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It would be very interesting if all such inform-| NEWSPAPERS (3rd S. iv. 397.)-R. J. W. will ation respecting Cervantes and his great work obtain the information he needs, by applying to could be collected, in the same way as the late Messrs. Hansards, Great Queen Street. A recent Mr. Adamson did for Camoens. W. M. M. return can also be had there. Mitchell's News
puper Directory will aid his research. Also, in A GOOSE TENURE (3rd S. iv. 268, 400.)-For a l the Encyc. Brit. (vol. xvi. pp. 180-205,) will be century and a half, the Lord of Essington, in Staf- |
found an interesting and valuable historical arfordshire, was bound to bring a goose on the first
ticle on Newspapers by Mr. Edwards. day of every year to the Lord of Hilton ( an ad.
James GILBERT. joining and superior manor), and drive it thrice
2, Devonshire Grove, Old Kent Road, S.E. round the hall fire, while “ Jack of Hilton” was blowing it. He, or his bailiff, had then to carry Ring SAID TO BE OF MARY, QUEEN OF Scots it to the table, and receive a mess for himself from (3rd S. iv. 396.) - It is singular that the only the Lord of Hilton. The custom ceased on Es sovereign to whom the insignia and initials, as sington becoming the property of the Vernons described, could have belonged, should not have the owners of Hilton.
been suggested in the list given. The original "Jack of Hilton” is still at Hilton Park, where seal was, doubtless, that of Queen (regnant) Mary I saw him some three years since. He is very Stuart, wife of King William III. The absence properly kept in a box, as being unfit for general of the motto is confirmatory of this supposition; observation. It is a small uncouth image of brass, and I imagine that the escutcheon of pretence resting on one knee; one arm on the breast. It of Nassau, invariably borne by her husband, was is hollow, and perforated — by which the fire- properly omitted in a seal denoting her separate blowing part of the performance was effected. I or distinct sovereign capacity.
S. T. think Plot gives a representation of it. How or when this image came to Hilton, or
ANONYMOUS WORK (3rd S. iv. 371.) – The was made a party to the Essington tenure, is un
Letters from the Kingdom of Kerry in the Year known. I have been informed, however, that a
1845, were written by Mrs. Lydia Jane Fisher, gentleman who had become well versed on the
youngest daughter of Mary Leadbeater ; whose Continent with Pagan antiquities, at once recog
interesting Annals of Ballitore form vol. i. of the nised it when shown to him as the god “Poosta"
well known Leadbeater Papers, published last year (I write from memory).
by Messrs. Bell & Daldy. Mrs. Fisher was the
It is a very interesting subject, and one upon which I should wish Mr.
editor of that work,
'Alleùs. Vernon of Harefield would send you a Note. MISUSE OF WORDS (3rd S. iv. 407.) -I agree
S. T. almost entirely with B. R., but the word gurble THE GREAT DUKE A CHILD-EATER (3rd S. iv.
| requires a remark. The substantive, mentioned 412.)- At Christmas, either 1828 or 1829, ap
by many old writers on weights and measures, peared the first volume of Hood's Comic Annual. I mean
| meant refuse : and averdupois weight is stated as During the next few years there were sundry
applying to all substances which have garble. To other * Comics" published in imitation of it: one,
| garble, was to separate the refuse from the valuthe name of which I cannot call to mind, was
able part. I suppose the garbler of spices must
| have been an officer appointed to judge of the meant especially for the young, and in it I remem
| refuse, in order to decide on the duty payable. ber to have seen the song quoted by A. A. It is many years since I saw this book; but I am 1
1. Aggravate is a word I have always heard ap-, nearly certain that it also contains some "lines" | P
I'plied to the act of making an angry person more in condemnation of punning. The lines com
angry: it is natural that the word should be menced:
transferred from the feeling to the person. Other
words have undergone the same alteration. But “ My little dears who learn to read,
if aggravate must be restored to original meaning, Pray early learn to shun That very silly thing indeed
there is a charming word ready to take its place. Which people call a pun.”
I found it in a very amusing book, published I maintain, nevertheless, that a good pun is old horsedealer, a most original personage, ex:
about thirty years ago, the Clubs of London. An much to be enjoyed.
claims, “It is so aggricoking!” This compound OGLESBY (3rd S. iv. 326.) _This name is not of aggravate and provoke has all the force of both / uncommon in the western part of North Lincoln
words, in sound as well as in meaning. shire. Sp. will find it several times in Kelly's
A. DE MORGAN. Post Office Directory of Lincolnshire, 1855. It''SWING (3rd S. iv. 398.) - At the time of the occurs also once in the London Directory for 1861, | fires, the written notices signed “Swing” were and twice in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1793, very often, if not most frequently, directed against July, p. 620; 1800, Feb., p. 185. K. P. D. E. | agricultural machines, pursuant to the notion that
machinery lessened the demand for labour. One such was the fact on Sunday last, when the following particular kind of implement was often men
brothers were at the altar at St. Chad's at the Holy tioned; and this was the point of a joke played, I be
Sacrifice, and in the evening sang vespers together: the
| Very Rev. Canon Edward Browne of St. Werburgh's, lieve, upon the headmaster of Westininster School,
Birkenhead; the Very Rev. Canon Richard Browne, St. who was said in the newspapers to have found | Ann's, Leeds; the Rev. Joseph Browne, St. Andrew's, the following upon his desk : “Sir! If you do | Newcastle-on-Tyne; the Rev. Henry Browne, St. Mary's, not lay by your thrashing machine, you will hear
| Manchester; the Rev. J. F. Browne, St. Chad's, Man
M further from SWING.”
chester; and the Rev. William Browne (lately ordained),
Professor at the English College, Lisbon. The father “THE MONKEY WHO HAD SEEN THE WORLD”.
and sisters of the above clergymen were at the mass and (3rd S. iv. 400.) — When a boy in the country, I
vespers, beholding what to them must have been a subhad given to me a nice edition of Gay's Fables, that they had been so blessed."
ject of surpassing interest, and of internal glory to God with pictures. To "The Monkey,” &c. was pre
This is from the Tablet.
F. G. L. fixed a picture containing an animal in bag-wig, tawdry jacket, spiky sword, and other absurdi Great Guns (3rd S. iv. 392.) – Though not a ties; all which made him a funny creature. A direct reply to the query of J. E. H. as to whether few years afterwards, I learnt to find my way we have any authentic records of cannon balls at about the streets of London. One day, turning | all approaching the magnitude of 92 inches in from St. James's Square into Pall Mall, I came circumference at a period so early as 1453, pero suddenly, without a moment's warning, in front | haps the following circumstance may not be un. of a young fop dressed exactly to the pattern I interesting. Scrambling about among the ruins had so often laughed at. I had very nearly cried of the triple wall of Constantinople, one summer's out “ The monkey who has seen the world !!!" afternoon a few years ago, I found among the I followed him a little way—I had seen the sweeps débris which had fallen down into the ditch in on May-day not long before-expecting that he | front of the wall, a large stone bullet. I roughly would stop before some house, and dance, or measured its diameter by cutting a notch in my tumble, or do something for his living; but he walking stick, and on reference to it I find the walked on. I then turned back, and immediately measurement thus indicated to be 22 inches. The afterwards met an elderly man, beyond doubt place where the bullet was found was a little to an educated gentleman, in the very same kind of | the south of Top Kapoussi, “ The gate of the dress, arm-in-arm with a general officer in full Cannon," - so called because it was on an emi. uniform and several stars; these were followed nence in front of it that Mahomet planted his by others of the same types. On making inquiry, great gun. I thought it not improbable that this I found that the levée had just finished, and that I might be one of the bullets fired from the huge the monkey-jacket, cheese-toaster, &c., which I l piece of ordnance, though I could see no mark of had always fancied were invented by some clever concussion upon it, except that in one part it was artist to make a monkey look more like a monkey | not perfectly spherical. It lay among the debris than he was by nature, were parts of the dress of a large portion of the wall that had fallen o which grave men were expected to wear when ward and partially filled up the great ditch. 10 they paid their respects to the sovereign! This was fashioned out of a blue quartzose rock, close was more than forty years ago, and I believe grained, and extremely hard and heavy. I may some of the trappings have been abolished. M. add, that I once saw an old gun, built on the INKSTAND (3rd S. iv. 348, 418.)-A correspon
hoop and stave principle, apparently not less than dent immediately furnished me with the address
“ Mons Meg," if not larger, which was being at which these inkstands can be obtained : Du
chopped up by the steam hammer in the Turkish four, 17A, Great George Street, Westminster. I
Arsenal to make nails. I regret that I did not take a note of its dimensions.
J. A. have one now in use, and I think it decidedly the best I ever possessed. This inkstand has the St. ANTHONY'S SERMON TO THE FISHES (3rd S. moveable cover for the top of the cup.
iv. 414.)—I have examined Addison's Italian copy
A. DE MORGAN. of this Sermon, and also his translation of it i Curious CIRCUMSTANCE (3rd S. iv. 409.)—I send
vol. ii. of his works in quarto. It is much longer you the record of a circumstance even still more
and much more laboured than the Sermon which curious than that given last week by your corre
I translated from my Portuguese copy, and w
at the time I supposed to contain the entire spondent Mr. G. F. CHAMBERS:
Sermon. Addison's would probably be too long “Sıx BROTHER PRIESTS. - It is scarcely likely that a | scene which took place at the Feast of our Lady of Mount
to find insertion in the pages of “ N. & 4. Carmel, at St. Chad's Church, Manchester, perhaps ever
though we not unfrequently meet there with occurred before, or that any father had the happiness of
pieces of wearisome length and very slender in. not only having six sons called to the Holy ministry,
terest. but to see them all at the altar at the same time; yet I attach no further importance to the Sermon
than as it conveys a remarkable reproof to un-1 MERCHANTS AND TRADESMEN'S MARKS (3rd S. willing hearers, but I cannot admit that it was iv. 413.) - A. B. will find engravings of these intended as a skit upon any prevalent perversion marks in Willis's Current Notes, 4to, London, of texts. The Sermon inculcates serious duties, 1851-7. Jervis's Memorials of Angus and the which men are too apt to forget; and the Saint | Mearns, 8vo, Edinburgh, 1861, contains engravis represented as conveying these to the minds of ings of trade-marks of old Dundee Merchants. perverse people, through the novel experiment of preaching to creatures. The end was attained by the conversion of those who had before been
Miscellaneous. obstinate and impenetrable. In answer to MR. GELDART's question, I can
NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. safely assure him that no Catholic Doctor, great The Book of Common Prayer, according to the use of the or small, ever maintained an opinion that animals United Church of England and Ireland : together with have any capacity for religion. The commence the Psalter or Psalms of David pointed as they are to be ment of St. Anthony's Sermon is as I gave it.
sung or said in Churches. (Longman.) What Canon Dalton quotes from Ribadeneira is
Messrs. Longman have, we presume, produced this merely the summons which the Saint first gave to
beautiful specimen of decorative printing as a Prayer
Book suitable for a wedding present, or a Christmas gift. the fish to come and hear him; and is thus given
It is printed at the Chiswick Press, and its distinctive in the Portuguese : “ Vinde ouvir a palavra de
| features are the exquisite borders, which have been taken Deos peixes do mar e do rio, pois a não querem from the works of Geofroy Tory, the French bookseller ouvir os homens heregas e impieis.” Immediately and engraver (1480-1536), whose Latin Psalter and Cosmoa great number of fishes, great and small, came
graphy of Æneas Sylvius are well known, and whose own
treatise on ornamental typography, entitled Champfleury, forth before the Saint, and all held their heads
is esteemed one of the most remarkable curiosities of above the water in mute attention; and then the literature. The designs are certainly very graceful and Saint began his Sermon in the words already elegant. given. By this time Canon Dalton has probably The Desk-Book of English Synonymes ; designed to ufford discovered that his promised Sermon to a wolf Assistance in Composition, and also as a Work of Referwas not delivered by St. Anthony, but by St. ence requisite to the Secretary, and indispensable to the Francis of Assisium.
F. C. H. Student. By John Sherer. (Groombridge & Sons.)
This ample title-page so completely describes the ob. VIXEN (3rd S. iv. 389.) - We have vixen (not ject of the work, that we may content ourselves with firen) in Shakspeare, Midsummer Night's Dream,
stating that that object is well carried out, and the book Act III. Sc. 2. (Cambridge Edition, 1. 324.)
made even more useful by an Analytical Index.
The Siege of Jerusalem by Titus. By Thos. Lewin, Esq. “She was a vicen when she went to school.”
(Longmans.) Vixen is the reading of the folio of 1623.
The sad and well-known story loses nothing of its
| interest in Mr. Lewin's well-written pages. The volume Mrs. Cowden Clarke (a good authority) gives
is completed by an agreeable Journal of a visit to Jeruthis as the only use of the word “ vixen” by salem last year, and a careful sketch of the Topography Sbakspeare.
of the Holy City. We cordially recommend it to our In referring to presumably likely passages in readers. Ben Jonson, in Marlowe, and in Beaumont and Selections from the recently published Correspondence beFletcher, I do not find the word (either as fixen tween Louis Claude de St. Martin and Kirchberger Baron or vixen.)
de Lieberstorf, during the Years 1792-7. Translated Halliwell and Wright give firen as North.
and edited by Ed. Bruton Penny. (Hamilton &
We do not feel ourselves qualified to do more than call
attention to the appearance of this volume of mystical QUOTATION FROM SENECA (3rd S. iv. 373.)-|
philosophy, which will, no doubt, greatly interest our This passage is found in the 104th Epistle of theosophic readers. Seneca, towards the middle (edit. Argent. 1809). | De la Rue's Improved Indelible Diary and Memorandum The correct reading is –
Book for 1864. Edited by James Glaisher, F.R.S. “ Ipsi quoque hæc possunt facere sed nolunt. Denique
With an Article on the Moon by J. R. Hind, Esq. quem unquam ista destituere tentantem ? Cui non faci- | De la Rue's Improved Red Letter Calendar for 1864. liora adparuere in actu ? Non, quia difficilia sunt, non We have so often called attention to the combined andemus, sed, quia non audemus, difficilia sunt.”
utility and beauty of the various forms in which Messrs. C. T. RAMAGE.
De la Rue put forth their Indelible Diaries and Red
Letter Calendars, that tbe repetition has really left us Josephine's ADDRESS TO NAPOLEON (3rd S. iv. nothing fresh to say of them. The marvellous photo411.)– The song inquired for by M. B. was pub
graph of the moon, copied by Messrs. Smith, Beck, and lished by Chappell, about 1839, and is entitled
| Beck from Mr. Warren De la Rue's original negative, is a
novel and interesting feature: the value and importance “ The Beloved One;" words by Miss Twiss, music of which is well illustrated by Mr. Hind's article on the by Mrs. Robert Arkwright
H. A. S. subject,
BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES
T. V. N. Mr. Froude's Papers on the " Letters of Du Quadra, Bishop
of Aquila," preserved at Simancas, appeared in Fraser's Magazine for WANTED TO PURCHASE.
June and August, 1861. Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to C. J. The memoranda only refer to the late appearance of swallows, the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad
Thus in The Field of last week, a correspondent says, on Sunday the dresses are given for that purpose:
22nd Nov.) we saw three swallows flying in the High Street, Great SRERLOCK (WM., D.D.), PRACTICAL DISCOURSE CONCERNING A FUTURE
Marlow. JUDGMENT. London, 1695. 8vo.
John A. C. VINCENT is referred to "X. & Q." 1st S. vii. 544; viii. 44, WKLWOOD (JAMES, M.D.), MEMOIRS OF TRANSACTIONS IN ENGLAND, &c. for articles on the meaning of Pilm or Pillum, i.e. Dust.
London, 1702. 8vo.
J. B. ROWLANDS will find on consulting the General Indices to our MOORE (THOMAS), TRANSLATION OF THE ODES OF ANACREUN. Philadel- | Ist and 2nd s. innumerabie references to articles on Blour Glasses in | phia, 1804. 8h.
Pulpits. LYNCH (WM.), The PRESCRIPTIVE BARONIES OF IRELAND. 1835.
W. J. (Cambridge.) Unsightly is used as unseen in Hudibras and by Wanted by Rev. B. H. Blacker, Rokeby, Blackrock, Dublin.
Suckling. See Todd's Johnson, 8. v. GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for July, September, October, November, and
F. H. For the origin of the exclamation Hurrah or Huzza, see our December, 1855.
1st Series, where are fourteen articles on the word. For the derivatium Wanted by Mr. J. R. Smith, 36, Soho Square, London, W.
of Snob, see also the same series, i. 250.
TREOBALD SMD. The lines “ Forgive, blest shade," &c. rere written MORNING AND EVENINO PRAYER. 2 Vols. Arranged by Hon. Charlotte by the Rev. Mr. Gill, curate of New Church, Isle of Wighl. ide Grimshaw. 24mo edition.
"N. & Q." Ist S. ix. 241; X. 133, 152. Wanted by Mr. C. Tuckett, 66, Great Russell Street.
E. E. M. The word Secretariat occurs in the French dictionaries, and
means the secretaryship, or the secretary's office. LETTERS OF Lady Brilliana Harley. Camden Society's Publications, No. 58
St. T. The author of Thinks I to Myself was the Rex. Edvard Wanted by Rev. John Pickford, M.A., Sherington, Newport-Pagnell,
Nares, D.D. Vidc" N. & Q." 2nd S. ix. 230.
ERRATA.-3rd S. iv. p. 415. col. i. line 21 from bottom, for “Clonfede read "Clonfeacle;"p. 421, col. ii. line 19 from bottom, for "conciatus"
read"cruciatus." Notices to Correspondents. The CHRISTMAS NUMBER of " N. & Q." will be published on Saturday Horniman's Tea is choice and strong, moderate in price, and whole the 19th inst. Advertisements for insertion in it must be sent in by Wed some to use. These advantages have secured for this Tea & general nesday the 16th.
preference, It is sold in packets by 2,280 Agents.
I C. and J. FIELD, Original Manufacturers (in
England) of PARAFFINE CANDLES, to whom the prize medal (1862) has been awarded, and their Candles adopted by her Majesty's Government for use at the Military Stations abrad. Inese Candles can be obtained of all Chandlers and Grocers in the United Kingdom. Price 18.8d. per lb. Also Field's celebrated United sernia Soap Tablets, 6d. and 4d. each. The Public are cautioned to see Field's label is on the packets or boxes. Wholesale only, and I Exportation, Upper Marsh, Lambeth, London, S.
LEDGES & BUTLER, Wine Merchants, &c.
per dozen. White Bordeaux .......
...... 248. and 30s. per doz, Good Hock ........
... 308. , 368. Sparkling Epernay Champagne...... 368., 428. – 488. Good Dinner Sherry.....
....... 248. 80s. Port ......
....... 248., 30s. 368.
Celebrated vintage 1820 at 1208. per doz.
Fine old "beeswing" Port, 488. and 608.; superior Sherry, 368., 428., 488.; Clarets of choice growths, 368., 428., 483., 608., 728., 845.; Hochheimut, Marcobrunner, Rudesheimer, Steinberg, Leibfraumilch, 608.; Johannesberger and Steinberger, 728., 818., to 1208.; Braunberger, Grunhausen, and Scharzberg, 488. to 848.; sparkling Moselle, 188., 608., 668., 788.; very choice Champagne, 668. 78s.; fine old Sack, Malmsey, Fron. tignac, Vermuth, Constantia, Lachrymæ Christi, Imperial Tokay, and other rare wincs. Fine old Pale Cognac Brandy, 608. and 72s. per doz.; very choice Cognac, vintage 1805 (which gained the first class gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1855), 1418. per doz. Foreign Liqueurs of every description. On receipt of a post-office order, or reference, any quantity will be forwarded immediately, by
HEDGES & BUTLER,
Brighton : 30, King's Road.
CHRISTENING PRESENTS in SILVER. —
) MAPPIN BROTHERS beg to call attention to their Exte Collection of New Designs in sterline SILVER CHRISTEAU PRESENTS. Silver Cups, beautifully chased and engraved, 41., 51., 31. 108. each, according to size and pattern; Silver Sets Fork, and Spoon, in Cases, Il. 18., 1l. 104., 21., 21 108., 31. SS. Silver Basin and Spoon, in handsome Cases. 41. 48., 61. 6.. 101. 108. - MAPPIN BROTHERS, Silversmiths, 67 and 6. King
1. King Wil. liam Street, London Bridge ; and 222, Regent Street, W. Este in Sheffield A.D. 1810.
Fork: and Spania Spoon, HTERS, Silvergent stre
.. 425..Anberg, Lernunberger: of uoner, Ruderker, 728., 84 tkling More!
med choice wines: Constangne, o 848 ; 95; to 120
Sold by Grocers and Confectioners. FRY'S CHOCOLATE. FRY'S FRENCH CHOCOLATE FOR EATING,
in Sticks, and Drops. FRY'S CHOCOLATE CREAMS. FRY'S FRENCH CHOCOLATE IN CAKES.
J. 8. FRY & SONS, Bristol and London.
NAMPBELL'S OLD GLENLIVAT WHISKY,
CAPTAIN WHITE'S At this season of the year. J. Campbell begs to direct attention to this fine old MALT WHISKY, of which he has held a large stock for
ORIENTAL PICKLE. CURRY, or MULLIGA. 30 years, price 208. per gallon; Sir John Power's old Irish Whisky, 188.;
TAWNY PASTE. Hennessey's very old Pale Brandy, 328. per gallon (J. C.'s extensive business in French Wines gives him a thorough knowledge of the Curry Powder, and Curry Sauce, may be obtained from all Brandy market): E. Clicquot's Champagne, 6s. per dozen: Sherry,
Vendors, and Wholesale of Pale, solden, or Brown, 309., 368., and 428.; Port from the wood, 30s.
CROSSE & BLACKWELL, Purveyors to the Queen, Soho Squad and 368., crusted, 428., 488. and 518. Note. - J. Campbell confidently recommends his Vin de Bordeaux, at 20s. per dozen, which greatly im
London. proves by keeping in bottle two or three years. Remittances or town references should be addressed JAMES CAMPBELL, 158, Regent Street.
SAUCE. - LEA AND PERRINS' PRIZE MEDAL AWARDED.
This delicious condiment, pronounced by Connoisseurs TOULMIN AND GALE,
“ THE ONLY GOOD SAUCE,” DESPATCH BOX, DRESSING CASE, AND TRAVELLING
is prepared solely by LEA & PERRINS. BAG MAKERS,
The Public are respectfully cautioned against worthless imit
should see that LEA & PERRINS' Names are on Wrapper, 7, New Bond Street, W.,
Bottle, and Stopper,
ASK FOR LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE.
*.. Sold Wholesale and for Export, by the Proprietors
MESSRS. CROSSE and BLACKWELL, MESSRS. BARCE (Established 1735.)
ISONS, London, &c., &c.; and by Grocers and Oilmen unireto
nst worthless imitations, and
on Wrapper, Label,
LONDON, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1863. his own estates, from Seville in the south, to Com
postella in the north-west of the kingdom ; while CONTENTS. – No. 102.
Alvaro de Luna, the great favourite minister of NOTES:-Grandees of Spain, 465 - A Letter of S. T. Cole.
John II., could muster, in the days of his almost ridge, 467 — Philip Melanchthon and his Son-in-Law, 468 — Early Surnames, 16.-“ King Richard III.:” “ Push along – keep moving," 469 — Text of Walter Scott's
sand! Their revenues were enormous, several Novels, 470.
possessing annual rentals amounting to fifty and MINOR NOTES : - New Edition of Bishop Berkeley's
sixty thousand ducats, which are equivalent to “Works” — The Ostrich, an Emblem of Faith - The Sky about 90,4741. sterling, the first; and the second at Sunset - Three of the most Popular Books in England
to about 109,7151.
Their rights, privileges, and exemptions were the Sirloin -- Abbot Whiting's Shoeinghorn, 472.
almost innumerable. They claimed exemption QUERIES:- Capt. James Gifford: Admiral James Gifford, from most of the usual taxes; they could not be
472 - Anonymous - Theodore Anspach: Laing's "Travels imprisoned for debt, nor subjected to torture for
criminal offences. They had the right of appealDanish and Norwegian Heraldry - The Daft Highland ing to arms to decide their private quarrels; they Laird : Kay's “ Edinburgh Portraits" - Old Damask Pat
claimed the privilege, whenever they considered terns-De la Tour d'Auvergne -- Allusion to Eloisa - Epitaphs — Sir Alexander Fraser, &c., 472.
themselves injured or affronted by their sovereign, QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: - Much Panes: Banquet of
of renouncing their allegiance to him; and several
tually going over to the Moors, and fighting Berkshire, 476.
against their own king. In periods of popular REPLIES:- The Devil, 478-Cranmer Family, 480 - Titus
commotions, they frequently sided with the peoOates, - St. Teresa's Autograph: her Life, &c. -" Ro ple; while at other times, the most bloody feuds bert Robinson” and “Cousin Phillis” - Executions - were carried on between different noble families Berry or Bury - Derivation of " Pamphlet" - Singapore -The Brothers of Mrs. Hemang --St. Mary of Egypt
under circumstances too of peculiar atrocity, and curious Painting on Glass - Choak-Jade at Newmarket - with a spirit of hatred and vengeance which would St. Mary Matfelon, 480.
brook no interference on the part even of the crown Notes on Books, &c.
These feuds, combined with the martial spirit,
pride, independence, and power of the nobles Notes.
were continually convulsing the kingdoms of Cas
tile and Aragon. But their pride and self-conTHE GRANDEES OF SPAIN.
fidence ultimately proved their ruin. Many works in Latin, French, English, and The Aragonese sovereigns especially, many of Spanish, connected with the history of Spain, give whom were men of remarkable energy and firmness, us high ideas of the power, riches, influence, pride, made repeated efforts to reduce the authority of and arrogance of the Spanish grandees, both in the grandees within reasonable bounds. Zurita, ancient and modern times.
in his Anales de Aragon, gives several instances Their dignity seems to be as ancient as the of the successful exertions of Peter II. and James monarchy itself, according to the assertion of Sala- the Conqueror to curb their pride, and strip zar de Mendoza in his Origen de las Dignidades them of their exorbitant privileges. In Castile, Seglares de Castilla (Madrid, 1794). But it was however, the kings were not always so fortunate; principally in the wars against the Saracens that because, by their own want of courage and firmthe higher nobility, or ricos hombres, as they were ness, by their vices and prodigality, or incapastyled, rose into power and independence, Em | city for ruling their states, they allowed the barking with their sovereign in the same holy nobles and grandees to usurp the possessions of cause, they considered themselves entitled to divide the crown, and to invade some of its most sacred with him the spolia opima of victory. They privileges. The disastrous reigns of John II. and erected numerous strongholds (castilla) for their Henry IV. afford sad proofs of this statement. own use, as well as defence. They generally re- | (See Ayala, Crónica de Castilla, ed. Madrid, sided in them, surrounded by their vassals or 1780.) retainers, who were scattered amidst the surround-/ When, however, the crowns of Castile and Araing towns and villages, many of which were the gon came to be united in the persons of Ferdinand property of the grandees. The lands belonging and Isabella (1469), the grandees were not allowed to the Lord of Biscay, which were confiscated by to set the royal authority at defiance with impuAlfonso XI., included more than eighty towns and nity. Though at the commencement of their castles Mariana, Hist. de España, tom, i. ed. reign, frightful feuds were carried on between the Madrid, 1780). In the time of Henry III., the noble houses of the Guzmans and the Ponces de Grand Constable Davalos could ride through Leon; yet, when Isabella was at length firmly