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June and the seven or eight immediately succeeding days, are these : viz. 1. Where, in the Departments of the North and the Pas-de-Calais, or in the neighbouring Belgic provinces, are any Celtic monuments, either entire or in ruin Of what kind are they, and what popular traditions are attached to them : 2. What were the boundaries of the districts inhabited by the Nervii, the Atrebates, the Morini, and the Menapii: 3. Have any new facts been ascertained as to the precise locality on which Julius Caesar “ overcame the Nervii 2" 4. What new facts can be adduced as to any Roman Roads in the districts above named, or the connection of such roads with known Roman camps and Mansiones 2 What are their materials and mode of construction, and what changes have they undergone? 5. Do any other kinds of Gallo-Roman monuments exist in the districts now under consideration? 6. What objects of real archaeological import have been found in the several excavations at Bavai, Famars, and Cassel, or other Roman stations : To what class of monuments do such belong, and in what museums or private collections are they 7. Has the situation of the Hermoniacum of Peutinger's Chart been accurately determined ? 8. The territory now surrounding the city of Lille not being noticed either in the chart of Peutinger or the Itinerary of Antoninus—it is desirable to ascertain whether the opinion, derived from this circumstance, that the Romans never had any establishment in this part of Belgic Gaul, be well or ill founded. 9. What was in Roman times the language spoken in the Belgic provinces, and by what was it replaced : 10. At what epoch were the rules of this newer language introduced and fixed, and what were the works, whether of prose, or of poetry, or official documents, wherein it was first employed : 11. Can we determine, from any peculiarity in the formation of the vast subterraneous caverns so common in Flanders, Artois, and Picardy, their several uses and architectural epochs? 12. Has any recent information been acquired relative to the coining of Roman money in the countries of the Nervii, or of the Atrebates, the Morini, and the Menapii: 13. What were the boundaries of the different “Pagi majores et minores" into which the ancient county of Flanders was divided ? 14. What royal prerogatives did the Counts of Flanders enjoy
15. In what originated the jurisdiction of the several law Courts at Valenciennes known as the “Salle de Lille,” the “Salle de Phalempin,” and the “Salle le Comte * * 16. What was the nature and organisation of the aristocracy in Flanders, Artois, the Cambresis, and Hainault; and when was it first instituted : 17. What was the constitution of those feudal Courts called “ Perrons,” such as the “Perron de Cassel,” the “Perron of Audemarde, &c. 2” 18. In what towns did the larger courts exist, and how and by whom were they held : What are the oldest written public acts constituting the respective rights and duties of seigneurs and vassals in the county of Flanders ? 19. What were the limits of the principal dioceses in the north of Gaul, and by whom and how were bishops nominated, from the tenth to the eleventh century : 20. What was the political or feudal authority of the Prince over the Church and clergy, and what connection was there between Church and State 2 21. What authority had bishops over the monasteries, whether of men or wo. men, and how were such monasteries grganized 2 What were their dignities, and by whom were they conferred 2 What momasteries contained persons of both sexes, and what was the discipline of such houses? 22. When was the organization of contmunes (properly so called) first brought about in Flanders, Hainault, and other parts of modern Belgium ? How do their institutions of the present May differ from their ancient municipalities, or Germanic guilds, or from those communes of the interior of France which arose in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 2 23. To what epoch can be traced the establishment of the provincial states, and when was the tiers-etat admitted. 24. Was it the Roman law which was observed in Flanders and its vicinity before the twelfth century; and if so, at what period was it most in force : 25. Of what dates are the earliest written custumalsof the countries above-named? 26. Why was feudal tenure more extensive and more completely developed in Hainault than in Flanders. 27. With respect to Monuments of the middle ages, is there any remarkable dif. ference between the architecture of the north of France and that of the south of Belgium, or of the seventeen Belgic provinces ; and have the architectonic types of East and West Flanders, Hainault, the Cambresis, and Artois been borrowed from France, or from the great monuments of the most northern of these provinces, or from Germany 2. And what are the differences and the analogies of other contemporary works of art in those countries 2 28. As it does not appear that either in French Flanders, or French Hainault, or the Cambresis were ever any such vast Basilical churches with statuary fronts as still exist in the countries adjacent to them, it is desirable to seek the cause of this almost total absence of statuary decoration, which renders the study of Iconography in the provinces above-named so difficult. 29. It being generally thought that the new styles of gothic architecture were but slowly adopted in French Flanders, can this opinion be supported by any monuments of well attested date, which were constructed according to the styles of periods preceding their erection? 30. As several religious edifices which have nothing remarkable in their architecture, contain very interesting pulpits, stalls, confessionals, reliquaries, tabernacles, shrines, fonts, processional crosses, and bas-reliefs, &c., a description of such objects may enable the Congress to ascertain the state of fine art in those provinces now under consideration, during the middle ages. 31. Does it appear that Spanish dominion exercised any influence on the architecture of Flanders and Artois 2 Were all the buildings attributed to the Spaniards, such as belfries and town-halls, &c. really constructed by them, and what are the peculiarities of that architecture of which the towns of Lille and Arras afford so many examples. 32. Can it be proved that any Romanesque churches with large courts before them ever existed in the northern provinces of ancient Gaul ? 33. Are there in other parts of ancient Gaul any churches of Romanesque architecture, which have never had any other than flat ceilings of wood? 34. Are there any existing apsidal ends or other parts of Romanesque churches of octagonal form 2 35. Are there any specimens of pointed vaulting put up after the completion of edifices of pure Romanesque style 2 36. What churches are there of a transitional epoch from the semicircular to the pointed styles, which are exteriorly Romanesque, and interiorly pointed 2 and, where such exist, has not the interior been added when a vaulted ceiling may have been put up 2 37. How, in the north of France, during the above-named epoch, are the two architectural styles generally combined 2 38. Did the several people of Ger.
GENT, MAG, Wol. XXIII,
manic origin similarly adopt the different changes in architectural style 2 39. Are there any crypts under the churches of Belgium and the northern provinces of France in those styles prevalent from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries. 40. What was the ancient destination of crypts, or subterranean churches, and what peculiar ceremonies were therein celebrated? 41. To what epoch may we refer the introduction of zodiacal signs in monuments consecrated to Christian worship, and are they frequently employed on their walls or pavements in the north 2 42. Are there any church pavements formed of stones sculptured in low relief, having in their cavities a coloured cement? 43. Are there any mosaic pavements in churches of the pointed style? 44. What examples are there of that peculiar kind of pavement called labyrinths, or roads to Jerusalem, sometimes seen in the pavements of middle-age buildings? and to what epoch may we refer their introduction? 45. How happens it that there are so many large religious edifices of the first and second styles of pointed architecture still existing in those provinces on this side of the river Loire, formerly called the country of the Langue d'oïl, compared to the small number of religious edifices of the same epochs in the provinces south of the Loire, and which is called the country of the Langue d'oc? 46. Do Belgium and the northern provinces of France afford any examples of Romanesque churches paved with glass :
Gentlemen proposing to attend the discussion of the above-stated questions are cordially invited by the authorities of Lille to its grand “Fêtes Patronales,” which will take place on the first, second, and third days of June, and during which there will be several opportunities of observing the ancient manners and usages of Flanders, as exhibited at its “Kermesses” and other assemblies. The admission card to the Congress, which costs but ten francs, including the privilege of partaking of a banquet to be given by the city of Tournay, may be procured on arrival at Lille from Mons. de Contencin, to whom, or to M. de Caumont, the Director of the Society, the writer of this notice will be happy to make known any person who may be desirous of joining him at Lille, and which by steam to Ostend, and thence by railroad, may be reached from London in sixteen or eighteen hours.
W. BRom ET.
Athenæum Club House. ; :
PROC EED IN G. S IN PAR LIAM ENT.
House of Loads.
April 4. The Earl of Clarendon, after briefly noticing the conduct of America towards Texas, and the extraordinary terms in which Mr. Polk had declared the unequivocal right of the United States to the whole OREgon TERRitoRY, reviewed the grounds upon which the British claims are founded, and concluded by expressing his anxious hope, that while, whatever could be justly claimed should be readily conceded, the government would not shrink from vindicating, if necessary, the nation's honour or upholding her interests. —Lord Aberdeen would willingly lay before the House the details of the negociation upon the subject of the Oregon territory, and appeal to them for his entire justification in the face of Europe; but, although this might hereafter be necessary, it would now certainly be impolitic. He declined to enter into an examination of the British title to the territory in dispute, but proceeded to explain the course the negociation had taken since the signing of the Washington treaty, and concluded by exo: a hope that this question might
amicably adjusted; but if not, we possessed rights, clear and unquestionable, **which,” continued the noble Earl amid loud and general cheering, “by the blessing of God, and the support of Parliament, the Government is prepared to maintain.”
House of Commons.
March 31. In a Committee of Supply, Mr. Corry brought forward the Navy Estimates. An increase, he said, was required for the purpose of meeting the fresh demands on this branch, to add new ships, and also to increase the number of men by 4000. The total charge for the ensuing year would be 6,936, 1921. being an excess over that of last year of 68,672.
April 2. In a Committee of Supply, the ARMY Estimates were brought forward, and the number of troops to be main. tained for the military service of the United Kingdom, exclusive of those employed in the East Indies, during the year ending the 31st of March 1846, was fixed at 100,011 men.
April 3. The House went into committee upon the Acts relating to the Col. Litgr or MAYNooth, when Sir Robert Peel proceeded to develope the plans of the Government relating to that institu
tion. The House was at liberty to pursue three different courses. First, they could continue, without alteration, the present system. Secondly, they could discontinue it, giving due notice of their intention, and providing for existing interests; and, thirdly, they could, in a friendly and liberal spirit, adopt the institution as one for making adequate provision for the spiritual instruction of millions of their fellow countrymen, with a view to improving the system of education, and thereb elevating the whole tone of character feeling. The first course, that of leaving matters as they now stood, was most open to objection. They professed to educate spiritual instructors for millions; and the annual amount they gave, 9,000l. was just enough to paralyse all voluntary exertion, which, if the grant were withdrawn, would be called into active exercise. If it be a violation of principle to educate the Roman Catholic priesthood, they did it now. The Lord Chancellor (of Ireland) and the judges were the visitors of that institution; and in its favour they had repealed the statute of mortmain, so as to enable its trustees to hold land to the extent of 1000l. ayear. But what was the amount of their endowment: They gave a sum which enabled the three professors of theology to be paid at the rate of 120l., per annum, while others averaged still less. . At present 440 students were educated at Maynooth, of whom 250 were “free” students, for whose support and education there could only be apportioned the sum of 231. each. Himself attached to the Established Church, he felt that it would be more in accordance with the faith he professed to afford to those from whom he differed, but who sincerely entertained their own principles, the means of adequate and sufficient spiritual instruction and consolation. If they withdrew the grant, let them look to its ultimate Consequences. They gave a grant to the Presbyterians of Ireland; in the coloniesCanada, the Mauritius, and elsewherethey officially recognised the faith of those of their fellow subjects who differed from the Established Church; even in Ireland itself they provided for the endowment of Roman Catholic chaplains to the gaols. Dismissing, then, the idea of leaving the grant in its present state, or of withdraw: ing it, he came to the third course, which was the one the Government were prepared to adopt. In a liberal and confiding spirit, they proposed to provide a liberallyeducated priesthood for the Roman Catholic Church. First, they would enable the trustees of Maynooth to hold real property to the extent of 3000l. per annum. Secondly, a sum of 6000l. should be vested in the trustees to enable them to give to the president and professors salaries from 250l. to 300l. and also adequately to support the library of the institution. Thirdly, provision should be made for the education of 500 pupils. To the students on Lord Dunboyne's foundation, twenty in number, he would appropriate 40l. per annum; for the support of the entire number of 500, he would assign 28l. annually; but to 250, being divinity students, he would give 20l. additional. The buildings of the college should be maintained, so as to afford a decent and distinct apartment to each student, and he would devolve this care, as well as that of repairs and embellishments, on the Board of Works. There should be five visitors, who should discharge their duty annually instead of triennially, as at present; but no power would be conferred of interfering with discipline, doctrine, or worship, as he had no desire to spoil a measure which was conceived and intended to be received in a spirit of unmixed liberality. The distinct vote for Maynooth should be 30,000l. for this year. Sir R. H. Inglis, in a speech of considerable length and eloquence, stated the reasons which induced him to give a decided negative to the proposition, and to divide the House on the question. Entertaining no animosity towards his Roman Catholic fellow-countrymen, he insisted on the Protestant character of our institutions, which ought to preclude us from
being parties to anything which would tend to increase Roman Catholicism. The endowment of Maynooth was not a question of compact or engagement, and could only be defended on the ground of expsdiency, which he repudiated as a principle, and considered that in practice it failed of producing its expected results. On a division there appeared for the resolution, 216; against it, 114. April 4. Sir R. Peel made a declaration with reference to the question of the OREGoN TERRitory, similar to that made by the Earl of Aberdeen in the Upper House, which was received with great cheering. April 7. The Chancellor of the Erchequer proposed a resolution for the abolition of the Auction Duties. After some discussion, a division took place—for the motion, 167; against it, 30. It was them agreed that the auction licence for each individual auctioneer should be 10l. April 11. On the motion for the second reading of the MAYNooth College Bill, Mr. Colquhoun opposed it, and moved that it be read a second time that day six months, which was seconded by Mr. Grogan. The debate was adjourned to Monday, April 14, and continued every evening during the week to the 18th, when the House *—or the motion 323, against it 176. April 23. On the motion for Committee on the same Bill, Mr. Ward moved as an amendment that “it is the opinion of this House, that any provision to be made for the purposes of the present Bill, ought to be taken from the funds already applicable to Ecclesiastical purposes in Ireland.” The debate was adjourned to the following evening, when a division took place : Ayes 322, Noes 148.
M. Martinez de la Rosa has formally communicated the fact that the Holy See has at length declared that the moment has arrived for renewing relations with Spain, and expressed his opinion that the desired concordat would soon be obtained. The unsold lands are restored to the clergy, a measure which appears to give unbounded satisfaction to the rural population of Spain. The Spanish Government, however, require from the Pope the sanction of the sale of the national property already disposed of,
The Bill for the Annexation of Texas passed the Senate on the 27th February, the Representatives on the 27th, and was returned, with the signature of the President, on the 1st instant. The Mexican Minister has, in the interim, declared his intention of protesting against the measure. The impression appears pretty general that the Mexicans will view it as an open act of hostility, and will probably declare war. The Oregon Occupation Bill was moved in the Senate on the 3rd, and, on a vote, was lost-23 against, and £1 for the measure, Florida and Iowa have been admitted formally into the Union as States, swelling the number of States to 30, and, as the papers remark, “not including Texas.” On the 4th of March, James K. Polk, in the presence of some 30,000 people, entered upon his career as President of the United States. By a report made to Congress by the Chairman of the Naval Committee (Mr. Reade), it has been ascertained that out of 109,000 seamen sailing out of the United States, only 9,000 were Americans, or a proportion of 1 to 12.
The dispute that has arisen among the cantons from the introduction of the Jesuits, and the determination of many of the people to be rid of them, has at length broke out in civil war against the Government. On the 1st April, the free corps of Argan, reinforced by volunteers from the radical cantons, and the refugees from Lucerne, amounting together to 4,000 men, entered the canton of Lucerne. They advanced beyond Suzee, a small town five leagues from Lucerne, near Lake Sem
pacher, and just as they were preparing to bombard the city a masterly movement of the government troops cut off the party who had reached the hill, and thus saved the place from their fire, and insured the overthrow of the insurgents. Their loss, the amount of the force considered, was immense; 600 of them at least, including the leading men of the party, were supposed to have fallen, besides a considerable number made prisoners.
The Swiss Diet has assembled, and appointed a Committee to investigate the circumstances. The Austrian Government has sent a force of 4,000 men to reinforce the Austrian garrisons on the Swiss frontiers.
A frightful event took place at Algiers on the 8th of March—namely, the explosion of the powder magazine of the park of artillery. The entire building, and several others in its vicinity, were utterly destroyed, with the loss of an immense number of lives, including upwards of 100 officers and soldiers. It is supposed to have been purposely destroyed by a native.
HAM PS HiRr.
Her Majesty has become the purchaser of Osborne House, near Cowes, from Lady Isabella Blachford. This is considered one of the best situations in the Isle of Wight. Including the Park, Osborne Great Wood, and New Barn Farm, it contains 376 acres. To this is added the Barton Farm, containing 441 acres, making a total of 817 acres. The whole purchase embraces an indented shore of the sea of about a mile and-a-half, Fish-house Creek being the eastern boundary, and Norris Castle the western limit. It extends inland to the Newport road. The immediate alterations will not be very extensive. It is in contemplation to enlarge and restore the house.
April 1. A convent and new schools, dedicated to St. Joseph, at Chelsea, were opened with great ceremony, the Hon. Edward Petre taking a prominent part in the proceedings. The preceptors of the schools are five nuns from the convent at Bermondsey, and some monks from the Jesuit colleges in the North of England. The schools are founded by Mr. Knight, the eminent horticulturist of King's-road, who bought the property at a cost of 5000l. and erected the buildings at his own ex
pense. His wife is buried under the altar of the chapel. April 7. The sale commenced of the materials of the Fleet Prison. The prison comprises an acre of ground, and contains 3,000,000 of bricks. At present it is not decided what improvements will take place on the site, whether a new street will be formed, or accommodation afforded for the removal of Newgate market, which would afford room for the enlargement of the prison of Newgate and the removal of Giltspur-street Counter. The corporation of London purchased the Fleet Prison for 29,000l. The late building was erected after the Gordon riots in 1780. The designs sent in competition for a model establishment of Baths and Washhouses for the labouring classes, to be erected in the metropolis, has been exhibited at Mr. Rainy's Rooms, in Regentstreet. They were 21 in number, and one other design was submitted in competition, but its author refused to have it exhibited. Of these the committee have selected one by Mr. P. P. Bayly, which appeared to combine, in the highest degree, the requisites of required space, probable cost, the arrangements for ventilating and heating, and the simplicity of the arrangements for th9 baths, and for the washing and ironing