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statistics of local politics, showing not only the name of every man that has sat in the House of Commons frou the year 1715, but also, to a very great extent, how far every candidate, whether successful or unsuccessful, has obtained the suffrages of the electors.

Something about Rye Church. [Not published.] 8vo. pp. 24.—A brief but intelligent memoir, displaying considerable historical and architectural knowledge, accompanied by sound taste, and well calculated to enlighten the good people of Rye, and dispel some of their prejudices; unless, indeed, the numerous scraps of Latin stand in the way of the worthy freemen and jurats, or they take

offence at the contemptuous remarks passed on the monuments of their forefathers. It appears that the author has himself set a better example, having erected a beautiful canopied tomb of stone, of the period of Edward the Third. We are happy to find that the present pamphlet has also already achieved its original object. The Norman portion of the Church has been restored, and a Norman font of Caen stone, elaborately carved, has been substituted in the place of a common “hand-bason.” These works, it may be hoped, will form the commencement of a new era in the church of Rye, the size and character of which are such as at once to justify the pride, and encourage the pious zeal, of the townspeople.

LIT E R A R Y AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

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dotus, in two places in his history, introduces a city named by him Cadytis. He describes it as a great city of Syria, not much less, in his opinion, than Sardis ; and reports several particulars respecting the districts neighbouring upon it, as having been communicated to Cambyses, when that sovereign was meditating an invasion of Egypt. From these passages some of the highest authorities among the learned —e.g. Prideaux, Rennell, D'Anville— have understood that by Cadytis Herodotus meant Jerusalem, so called by him from the term “Alcads,” the Holy, the term applied to it by the Arabs. To these authorities, however, is opposed the learned Wesseling, who, in his commentary on Herodotus, gives his opinion that Cadytis could not be Jerusalem. He supposes that the historian intended to assign this city to a maritime situation, because he includes it in the description of a part of Syria in which were situated the fumápua; but Mr. Holland shewed that duróptov does not necessarily imply a trading port, but answers generally to the modern entrepôt. Again, Wesseling alleges that uéxpt oipów Ka8érios, used in his description o Herodotus, has been erroneously translated “as far as the mountains of Cadytis,” and would substitute “borders;” to which translation Mr. Holland objects, at the same time remarking that it furnishes no argument against the more general opinion respecting Cadytis. Lastly, Wesseling regards it as im

probable that the Philistines and other neighbouring nations, who hated the Jews, should have given the name of “holy” to their city; but the fact is, observes Mr. Holland, that the Arabs and Syrians now call it by a name as nearly resembling Cadytis as the native names of places. usually resemble those that the Greeks assigned to them in their writings. He further remarks, that it is not unlikely that the name “holy” might at an early period be applied by general consent to the city which contained a temple so extraordinary for its architectural splendour and solemn services as the temple of Solomon. Mr. Holland concludes his review of the objections of Wesseling with the observation, that they do not appear forcible enough to subvert the decisions of Dr. Prideaux, Major Rennell, and D'Anville, besides those of the many “viri eruditissimi” with whom the learned commentator acknowledges he once agreed on this point, and from whom afterwards differing, he was himself able to come to no other conclusion than the ancient formulary of doubt, non liquet. March 13. Dr. Bromet exhibited facsimiles from some of the accented Latin inscriptions that have from time to time been discovered at Nismes, and which are all of prior date to the year A.D. 180. Accented Latin inscriptions, he observed, with one exception (viz. of a poetical inscription, published by Graevius and Morcelli, and termed by them “vetustissima,") having been found only at Nismes, the modern inhabitants of that city have thence assumed that the language of Rome was spoken with greater purity in Nemausus than in other colonial towns. Dr. Bromet,

on the contrary, would explain this pecu. liarity by supposing that these accents denote so low a state of Latin orthoepy among the Nemausians, that it was necessary to instruct them as to the proper pronunciation of the vowels superscribed with these marks. The letters accented are the vowels A, E, o, and U : the 1 having no accent, but presenting the occasional peculiarity of a considerable elongation. Dr. Bromet suggested that the accents relate neither to the expression nor tone—the comparative intensity or emphasis—nor to the modulation, or acute and grave pitches of the voice; but that, while their purpose was to designate the prosodial length of the letters over which they are found, they also pointed out the precise articulate sounds to be employed in pronouncing them ; e.g. that the E should (probably) be sounded as we in England generally sound the letter A. The secretary afterwards read a second portion of “Remarks on Lacunae in Thu

F IN E

‘th E ART-UNION OF LONDON.

April 15. The ninth anniversary meeting of the London Art-Union was held in Drury Lane Theatre, and the Duke of Cambridge presided. During the last year the subscriptions and contributions to the objects of the institution have increased upwards of 600l., the whole amount subscribed being upwards of 15,400l. The Hon. Sec. Mr. George Godwin, F.R.S. read the report. It stated that Lord Monteagle's Act (under which the present distribution was made) remains in force until the 31st of July next, before which time, as there is every reason to believe, the association will be placed on a firm and permanent basis by an Act of Parliament, to be brought in by the Right Hon. Thomas Wyse, as chairman of a committee of the House of Commons appointed in June last to consider the objects and results of Art-Unions. It is gratifying to find that the late agitation of the subject and this inquiry have not had the effect of changing the opinion of any early friend to the ArtUnion of London, so far as is known : while it has even already induced many who entertained doubts on the matter to give it the advantage of their countenance. The prizeholders of last year purchased 253 works of art, including two pieces of sculpture. These were exhibited for the usual time, at first to the subscribers and their friends, and afterwards gratuitously to the public, and were visited by 250,000

cydides, and the means of supplying them from satisfactory sources,” by Mr. Geo. Burges. In this communication Mr. Burges adduced proofs, replete with research and ingenuity, of his having discovered portions of the historian, which the scholiast on Aristophanes, Maximus Tyrius, and Priscian found in their copies, but which are at present wanting in all the Mss. hitherto collated, and the existence of which has been wholly unsuspected by the editors. Of these supplements upwards of one hundred were obtained from Suidas; the shortest consisting of two or three words, but others presenting whole sentences, accidentally omitted, and as accidentally recovered, after the lapse of centuries. April 10. A paper by Mr. Cullimore was read, the purport of which was to identify the destruction of Sodom, and the seven years of plenty in Egypt, with some remarkable events in the Egyptian annals.

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persons without the occurrence of any accident. The engraving due to the subscribers of last year, “The Castle of Ischia,” will be delivered on and after the 7th of May next. “The Convalescent from Waterloo,” engraved by Mr. G. T. Doo, after Mr. Mulready, R.A. due to the subscribers of the present year, is approaching completion. In addition to this print, the subscribers will receive for each guinea paid a series of designs in outline illustrative of Thomson's “Castle of Indolence,” made by Mr. William Rimer. The engravings will be executed by Messrs. Webb. Whitfield, H. W. Collard, and Joubert. Every subscriber for 1846 will receive an impression of a line engraving, “Jephtha's Daughter,” after Mr. O'Neil, by Mr. Peter Lightfoot; and for the subscribers of some future year the committee have placed in the hands of Mr. C. Rolls and Mr. Frederick Heath, two pictures by Mr. Uwins, R.A. “The Last Embrace.” and “The Neapolitan Marriage,” (sent by Mr. Willes, of Goodrest, Berks), to be engraved and distributed as a pair. The committee have offered a premium of 500l. for the best original picture illustrative of English history. The cartoons are to be received in competition on the 1st of next January. In reply to the offered premium of 60l. for the best consecutive series of not less than ten designs in outline, illustrative of some epoch in fliblical or British history, or of the work of a British author, nineteen sets were received, from which the committee selected a series from the “Revelations of St. John,” afterwards found to be by Mr. George Elgar Hicks, of Lymington, Hampshire, as entitled to the reward. Considering that much talent was displayed by some of the competitors, they further awarded honorary premiums of 20l. each to Mr. G. E. Sintzenick, Mr. W. Cave Thomas, and Mr. G. Scharf, jun. With the view of inducing the production of finer and more elaborate works in lithography than are now general in this country, the committee some time ago laced in the hands of Mr. Templeton, Mr. o M. Ward's excellent picture, “La Fleur's Departure” (selected by a prizeholder in the last distribution), to be executed on stone of a large size. This will form part of next year's arrangements. In continuation of the society's endeavours to encourage the production of bronzes, Mr. John Bell's statue of the “Eagle Slayer,” exhibited in Westminster Hall last year, has been reduced by Mr. Edward Wyon, and twenty copies, in bronze, prepared for this year's distribution. For the ensuing year Mr. Foley's statue, “The Boy at the Stream,” has been reduced by Mr. Cleverton's machinery, and will be produced in bronze by Mr. Foley himself. The committee propose to reduce a statue to a convenient size, and to issue a certain number of copies in porcelain. Mr. Gibson, R.A., when in England, kindly offered the use of any of his works for this purpose, and the committee have determined on adopting “The Narcissus ” for the first experiment, his diploma piece at the Royal Academy. The work will be proceeded with immediately by Messrs. Copeland and Garrett. Mr. A. J. Stothard has completed a medal commemorative of Sir Joshua Reymolds, of which thirty in pressions in silver were distributed as prizes, and any subscriber may have a copy in bronze, in lieu of the engraving for the present year. From the want of encouragement in the art of gem engraving it has been shown that we have now no artists in that department capable of engraving a figure liarly straight. These relics are the only fragments connected with Jerusalem in this country. The hon, sec. Mr. Bailey read the report of the council on the essays submitted in competition for the Institute medal. From this it appeared that three had been received, and that the council considered one of them sufficiently meritorious, as a careful compilation, to deserve the offered reward. One of the three was a verbal transcript from an enclyclopaedia! For the Soane medallion no designs had been received in time. The selected essay was then read. It gave the derivation and nature of slate, and traced its introduction and increased use in England. The au. thor is Mr. S. J. Nicholl, of Argyll-place. .March 10. Mr. R. W. Billings read a aper on the carving machine patented by Mr. Samuel Bratt, and exhibited a numher of specimens executed by it. It was announced that the medals of the institute would be awarded next year to the authors of the best essays on the following subjects:–1. On the adaptation and modification of the orders of the Greeks by the Romans and moderns. 2. On the history and manufacture of bricks.--And that the Soane medallion would be awarded to the best design for a Royal Chapel, with seats for five hundred persons, inclusive of the suite, attendants, and choir; the building to be detached, and in a classic Roman, or Italian style. March 31. Mr. Donaldson presented from Mr. W. Hamilton, F.R.S. part of a wooden pin, which formerly held together, as a dowell, the frustra of one of the colums of an Athenian temple. It was at first said to be from the Parthenon, but Mr. Geering, who had been written to on the subject, said there were no wooden pins in this latter building, and that it was probably from the Propylaeum. A letter was read from Mons. L. Serrure, of Antwerp, announcing the death of his father, who was a corresponding member, and offering his services to such members of the institute as might visit Antwerp. The late M. Serrure is best known in this country by a drawing of the Antwerp spire on a very large scale, which is engraved. A communication was read from Mr. Thomas Cubitt, illustrated by a model, descriptive of the chimney recently erected on Mr. Cubitt's premises at Thames Bank, and some observations on the expansion of the brickwork by heat. Mr. Edward I'Anson, jun. read a paper “On the Architecture of the Renaissance, in France,” in the course of which he described at considerable length the Chateau of Fontainbleau,

equal to those which were produced in England only a few years ago, and the committee draw public attention to the fact. The amount set apart for the purchase of works of art was 9650l. and the total number of prizes was 330. The following is a list of the principal prizeholders:–Lord F. Beauclerk, 68, Grosvenor-street; Sir E. Perry, Bombay, —each 300l. Rev. A. R. Lloyd, Whittington, Owstery; Mrs. A. Packe, Claythorpe rectory, Grantham,_each 200l. J. Jarman, Half-Moon-street, Bishopsgate; G. Twiss, Cambridge; W. F. Watson, Chelsea, each 150l. C. Claydon, Cambridge; W. Gow, Hungerford Wharf; W. M'Donald, Queen-street, Glasgow; H. S. J. Medley, Farringdon; Lady A. Paget, l, Old Burlington-street; E. Shepheard, Coventry, each 100t. A prize of 40l. was drawn by Sir M. A. Shee, Pres. R.A.

PANOR AMA or NANK iN G. Mr. Burford has opened a panoramic view of Nanking, one of the most important cities of the Chinese empire. It stands in the midst of a vast plain, terminated by hills of peculiar and picturesque forms, and presenting a landscape of great beauty. The city is of immense extent, and said to contain a million of inhabitants. It is surrounded by walls of great height and substance, but without either towers or bastions: they are now estimated at 21 or 22 miles in circumference, but are said to, have formerly extended to more than sixty miles. Outside the wall, in front of the picture, stands the long-famed porcelain pagoda, which yet exists in all its original beauty. The country immediately around the city is generally flat and well watered, and occupied by paddy fields. The whole panorama is beautifully painted, and the foreground is enlivened by a group presenting full-length portraits of Sir Henry Pottinger, Sir Hugh Gough, Sir W. Parker, Lord Saltoun, and Major Anstruther; and of the Chinese commissioners. Eleepoo, Whang, Ke-Ying, and other persons of note. They are represented discussing the terms of the treaty, in a public garden of greater natural beauty than the eye is accustomed to expect from the native landscapes of China.

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April 14. A paper was read “On the formation of a Museum of Casts, illustrative of the Architecture of Antiquity and of the Middle Ages,” by C. H. Wilson, esq. Director of the Government School of Design. In this essay Mr. Wilson cited the casts belonging to the Royal Society of Arts at Edinburgh, as a model for similar collections, which might be established in various localities throughout the kingdom with great advantage to the public taste, and consequently to the general promotion of the Fine Arts. With reference to architecture there were difficulties to be overcome, since the true mode of making architectural casts really available for study, would be to set up the orders of antiquity, and even the façades of whole buildings, entire, instead of keeping them in fragments, and for this purpose space would be required which it might not be easy to obtain. This plan has been carried into effect at the Ecole des Beaux Arts at Paris. Some observations followed on the true advantage to be drawn from collections of works of art of different styles and periods, which were too generally used as mere objects of imitation, instead of being made available as a study of the resources of art, under various circumstances and contingencies;–that there is one standard of beauty and taste, must be inferred from the fact, that all schools of art, whatever modifications their practice may exhibit, have agreed unanimously in their admiration of the works of the Greeks. In the present day, the arts, and especially architecture and decoration, are too much confined to imitation, both in England and France. The Germans are struggling, and not unsuccessfully, to unique beauty of proportion and form, with a style bearing the impress of a national character. Mr. Wilson observed, that much bad art was perpetrated in this country upon the pretence of carrying out the style of the Middle Ages—a very convenient doctrine to those who find it difficult to draw or design. Mr. Donaldson, considering synchronism and uniformity of character to be essential in the reproduction of various styles of art, thought that collections of the works of all periods could not be too much extended, or too assiduously studied. He deprecated the study of art of any exclusive character.

HRistol ARCH itect URAL SOCIETY. April 11.-The General Meeting of the Bristol Agricultural Society was held in the theatre of the Philosophical Institution. From the Report of the Committee, it appeared that the Society had carried its

usefulness during the past year far more extensively than in any preceding.

It has largely assisted, both by advice and pecuniary aid, towards the works just finished in the church of St. John the Baptist, Bristol. The repairs, made in Slimbridge Church were but slightly noticed, as a detailed account of this beautiful structure, illustrated with numerous plates, is about to be published in connection with the Society. No one who has visited St. George's, Kingswood, can fail to join in the wish expressed, that it may be speedily supplanted by a more ecclesiastical building. The Society are anxious to raise a special subscription towards the completion of a very beautiful design for the east window. The church of Othery, Somersetshire, is about to be brought back as near as possible to its original state, through the zeal of one of the Society's members, the Rev. Dr. Shipton.

Two papers were read, the first by S. C. Fripp, . on the different styles of English Ecclesiastical Architecture, the second by R. S. Wasbrough, esq. on the Reliefs of an ancient Altar Tomb in Ennis Abbey, Ireland. The Rev. H. T. Ellacombe exhibited “a rubbing” of a very highly ornamented monumeutal brass lately executed by Messrs. J. G. and L. A. B. Waller, of London, to the memory of the Rev. Christopher Parkins and his wife (1843), in Gressford Church, Denbighshire, cost 601.

April 8. The new district church of All Saints, for Stanway and Lerden, near Colchester, was consecrated by the Bishop of London. The architect is Mr. George Russell French. Its architecture is that of the middle of the fourteenth century, when the Decorated style is considered to have reached its height of purity—a style, it is believed, as suitable to small country churches as to a vast cathedral, and admitting of great variety of detail: thus, in All Saints' Church there are not less than seven different patterns of windows, and four of gable crosses, yet all agreeing with each other. In order to make the period chosen appear with the more certainty, portraits (taken from their sepulchral effi

ANTIQUARIAN

80ciety Fort The PRESERVATION AND DESCRIPTION OF FRENch historic AI, Mio NUMENTs.

The questions to be discussed at the

gies) of Edward III. his queen Philippa, and their son, the Black Prince, are intro. duced among the heads which support the labels on the north side, as is that of Bishop Wykehan, at the east end. The series of heads on the north side is chosen to illustrate that passage in the 148th Psalm, “Kings of the earth and all people, princes and all judges of the earth, young men and maidens, old men and children, praise the name of the Lord.” The font, of Caen stone (in which material all the external decorations of the church are executed), has been much admired. It is octagon' having on each side of the bowl varied tracery, within which are symbols of the Trinity—the dove, the cross, and monograms of the Saviour's name; the pedestal is carved in tracery panels, and the ballflower is introduced in the cornice. The font is lined with lead, and has a drain. It is also raised on a platform of Chamberlain's encaustic tiles, the four Evangelists being at the corners, and the riser is formed of glazed tiles, which bear the text—IN: THE : NAME: 0F: the FATHER: AND : of: THE : SON : AND : OF: the : holy: Ghost. In a small transept (built for an organ) is a triangular gable-light filled with stainedglass, the gift of Mrs. John Papillon; and in the chancel is a single-light window, presented by the architect, having a ruby border enriched with the vine-leaf, and the text in old English letters, “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven;” being the first of the besittudes occurring in the gospel appointed for All Saint's day. The pulpit, which projects from the wall, and is approached from the chancel and vestry, is of Caen stone, having highly enriched tracery panels, the cornices filled with the ball-flower and the four-leaved flower, and the lower spandrils having palm-branches and crowns carved thereon. The seats are of oak, with low backs; the bench ends in the mave having buttresses, low doors marking the appropriated seats; the ends of the seats in the chancel and of the reading desk have carved finials. The roofs are open to the ridges, showing the entire construction of the timbers and boarding. A view of this church has been published in “The Builder.”

RESEARCHES.

great Archaeological and Historical Congress of the Society for the Preservation and Description of French Historical Monuments, and which, it is now definitively fixed, will take place at Lille on the 3rd of

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