picture of an
above the horizon, becomes of a cold, but very emblem. Secondly, Scott's accurate transcript
delicate greyish white, or silvery grey, the coldfrom Cornelius Agrippa is defaced. If there be
ness being, however, in parts either warmed, or anything which is more visible than another in lis the cause of this change of colour? Is it, per
brightened, up by a pink or yellow tinge. What old magic and alchemy, it is the tendency to reduplication of terms: the predecessor of this very
| haps, that the yellow and red rays from the setting " Intelligence of Intelligence,” in Agrippa, is the
sun falling upon the blue of the sky, combine with
Jit and form a sort of white? * At all events, it is demon of the demons. See my“ Budget of only where the rays of the setting sun fall that Paradoxes," No. II., Athenæum, No. 1877, Oct. the sky becomes thus pallid, and small clo 17, 1863. Scott aimed at correctness in his accounts of
underlying this changed sky may be seen tinged old demonology, &c.; and he read largely on the
red, yellow, orange, or salmon-colour. No doubt subject. There can be no greater offence against im
e most of your readers have noticed the fact, and his text, than to bungle it into inaccuracy on
many, perhaps, may suggest a better explanation.
F. CHANCE. points of magic. I do not know how far license may have been extended; but I should hope that THREE OF THE MOST POPULAR Books IN ENGthe next edition of the novels will be carefully LAND IN 1594. - Looking through Bishop Kings read with the originals. If the anecdote which I i The pink or yellow tinge would thus arise from an heard be correct and Lardner's astonishment at I excess of red or yellow rays.