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account for the use of that ornament in this particular instance 2 In the Heralds’ Visitation of Berks in 1623, is the following account of the Castilion family. “This antient and illustrious Italian family settled in Berkshire, in consequence of a grant from Queen Elizabeth, in 1565, to John Baptist de Castilion, of the honour of Speen and Benham, as a reward for his sufferings in her cause before she came to the Crown. She likewise granted to him the Canton ermine, as an augmentation of the antient arms, (Gules, a castle argent, on the top of a demilion rampant.)” I am informed that there is a small 4to. vol. in the possession of the Rev. H. Randolph, Rector of Letcombe Basset, entitled, Elogi di alcuni Personaggi della famiglia Castiglione, printed at Mantua 1606. This copy has the autograph of Sir Francis Castilion, to whom it was sent over in 1610 by his cousin Count Baltazar Castiglione. These data shew the connection existing between the Italian family of Castiglione and the Berkshire Castilions, which affords ground "for a conjecture tending to explain the use of the collar of SS. round the arms of Count Baltazar. If the arms were those of the English branch, the difficulty would be diminished ; but the absence of the Canton ermine, and the use of the coronet, shew that the coat belongs to the Italian house. We must resort to some other explanation. It is not improbable that the eminent Italian, Baltazar Castiglione, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth, and that for this reason Vertue represented his arms surrounded with the English Collar of Knighthood. I attribute this ornament to Vertue and not to Raphael, because I believe there is no instance of the latter artist painting a portrait with a coat of arms and accessories such as are to be seen in the engraving. It is also possible, that Vertue added the collar of SS. to the ltalian coat out of compliment to the knightly house of Castilion of Benham. But, however this may be, it is clear that the collar can in this instance have been used only as a badge of knighthood. Ashmole, in his

History of the Order of the Garter, lays it down that the gold collar of SS. is the undoubted badge of a knight, although he adds, that in his time it had fallen into disuse. This portrait is therefore remarkable as a comparatively recent instance of the use of the collar as a badge of knighthood.

Perhaps some of your learned correspondents may be willing to throw light on this subject, which seems to me worthy of their notice.

Yours, &c. GeoRGE Bowyer.

(Letter continued from Nov. p. 496.)


AS my remarks in your November number on the Canterbury meeting of the British Archaeological Association * were cut short in a manner which I did not contemplate, (but which I can readily imagine was occasioned by the lateness of the period at which I addressed you,) allow me to repeat that the remarks which I have still to make are actuated by the sincerest wishes for the prosperity of the institution; and, though they may appear less favourable than those which you have done me the honour already to publish, and consequently may be less acceptable to some readers, yet they are not offered with a less cordial desire for the advancement of the main purposes proposed by the Association.

In the first place, then, in the event of another meeting, (and I am informed that it is now determined that the meeting of 1845 shall be at Winchester,) I would suggest that the Sections should be real, and not no

* Allow me one more remark on the strictures of the Athenaeum, in a point which especially proves either the unfair... ness or the ignorance of the writer. He has chosen to print the title of the association thus—the “British Archaeological Association,” as if it had been formed for exclusive attention to British Archaeology. Surely the blindness was wilful that did not choose to see that the distinctive epithet is the second ; and that, if Italic letters must be used, it is “The British Archaeological Association,” so named for the same reason as that for which it was formed, namely, because the “British Association ” had not, like the continental associations for the promotion of science, any Archieological Section,

minal. I need not explain my meaning further than to say it is, that the example of the British Association should be more closely imitated and followed out. At Canterbury the Committees of Sections varied, but in other respects the assemblings consisted of the Association at large. They were all held in one room, and consequently each Section was subject to the arrangements of the rest. The result was that time did not suffice for the introduction of all the papers that were offered. Larger powers should be entrusted to the officers of Sections. Having their distinct places of meeting, they should be able to adjourn, and meet again, as the subjects offered for their consideration might require. Above all, their Secretaries should not only have the power, but should be required, by themselves or deputies (if unavoidably absent), to convene their Committees to preliminary meetings, and not deem it sufficient that such meeting, and only one such meeting, should take placeabare half-hour before the opening of the Section, or even (as in one instance it happened at Canterbury,) to supersede such meeting altogether by keeping the papers communicated in a private portfolio until the time for the Section has arrived. In such case the province of the Sectional Committee is usurped by the Secretary. On the distribution of the Sections into Primeval, Medieval, Historical, and Architectural, I do not hestitate to say that I think it might be much improved. Notwithstanding Archdeacon Burney’s definition of “Medieval,” it cannot be other than an arbitrary distinction, and, together with “Primeval,” will remain ambiguous. To the Historical and Architectural Sections, themselves unexceptionable, might be added others on definite branches of research, and if they met at the same time, but at different places, they would neither jostle one another, nor yet, if their own streams ran dry, prevent their attendants from joining a Section more busily employed. Above all, preliminary announcements of what is proposed to be done, made by affixing notices to the doors of the Meeting-rooms, will at once enable those who attend to ar

range the disposal of their time to their personal satisfaction, will prepare them for the subjects intended for discussion, and will further the object of mutual co-operation. There is another matter which does not appear to have yet received the attention which was its due, though it affects not merely those who are personally interested in the annual meeting, but the still larger body of the Association who are unable to attend. It appears that this year no provision was made for the publication of the essays and communications produced at Canterbury, and the consequence is, that the Association has lost that record which would have been the most permanent testimony of its value and utility. The third Number of the Archaeological Journal contains a very summary Report of the Meeting, in some respects less perfect than that given in your own pages, Mr. Urban, and not attempting, in various cases, anything like an abstract of the papers produced. In the mean time, the Essays themselves have been dispersed to various other vehicles of publication, or withdrawn altogether. Some of them it seems have been handed over to the Society of Antiquaries,” and will be preserved in the Archaeologia, having first contributed to the evening readings of that body—a circumstance which ought to excite the “Fellows,” with a becoming pride, to at least a correspondent supply of original papers. Mr. C. R. Smith has published one essay to in his “Collectanea Antiqua,” a work of limited circulation; whilst a provincial bookseller (Mr. Dunkin, of Dartford,) has under

* If these bodies are to work in concert, it is to be regretted that the Association should have given a place in the third Part of their Journal to Mr. Dyke's paper on the Preceptory at Garway in Herefordshire, inasmuch as it anticipates Mr. Webb's memoir on the same subject, which was presented to the Society at an earlier date (May 23, Gent. Mag. June, p. 635), but cannot appear in the Archaeologia until next St. George's day, when it will probably be found to supersede both in substance and in illustrations the article and engravings adopted by the Association.

+ On the place of Caesar's Landing in Britain, by the Rev. Beale Post.

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taken to compile a detailed Report of the Canterbury Meeting, including such papers at length as he can procure. In so doing the Committee probably think that he acts with some officiousness; but the measure is clearly the result of their remissness and deficiency. It ought to have been arranged before the meeting that the papers should form an extra number of the Journal; and, when it was found that their number and extent had outgrown such limits, they would naturally have formed an octavo volume similar to that issued by the Historical Section of the Scientific Congress of France.

Nor can it be overlooked that the Archaeological Album, announced by a London publishing firm, under the editorship of Mr. Wright, who acted as one of the Secretaries at the Canterbury meeting,” is taking up a field which might have been occupied with better effect by the Association itself, whose members would have received with greater satisfaction a series of engravings selected and sanctioned by the Committee at large, than the private work of any individual member, however able and experienced.

It must, I fear, be admitted that they still “manage these things better in France,” as was suggested by your correspondent W. B. in your March number; whose letter, though preliminary to the active operations of the Association, may, even after the present experience, be perused with some advantage.

Yours, &c. D. H.

MR. URBAN, THE stone of which a representation is sent herewith, according to tradition commemorates an unfortunate duel which formerly occurred at Canterbury, between two officers of the garrison. One of the victims of it was killed on the spot; the other expired as he passed an adjoining stile, while withdrawing from the scene of combat. Some friend recorded the

* “The first part of the Archaeological Album will be devoted to a detailed account of the proceedings of that meeting, and a description of the objects seen in the various excursions made on that occasion.” Promoto

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The above relic may be of little importance; but the mention of St. Augustine's Abbey affords an opportunity of referring to the gratifying subject of its now being secured from further spoliation by the recent purchase of A. J. Beresford Hope, esq. M.P. The rapid destruction of Ethelbert's tower within the precinct of the Abbey leaves it doubtful how much longer these ancient remains might otherwise have survived. The above fabric, which was a happy, indeed an almost unrivalled, specimen of architecture, and which might have continued standing for many centuries, having been, as Mr. Britton informs us in his Picturesque Antiquities of English Cities, much undercut to furnish materials to be used in building a gentleman’s house, fell down in part in 1824. The remainder was pulled down, notwithstanding the regret generally felt at the destruction of so fine a monument of antiquity, to avoid the expense which the adding a requisite support by masonry would have occasioned.

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The Dispatches and Letters of Lord Piscount Nelson. Edited by Sir Harris Nicolas. Pool. I. THIS work is executed with great Professional knowledge, and exemplary Tiligence and care. Not only has Sir H. Nicolas collected his materials from every quarter that could afford them, but he has illustrated them by his own intimate acquaintance with all that can bear on the subject; while the interest which he evidently takes both in the person and achievements of his hero, and of the profession to which he belonged, gives animation to the whole narrative. The work is dedicated to Prince Albert; and in a very well-written preface Sir H. Nicolas informs us of the different sources from which he has drawn the stream of his biography. The letters in this volume extend from 1777 to 1794, including Nelson's services in the West Indies, —his command of the Boreas—his residence in Norfolk when on half Pay-his subsequent appointment to the Agamemnon, and his station in the Mediterranean, terminating in the siege of Toulon, and the capture of Bastia. The chief event in his domestic life in the volume is his marriage with Mis. Nesbitt. His confidential correspondents were Captain Locker, his brother the Rev. W. Nelson, and his future wife; the greater part of his official correspondence is with Lord Hood. The entire body of this correspondence is so copious as to give an almost uninterrupted detail of all the events of his life—it is a picture painted by his own hand—where neither circumstances are omitted nor feelings concealed ; and, when the whole work is concluded, it will form one of the most interesting specimens of the autobiography of a great man that we have in our language. The letters themselves are written in a style and manner that display those qualities of Nelson which won for him general attachment and esteem; perfect candourand simplicity—aclear. ness of understanding and resolution of will—a manliness of feeling, and an GENT. MAG. Wol. XXIII.

anxious desire to perform his duty in the noble and arduous service which he had chosen ; while the sterner and greater qualities necessary for success in his professional career, were united to much kindness and feeling in the claims of domestic life, and to a warm and friendly regard to those connected with him in the service. The letters themselves are of more or less importance, according to the circumstances in which he was placed when each was separately written. By persons belonging to the same profession probably not one of them will be overlooked, as they will all tend in a greater or less degree to complete the general portrait; other readers, it may be presumed, may not follow quite so closely the entire narrative; but both will be rewarded according to the degree of attention they may give to the subject; the one, in having a fine model of the finished seaman and naval commander set before them for imitation and study; the other, in observing the same character under a more general point of view, and remarking upon what basis his professional superiority has arisen, and what were those mental and moral qualities which enabled Nelson to pursue his career of glory with such steady and unbroken lustre, to unite in himself all the great and various qualities of a naval commander, firmness of resolution without obstinacy ; undaunted and heroic courage without weakness; in his conduct to his officers and equals, friendship without favouritism ; and to his men, kindness of manner without relaxation of discipline. We now give two or three specimens of those parts of the letters which, being on familiar and personal subjects, will be the more generally interesting, and because the first admiration of the hero is always succeeded by a desire of beholding him in his more unguarded hours, in the ordinary intercourse of life, and the unreserved intimacy of his family and friends. 1782. To his brother. “I am much afraid poor Charles lo wait a long while with Mr. R. before he gets promotion, for he is a great liar. * * * I wish I could congratulate you on a rectory instead of a vicarage; it is rather awkward wishing the poor man dead, but we all rise by deaths. I got my rank by a shot killing a post-captain, and I most sincerely hope I shall, when I go, go out of the world the same way. Then we go all in the line of our profession, a parson praying, a captain fighting. I suppose you are returned from Hillborough before this, and have taken Miss Ellen and the living,” &c.

We must follow this by giving the first letter he wrote to the lady who was to be his wife; a curious commentary on it will probably appear in the subsequent volumes.

1785, Sept. “Indeed, my dear Fanny, I had buoyed myself up with hope that the admiral's schooner would have given me a line from you, but the tidings she brought of the release of poor Mrs. Herbert (her aunt) from this world, sufficiently apologize for your not thinking of an absentee. Yet this believe from my heart, that I partake in all the sorrows you experience; and I comfort myself that, however great your grief at this moment may be, at losing a person who was so deservedly dear to you as your good aunt, yet, when reason takes place, you must rather have pleasure in knowing she is released from those trials she had undergone for months past. Time ever cures, and in the present instance I trust may have a tendency to soothe grief into a pleasing remembrance; and her unspotted character must afford you real comfort. Call religion to your aid ; and it will convince you that her condition in this world was such as to ensure everlasting happiness in that which is to come. I have received a letter from Mr. Herbert, in answer to that which I left at Nevis for him. My greatest wish is to be united to you, and the foundation of all conjugal happiness, real love and esteem, is, I trust, what you believe I possess towards you. I think Mr. Herbert loves you too well not to let you marry the man of your choice, although he may not be so rich as some others, provided his character and station in life render such an union eligible. I declare solemnly that, did I not conceive I had the full possession of your heart, no consideration should make me accept your hand. We know that riches do not always ensure happiness, and the world is convinced that I am superior to pecuniary considerations in my public and private life, as in both instances I might have been rich. But I will have done, leaving all

my present feelings to operate on your

breast; only of this truth be convinced,

that I am your affectionate,
“ H. NELson.”

In another letter, of Nov. 1785, addressed to his uncle, Mr. Suckling, he describes somewhat more particularly the lady's uncle, and their pecuniary expectations. We dwell on this point, as the marriage of a hero to an angel (and who is not an angel in a hero's eyes at 22 with 20,000l. fortune,) is too great an event to be slightly passed over.

“Herbert is very rich and very proud; he has an only daughter and this niece, who he looks upon in the same light, if not higher. I have lived at his house when at Nevis in June last, and I am a great favourite of his. I have told him I am as poor as Job; but he tells me he likes me, and I am descended from a good family, which his pride likes; but he also says, “Nelson, I am proud, and I must live like myself, therefore I can't do much in my life-time. When I die she shall have twenty thousand pounds, and if my daughter dies before me she shall possess the major part of my property. I intend going to England in 1787, and remaining there my life ; therefore if you two can live happily together till that event takes place, you have my consent.’ This is exactly my situation with him, and I know the way to get him to give the most is not to appear to want it. Thus circumstanced, who can I apply to but you ? The regard you have ever expressed leads me to hope you will do something. My future happiness, I give you my honour, is now in your power. If you cannot afford to give me anything for ever, you will, I am sure, trust to me, that if ever I can afford it I will return it to some part of our family. I think that it will be best to give her two or three hundred a year during her life, and if you will either give me, I will call it—I think you will do it—either one hundred a year for a few years, or a thousand pounds, how happy you will make a couple who will pray for you for ever. Don't disappoint me, or my heart will break; trust to my honour to do a good turn for some other person if it's in my power. I can say no more,” &c.

This is followed by a letter in which there is a singular mixture of different ardent spirits, viz. of love and rum; and then another, beginning, “Separated from you, what pleasure can I feel ? all my happiness is centred in thee.” In August 1786 he tells Mrs. Nisbett “his heart yearns for her;”

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