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greater the inaccuracy that rests upon neither reReplies.

miniscences nor memoranda. I do not mean to JOHN NICHOLSON: “MAPS.”

| assert that Nicholson was an educated man in the

academical sense of the word, but he had received (2nd S. iii. 107, 198; 3rd S. iv. 170.)

the education usual with “men of business," and There is not a more valued correspondent of is known to have been intelligent and well in“N. & Q." than MR. DE MORGAN. "Whatever formed, as his success sufficiently corroborates.* proceeds from his pen carries with it an air of It is not generally known that Nicholson was conclusive authority on the ground that ipse dirit. not the original “ Maps.” The first who rejoiced It is extremely disappointing, then, to find the in that sobriquet in Cambridge was Robert Watts, PROFESSOR committing himself to statements so who established the first circulating library in the erroneous as those (antè p. 170) relating to the University about the year 1745. He died Jan. person whose name is at the head of this article; 31, 1751-2, and left his stock of books, maps, and more particularly when, setting himself to correct prints to his only daughter Anne. She, on March the errors of others, he himself falls into greater 28, 1752, was married to John Nicholson, who on the same subject.

thus succeeded to the circulating library, and the In giving an authentic history of “Mappesiani sobriquet of his father-in-law, both of which he Bibliopolii Custos," as he was fond of designating maintained, with what success is well known, till himself, the allusion to him by the “ Brace of his death in 1796. Cantabs " may be passed by as undeserving notice. Nicholson was a native of Mountsorrel, LeicesLet us then come to Gunning. MR. DE MORGAN tershire, where his ancestors for some generations justly remarks that Gunning's book “is not a bad occupied a small farm. He was born in 1730, bigh authority on facts of recollection," still, on and was therefore only twenty-two years of age the present subject, when he speaks of things when he married Miss Watts. He had one brother within the sphere of his own knowledge, his ac- in trade (I am not able to say what) in Leicester; count is mainly correct. He was resident in the and another settled at Wisbeach in the Isle of University ten years before the death of Nichol- | Ely as a bookseller, whom my informant, who son, and acknowledges to having had the advan- knew him well, describes as having been a man of tage of his library; he must therefore have had a considerable intelligence. John Nicholson died personal knowledge of him. But when he speaks | Aug. 8, 1796, aged sixty-six. A notice of him of Nicholson's exhibiting his books “on a small will be found in the obituary of the Gent. Mag. moveable stall," he is drawing upon his imagina- | vol. lxvi. ii. p. 708, where he is spoken of as “ sintion; for he states that when he came to college, cerely lamented by an unparalleled circle of Nicholson was living in “a large and commodious friends, after unremitting attention to business for house belonging to King's College.” In fact he forty-five years." He is there said to have himnever kept a book-stall. Gunning says that the self presented to the University a whole-length son of “Maps" discovered that he was entitled to portrait of himself [painted by Reinagle) which the name of Nicholson. MR. DE MORGAN cor- hangs on the staircase of the Public Library, and rectly remarks upon this that his name was not under it a print engraven from it [by Caldwall]." lost during his life. But the observation of the The lettering of this print describes it as having facetious Bedell, which seems to imply the con- | been published at the request of " the Vice-Chantrary, is merely a Gunningism which every one cellor, Masters, Fellows, Scholars, and Students of who knew him will know how to appreciate. "Gun- | the University," to whom it is dedicated. The ning's account of the manner in which the portrait profits of the sale were to be given to Addenof “Maps " came to be placed in the University brooke's Hospital. I may add that he was a man library is correct. But MR. DE MORGAN says of a most benevolent disposition; and the number that Nicholson “was an officer of the Public of the poorer students of the University was by Library all his life.” There is not a shadow of no means small whom he allowed the gratuitous truth in this statement; he was never in any way use of his library. He was also passionately fond connected with the University library. Nay, I of music, and to please him his only daughter, am informed by the library authorities that such who died at the age of seventeen, had learned to an office as MR. DE MORGAN describes never play the violin! Whether that was her only inexisted except in the imagination of that gentle strument I am not able to say. His widow (Watts's man. MR. DE MORGAN has travelled out of his daughter) died Feb. 7, 1814, aged eighty-four. brief to describe the worthy old bookseller as His only surviving son, John, succeeded him in "very illiterate,” so much so that “he thought the business, which continued to be carried on in that all large folios were books of maps!” Was anything ever more absurd ? MR. DE MORGAN

* I am able to state that himself and his son accumsremarks upon “ the inaccuracies incident to re- |

| lated in business not less than 50,0001., the larger prominiscences without memoranda," but how much

portion of which is believed to have been made by himself.

+ See Bowtell's MSS. in Downing College library.

E. V.

the old house in front of King's College till the literary ability. He discontinued the circulating library year 1807 (not, as Gunping says, till the new

On his death, in 1845, the business was sold to Messrs

A. & D. Macmillan, the survivor of whom is an extensive buildings at King's were commenced, which was

publisher here, and at London and Oxford, under the in 1824), when it was removed to the corner of

designation of Macmillan & Co. The second John NicholTrinity and St. Mary's Streets. John, the second, son died at Stoke Newington, 25 April, 1825, aged 70.”_ retired from the business about the year 1821, 1 Memorials of Cambridge, iii. 279. to Stoke Newington (where he died April 25, For much of the information contained in this 1825), and was succeeded by his elder son John, note I am indebted to the Rev. Edward Ventris, the third of that name,

M.A. This last-mentioned was a man of no mean lite- PROFESSOR DE MORGAN has, I think, been egrerary taste and attainments. He was the author giously imposed upon with respect to the elder of Pætus and Arria,* a tragedy in five acts. To | John Nicholson baving held an office in the Uniwhich is prefixed a letter to Thomas Sheridan, versity Library. Having made much inquiry on Esq., on the present state of the English stage, the subject, I believe I may venture to assert that published 1809, by Lackington & Co.; also of there never was in the University of Cambridge a Wright and Wrong, a comedy published by the porter or beadle, whose duty it was to carry books same firm in 1812. He died unmarried Dec. 6, to those Masters of Arts who wanted them. I think 1822, in the fortieth year of his age; shortly after it clear that he did not (as Mr. Gunning asserts which time the bookselling business, after having , and the PROFESSOR surmises) begin by keeping been carried on by the Nicholson family for se- a stall, and that he did not originate the plan of venty years, was purchased and continued by Mr. supplying undergraduates with their class books

venson, and more recently by the by subscription. Messrs. Macmillan.

I want proof that he was very illiterate, and In the Greek hexameter, MR. DE MORGAN is thought that all large folios were books of maps. certainly right in reading Deol, and not véol, and for

C. H. COOPER. the reason he assigns. The following translation, Cambridge. perhaps contemporary with the original, confirms this: “Snobs call him Nicholson, bat gowosmen Maps.”


(3rd S. iv. 306.) In the old churchyard of St. Edward, Cambridge,

The oldest printed copy of this popular story are inscriptions commemorating Robert Watts, 1 that I have ever seen, gave Aldermary ChurchJan. 31, 1751-2, aged fifty-six , John Nicholson, 1 yard as its place of publication ; and from the Aug. 8, 1796, aged sixty-six; Anne his wife, Feb. 7, type, paper, general arrangement, and that some1814, aged eighty-four; and John Nicholson, Dec. thing which bespeaks the age without giving a 3, 1822, aged forty-one. The following note, date, I should say it was issued from 1730 to 1740. with reference to these inscriptions, occurs in the The title was The History of Jack and the Giants, 35th part of the Memorials of Cambridge, now on and the tiny vol. of 16 pp. was in two parts or the eve of publication :

“ books." “ Robert Watts, who dwelt and had a book shop on the

In Will. Thackeray's broadsheet list of “Small western side of Trumpington Street in this parish, was

Merry Books," "Double Books," and “Histories ” the first person who established a circulating library in

preserved amongst the Bagford papers in the Cambridge. It was opened about 1745, and comprised a British Museum, no mention is made of Jack and large stock of standard mathematical and classical books.

the Giants, although it is a very full gathering of He dealt also in maps and prints, and acquired the name of

the titles (some 500 in all) of the chapmen's literMaps. His stock in trade he bequeathed to his only daughter Anne, who, on 28 March, 1752, married John Nicholson

ature of the time. I am inclined to think that of Mountsorrel, Leicestershire, who carried on the business

this, Jack and the Bean Stalk, and other kindred on the same premises with great success till his death in | stories, have only appeared in print during the 1796. He was also well known by the name of Maps; past 100 or 120 years, although for ages previous and his portrait, by Reinagle (which has been engraved),

to this they existed in the mouths of the people, is in the University Library. He was succeeded by his son John, who, in 1807, removed the business to a newly

by his , and were handed down by the old to the young. erected house at the corner of Trinity Street and St. Mary's Towards the middle of the last century, when chapStreet. Having accumulated a fortune, he went to reside bookselling was at its zenith, and London Bridge, at Stoke Newington, and gave up the business to his son Little Britain, Aldermary, and Bow Churchyards, John, the author of two or more published dramas. Gracious or Gracechurch Street, and the lanes Shortly after the death of the latter, which occurred in 1822, the business was disposed of to Mr. Thomas Steven

running out of Smithfield swarmed with rival son, alderman, and sometime mayor, a person of much

chap- (or cheap) booksellers, competition in the

production of popular literature must have been * See “N. & Q.” 1st S. vol. viii. pp. 219, 374. very great; and it seems probable that the more

enterprising dealers, anxious for novelties, seized whose effigy is carried through the town every upon the ancient oral tales, and printed them for year on a day in the end of July or the beginning the first time. The most popular nursery books of August, to commemorate his return froin foreign of the present day are these later printings, whilst travel. Wilfrid does not seem to have left a very The King and the Tanner, The Friar and the Boy, good name behind him, fur “Auld Wilfrid" is King Arthur's Book, Bevis of Hampton, Elynour said to be the Ripon synonyme for a drunkard. Rumming, and scores of others, well known in In this “Guide" the following is the account of Shakspeare's time and long afterwards, are no the blowing of the horn :longer in demand amongst the juniors, and are ! “If a visitor should remain in the city during the only to be met with in the libraries of the curious. evening, he may hear the sounding of the Mayor's horn, It was Sir Francis Palgrave's opinion that Jack one of the most ancient customs that lingers in the kingand the Bean Stalk came from the East through dom. It formerly announced the setting of the watch, Southern Europe, but that Jack the Giant Killer. | whence the chief officer of the town derived his Saxon or, giving it the old title, Jack and the Giants, was

style of “ Wakeman," but has, of course, now lapsed into

a formality. Three blasts, long, dull, and dire, are given one of the popular stories founded upon King at nine o'clock, al the Mayor's door, by his official HornArthur and his exploits. Certain features in the blower, and one afterwards at the Market-cross, while latter story, however, may be observed in the

the seventh bell of the Cathedral is ringing. It was orpopular tales of Asia.

dained in 1598 that it should be blown, according to

ancient custom, at the four corners of the cross, at nine The wood engravings in Mr. Dunkin's Archæo. |

o'clock; after which time, if any house on the gate logical Mine are of the date stated by the editor, syd within the town' was robbed, the Wakeman was “not a century earlier than Pocock's day." In bound to compensate the loss, if it was proved that he the very curious volume of old woodcuts recently and his servants did not their duties at ye time. To published at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, D. will see

maintain this watch he received from every householder that even in Bewick's time some of the most bar

| in the town that had but one door, the annual tax of two

| pence; but from the owner of a 'gate door, and a backe barous wood-blocks ever produced were being

dore iiij by the year, of dutie.' The original horn, worn turned forth by local engravers. I purchased by the Wakeman, decorated with silver badges and the Catnach and Tommy Pitt's collection of wood. | insignia of the trading companies of the town, but shameblocks, and amongst them are many as rude, and fully pillaged in 1686, has been several times adorned, not nearly so well drawn, as those to be met with

especially by John Aislabie, Esq., Mayor in 1702; and

in 1854. Since the year 1607 it has been worn on certain in the block-books of the fifteenth century.

days by the Serjeant-at-Mace, in procession.” John CAMDEN HOTTEN.

c. W. Piccadilly, w,


PAINT AND PATCHES (3rd S. iv. 303.)- Apropos

of patches, there is a passage in Fletcher's The paragraph quoted by Y. B. N. J. in

| Elder Brother (1st edition, 1637), describing “N. & Q." (3ra $. iv. 324) "from a north country

their use by the male sex :newspaper," appeared from my pen in the Standard in August, as part of a report of the visit of the

“.... your black patches you wear variously. Some

| cut like stars, some in half-moons, some lozenges."-Elder Prince and Princess of Wales to the north. Since

Brother, iii. 5. the appearance of that report, I have been told by

| For the “ early use" of paint, we need go to no a Riponite that my informant was wrong in attributing the maintenance of the city's charter to

more recondite source than Hamlet (4to, 1603; the blowing of the horn. However, the horn is

the folio misprints“ prattlings "):undoubtedly blown at nine o'clock every evening;

1 “I have heard of your paintings too, well enough: it appears, I think, in the arms of the town, and

| God hath given you one face, and you make yourselves

a another." - Hamlet, Act III. Sc. 1. it is certainly sculptured on one of the pillars of

Johx ADDIS. the venerable minster now under slow restoration. My not very courteous correspondent at Ripon Chief BARON EDWARD WILLES : JUDGE Ev. did me the favour to send me a shilling Guide to WARD WILLES (3rd S. i. 487 ; iv. 318.)- I am Ripon and the Neighbourhood, bearing tbe names much obliged by MR. STEVENS's reference to of Bell & Daldy as its London publishers. From Beatson's Political Index, where it is noted that this "Guide" it appears that “Alchfrid, King of the Irish Chief Baron was made, in 1766, SoliciDeira, or the southern portion of the kingdom of tor-General in England, and afterwards a judge Northumberland, was lord of the soil, and about of the Court of King's Bench at Westminster. the year 660 bestowed on Eata, Abbot of Mel. But Beatson is not to be relied upon as an rose, a portion of ground at Ripon, whereon to authority, though the statement is repeated in erect a monastic foundation." Alchfrid, on the Haydn's edition of Beatson (1851); and in expulsion of the Scots, gave the monastery to Smyth's Law Officers of Ireland (1839). Wilfrid, afterwards Archbishop of York, and The dates of the Chief Baron's resignation, and of the Solicitor-General's appointment, are no Spenser and Shakspeare call the honeysuckle (our doubt curiously coincident; but, independently of woodbine) caprifole. It is still named by botanists the improbability of a retired chief baron of one caprifolium. "Drummond, following the French, country taking an office at the bar of another, all means by eglantine, the wild rose : so does Walter uncertainty is removed by the fact that the Chief | Scott, perhaps. Baron died July, 1768 (see Gent. Mag. xxxviii.

T. J. BUCKTON. 349), while the Judge of the King's Bench re

The eglantine is undoubtedly the sweetbriar mained in existence till January, 1787, nearly twenty years after.

(Rosa rubiginosa.) Its derivation from the French The Irish Chief Baron, I am word aiglantier proves this beyond dispute. When informed, was considered to have been the head of

| Milton spoke of the "twisted eglantine," he no the family, of which Chief Justice Willes and his

doubt meant the honeysuckle ; but poets are not son Edward, the Judge, belonged to a junior

always botanists, and the probability is that he branch.


made a mistake, and confounded one plant with SEPTUAGINT (3rd S. iv. 307.) – According to another. I think we should search in vain for Eichhorn (Einleitung, s. 178) the Greek commu any period when the word eglantine was first used nities of Palestine canonized the hexaplarian for the honeysuckle ; for I cannot consider that it recension of the Alexandrine version, those of ever was so used, except from an imperfect acEgypt, the recension of Hesychius, and those which quaintance with botanical names, which is very extend from Antioch to Constantinople, the re- common, and very excusable. I am inclined to cension of Lucian. To this I may add, that such think that Wither, in the lines' quoted, falls into a of the Greeks as have admitted the supremacy of similar confusion by speaking of the woodbine, the Bishop of Rome, would be bound by the edi- when he in reality means the bindweed. He calls tion of Sixtus V. A.D. 1587. T. J. BUCKTON. the woodbine fair, an epithet very appropriate to PAPA AND MAMMA (3rd S. iv. 306.)—It is not

the bindweed with its snow-white flowers, but not correct to say that we derive these words from the

at all to the honeysuckle. The “sbarp-scent” Greek; but it may be safely stated that we, as

would apply equally to the sweetbriar and honeywell as the Greeks, derived them from a common


F. C. H. source. What that source is cannot be certainly DERIVATION OF PAMPHLET (3rd S. iv. 315.) affirmed in the present state of comparative philo- I am decidedly in favour of the derivation from logy; but we have in Sanscrit pitar, “father," par un filet. It is very unlikely that recourse was and papus, “nourisher," as derivative from the I had to the Greek for the composition of

| had to the Greek for the composition of such a verb , “to nourish, to support;" also in San

word; and attempts to trace familiar names in scrit mátar, “mother," a derivative of the verb

our language to learned sources always reminds , “to expand, to measure.” The usual practice, me of Porson's immortal derivation of pancake and not etymology, determines the mode of spell- from may karby, because that dish had disagreed ing.

T. J. BUCKTON. with him. A French abbé, many years ago, told EGLANTINE (3rd S. iv. 305.)- Milton's error | me that the word pamphlet was derived from par in giving this name to the honeysuckle instead of un filet. He was a shrewd well-educated man, the sweetbriar-rose, is pointed out in the Penny

and he said this as a matter of course, and without Cyclopædia (art. Eglantine.") In French eglan. any idea that any other derivation was even tine is the wild rose ; aiglantier and eglantier, mean

dreamt of. What after all was more natural than sweetbriar; in English hep-tree, and in German for a few leaves stitched together by a thread to hagebuttenstrauch mean the wild or dog-rose as

be called par un filet, or for those three words to well as sweetbriar. Sir Walter Scott appears

subside into the English word pamphlet? also to be in error, according to Anne Pratt

F. C. H. (Flowers and their Associations, p. 131), in apply. | Dr. Ash, in bis Dictionary, 8vo, 1775, gives the

ing the name eglantine “ to that luxuriant creeper following: • the traveller's joy, or wild clematis, or virgin's Pamphlet, s. from the French pas, without, and filet, a

bower, which is commonly, though crroneously, | band, a small book unbound." termed eglantine." She says, “the true eglantine

J. W. of the older writers is, however, the prickly sweet

Let me tell BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. that briar, which so often forms a hedge for our gardens, pouring upon the breeze the delicious odour

pamphlet was spelled by Caxton paunflet, and in that resides in the herbage as much as in the blos

that form was supposed to be derived from the soms. It is the Rosa rubiginosa of modern bota

Latin pagina filata.

JUVENIS. nists, and the Rosu eglanteria of the olden time." | FRANCIS BURLEIGH (3rd S. iv. 228, 314) was It is to this Shakspeare refers :

matriculated as a sizar of Catharine Hall in March, “And leaf of eglantine, whom, not to slander, 1578-9, but subsequently migrated to Pembroke Outsweeten'd not thy breath."

| Hall, where he was one of Dr. Watts's Greek



scholars, proceeding B.A. as a member of the DATES (3rd S. iv. 248, 300, &c.) - Sandford, in latter house, 1582-3, and commencing M.A. 1587. his Genealogical History, p. 81, speaks of the beHe was created D.D. 1607, and became one of trothal of John Lackland to Alice of Maurienne the Fellows of Chelsea College May 8, 1610. as having taken place in the month of February,

Dr. Andrew Byng died at Winterton in Nor- | 1173. I suppose that, according to modern comfolk, in March, 1651-2. He was a native of Cam- , putation, this would be February, 1174. bridge, and there is a memoir of him in Cooper's The death of William Earl of Gloucester bas Annals of Cambridge, iii. 448. About 1605 there been rightly assigned by two of your corresponwas a decree of the Chapter of York to keep a dents to the year 1183. The date 1173 is to be residentiary's place for Andrew Byng, as he was found in Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. 536. But it then occupied in translating the Bible. (Drake's is evident from the context that this was merely Eboracum, App. p. lxxvii.)

an error of the press.

MELETES. Francis Dillingham matriculated as a pensioner of Christ's College in June 1583; became B.A.

Sir Roger WILBRAHAM (2nd S. xü. 70, 138.) – 1586-7, was elected a Fellow, and in 1590 com

The following particulars in reference to this Chemenced M.A.; he proceeded B.D. 1599. He died

shire worthy are at the service of the MESSRS. unmarried, but at what time we have not ascer

COOPER. Sir Roger Wilbraham of Bridgmore was tained. It is probable that the registers of Dean

born in or about 1553, as he was in his fiftieth year or Wilden may supply the information. As to

when his portrait, still existing at Delamere him see Fuller's Worthies, ed. 1840, i. 170. We

| House in this county, was painted in 1602. He have the titles of eight theological works published

| was admitted of Gray's Inn in 1586. by him from 1599 to 1606.

The following memorandum under his father's Thomas Harrison. This learned and esti

hand gives the date of his appointment as Irish mable person was Vice-Master (not Master) of

Solicitor-General :Trinity College. He died in July 1631, and was

“ That Roger Wilbrabam, my son, being appointed her buried in the college chapel. As to bim see Har

Maties Solycitor general for the realme of Ireland, the rison Honoratus by Caleb Dalechamp, Camb. 8vo.

viijth of Februarie, 1585, did take his jorney towards the

same realme from Namptwiche the iij of March, 1585, 1632; and Duport's Muse Subsecivæ, 497.

and in the xxviijth year of the reigne of our most gracious Geoffrey King, elected from Eton to King's ladye Queene Elizabeth, whom I beseeche God longe to College in 1583, was Regius Professor of Hebrew p'serve in helth, welth, joy and felycitie, and prosper and (1607), vicar of Lancaster, and chaplain to Arch- |

blesse hym in this her Maties servyce. Amen." bishop Bancroft. His name occurs in the Com- | The same authority goes on to say :mission for Causes Ecclesiastical within the Pro “ Upon the ascension of of Lorde, being the firste day vince of York, issued July 1, 1625. We bope the of Maye, 1600, and in the xiijth year of her Matie, it pleased inquiries of X. Y. Z., with the little information her grace to bestow upon my son Roger Wilbraham the we are enabled to give respecting him, may elicit

offyce to be one of the Maysters of Requestes. God p'serve

her highness, and give him grace for to serve hym and the date of his death.

| her Matic to God his glory and her lykyng. Amen." ... Eduard Lively was buried at St. Edward's in ..“My sayd son was maryede in Januarie last past before Cambridge, May 7, 1605. See a memoir of him the date heroff in ao 1599.” ..... “Marie Wilbrahain, in Athen. Cantabr. Ü. 407, 554.

daughter of my sayd son Roger Wilbraham, was borne at Michael Rabbett was of Trinity College, Cam

Sainte John's in Smythfylde the seventh day of October,

1600, Ao Reginæ Elizabeth xiij.” bridge, whereto he was elected from Westminster School in 1571. He held the vicarage of Streat-! A pedigree of Randle Holme's names his daughham, in Surrey, for forty-six years, and died ter Katherine as the wife of Sir Thomas Delves, February 5, 1630-1, aged seventy-eight. He was but this is manifestly an error. Sir Thomas maralso rector of St. Vedast, Foster Lane, London, ried the mother, and Sir Henry (his son) the from 1603 to 1617.

daughter, as is clearly set forth in the pedigree Robert Spalding. — A brief account of him will still extant in the College of Arms. be found in Athen. Cantabr. ii. 479. We have not The date of Sir Roger's death is variously stated, . met with anything which induces us to doubt the the MESSRS. COOPER giving it as July 19, 1616. accuracy of our supposition that he died in 1607, | The portrait already referred to has inscribed when his office of Regius Professor of Hebrew be thereon, “ obiit xii Julii, 1610;" but there exists came vacant.

at Delamere House a MS. note by Mr. Thomas Richard Thompson. - This very learned man Wilbraham (nephew of Sir Roger) to the effect (commonly called Dutch Thompson) was Fellow that " Sir Roger Wilbraham, my uncle, one of the of Clare Hall, and was presented by Bishop An- | Masters of Requests, and Survayor of the Court drewes to the rectory of Snailwell in Cambridge- of Wards, died the last of July, 1616." shire. He was buried at St. Edward's, Cambridge. The MESSRS. COOPER will know better than 1 Jan. 8, 1612-13. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. do whether Sir Roger published any legal or other Cambridge.

works; but, I may add, that there is at Delamere

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