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“After my hartie comendacions. Understanding by comen speche that the Quenes Ma" meanes to come to my howse, And knowyng no certentie of the tyme of her comyng nor of her aboade, I have thowght good to praye you that this bearer my servaunt might understond what yo" knowe therein, And yf it be trewe, Then that I myght understond yo' advise what yo” thinke to be the best waye for me to deale in this matter. For, in very deede, no man is more rawe in suche a matter then my selfe. And thus wisshing to yo" L. as to my selfe, I leave any further to trouble yo” at this tyme. From my howse at Gorhamburie this xijoh of Julijls? 2.
Yo' L. assured
The date is altered from the ath to the rijo & the Lord Keeper has added to the letter, which was written by his secretary, the following hasty postscript.
“I have wrete thys bycause I wolde gladly take y' cours y' myght best pleas hur Ma", won I knowe not how better to understond then by yo' help.
Addressed, “To my very good L. the L. of Burghley.”
No particulars of the Queen's en
tertainment on this occasion are preserved; except the remark which her Majesty made on first surveying the mansion. It appears to have been less than she expected, or than many others of the aspiring structures of that magnificent acra in domestic architecture. So she said, “My Lord Keeper, you have made your house too little for you.” He replied, with the characteristic humility of one whose motto was MEDIochia FIRMA,-‘‘Not so, Madam, but your Majesty has
made me too big for my house.”
The Queen was again at Gorhambury in 1573-4, her charter to the town of Thetford being dated at Gorhambury, March 12, in the 10th year of her reign.
Previously to the Queen's next visit the Lord Keeper had complied with her suggestion. He erected for her reception a Gallery, 120 feet in length, and 18 in breadth, but its materials were only lath and plaster. At either end was a small apartment. Under the whole were Cloisters, in the centre of which (in a niche) was a statue of King Henry the Eighth, cut in stone, with gilt armour, and at the upper end were busts of Sir Nicholas and his second wife, inserted in the wall. From the antechamber, which communicated with the Gallery, were two doors; one, on the left, intended for common use; the other, on the right, for her Majesty to enter; and after her departure Sir Nicholas, with the refined flattery of the times, caused that door to be closed, that no other step might pass the same threshold.
This visit took place from Saturday the 18th of May 1577 to the following Wednesday; and this account of its expenses is preserved in the Lambeth Library :
“The Charges expended at Gorhambury by reason of her Matio comynge thither on Saturday the xviij" of Maye 1577 before supper, and contynewinge untill Wednesday after dynner followinge, warranted by a booke of particulers :
Pantry and Pastry.—First for wheatt in the Pantry and Pastry .
Buttery.—Item in beare and ale . Cellar.—Item in wyne of all kyndes
* The original is in MS. Lansd. 14.
+ The Queen came to Gorhambury from the Lord Treasurer's own mansion at Theobalds. On her visits to that celebrated place, which in the time of her successor became a royal palace, see our vol. VI. p. 260. A view of Theobalds was given in
vol. V. p. 147. GENT. MAG. Wol. XXIII.
8l. 14s. 8d. Eggs, 57s. Creame, 50s. 8d. Milke, 6d. Frutte, 33s. 9d. 22 12 11 Saltery.—Item, in Vinegre and Verges . - - - . 3 12 0 Spicery.—Item, in Spice of all sorts - - - - . 27. 6 13 Confectionary.—Item, in Banquetting Stuff - - - . 19 0 6 Wood-yarde.—Item, in Woode . - - - - . 8 l 8 Coolehouse.—Item in Cooles - - - - - . 16 0 O Necessaries, Herbes, Flowers, and Artichoks.-Item, in Necessaryes,
18l. 5s. 9d. In Herbes, Flowers, and Artichokes, 6l. 15s. 10d. . 25 1 7 Rewards.—Item, in Rewards for Presents,f 191. 16s. In Rewards for
Officers of the Queen, 121. 5s. - - - - . 22 1 0 Cariedge.—Item, in Cariedges from London to Gorhambury, and from
Gorhambury backe againe to London . - - - ... 10 0 0 Item, to an Upholster for things hired . - - - . 1 15 8 Item, to them of the Revells - - - - . . . 20 0 0 Item, to the Cookes of London for their Wages . - - . 12 0 O Item, to Laborers for their Wages - - - - . I 8 8 Item, for feedinge of Fowl - - - - - . 0 6 0 1tem, for alteration of thinges beside the Stuff . - - . 7 10 0 Item, for Loss of Pewter, 6l. 15s. 6d. For Loss in Naperye, 40s. 6d. .. 8 16 0 Summa totalis of all Expences, besides a Cupp presented to the Queenes
Majestie - - - - - £577 6 7+
Besides 25 Bucks and 2 stages, &c.
In acknowledgment of this entertainment, it is said that the Lord Keeper received from the Queen that portrait of her by Hilliard, which is still in the collection at the present Inansion.
Sir Nicholas Bacon, on his death in 1579, devised Gorhambury to the elder son of his second marriage, Anthony Bacon, esq. a man of considerable
political talents, but who made an unfortunate choice in attaching himself to the party of the Earl of Essex. He resided with that nobleman at Essex House in the Strand, in the capacity of Secretary, and died there, a few months after the loss of his patron, in the year 1601. Gorhambury had in the mean time been inhabited by Lady Bacon, the widow of the Lord Keeper.
* Provisions purchased, in distinction to those already in the stores of the House
t When the Queen visited any great house, its owner generally received presents of provisions from all his neighbours. See the list of those sent in to Lord Ellesmere at Harefield, Middlesex, in 1602, in the Egerton Papers, published by the Camden Society, p. 350.
It was left by Anthony, who died unmarried, to his brother Francis, afterwards Wiscount St. Alban's. Among the other scientific studies of that illustrious philosopher, architecture was one *; and, soon after he became possessed of Gorhambury, he amused his leisure hours by some visionary plans for restoring the ancient city of Verulam ; but it does not appear that he proceeded further in that scheme than as a speculation, and subject of conversation for the amusement of his friends. His attention was more urgently required for the repair of Gorhambury, which had fallen into considerable decay since the death of his father. Of his works there an interesting account is given by Aubrey, who visited Gorhambury in 1656, but who appears to have assigned indiscriminately every feature to the son, forgetting that his father Sir Nicholas had been the original builder and adorner of the place:
“In the Portico, which fronts the south, to every arch, and as big as the arch, are drawn by an excellent hand (but the mischief of it is, in water-colours,) curious pictures, all emblematical, with mottos under each : for example, one I remember, as a ship tossed in a storm, the motto, ALTER ERIT TUM TIPHYs.
“Over this Portico is a stately Gallery, whose glass windows are all painted, and every pane with several figures of beasts, birds, or flowers:f perhaps his Lordship: might use them as topics for local memory. The windows look into the garden; the side opposite to them no window, but is hung all with pictures at length, as of King James, his Lordship, and several illustrious persons of his time. At the end you enter is no window; but there is a very large picture. In the middle on a rock in the sea stands King James in armour, with his regal orna
* Miss Grimston has included in her volume a copy of Bacon's Essay on Building, as he is supposed in it to have partly given a description of his own house at Gorhambury: accompanying it, however, with the remark, that the resemblance is very trifling, the House in the Essay being of larger and loftier dimensions.
t Miss Grimston gives drawings of the painted glass.
: i. e. Viscount St. Alban's. Aubrey refers all the ornaments to his taste; and he certainly appears to have added materially to those of the original building,
ments; on his right hand stands so whether or no on a rock I have forgot. King Henry 4th of France, in armour' and on his left hand the King of Spain in like manner. These figures are (at least) as big as the life: they were done only with umber and shell gold, and the shadowed umber as in the figures of the Gods on the doors of Verulam House [which is noticed hereafter]. The roof of this Gallery is semi-cylindrical, and painted by the same hand. In the Hall is a large story very well painted of the Feasts of Gods; where Mars is caught in a net by Vulcan. On the wall, over the chimney, is painted an oak, with acorns falling from it: the motto Nisi Qvid Poti vs. And on the wall over the table is painted Ceres teaching the sowing of corn, the motto MONITI MELIORA. “The Garden is large, which was (no doubt) rarely planted and kept in his Lordship's time. Here is a handsome door which opens into Oak Wood: over the door in golden letters on blue six verses. The oaks of this wood are very great and shady. His Lordship much delighted himself here : * under every tree he planted some fine flower, some whereof are there still, viz. paeonies, tulips. From this wood a door opens into a place as big as an ordinary park, the west part whereof is coppice wood; where are walks cut out as straight as a line, and broad enough for a coach, a quarter of a mile long or better. Here his Lordship much meditated, his servant Mr. Bushell attending him with his pen and ink, to set down his present notions. “The east of this park, which extends to Verulam House, was in his Lordship's prosperity a paradise, now a large ploughed field. It consisted of several parts; some thickets of plum trees, with delicate walks, some raspberries. Here was all manner of fruit trees that would grow in England, and a great number of choice forest trees, as the whitti f tree, sorbe, cervice, &c. The walks, both in the coppices and other boscages, were most ingeniously designed. At several good views were erected elegant summer-houses, well built of Roman architecture, well wainscoted and ceiled, yet standing, but defaced.”
* In his pecuniary distress, Lord St. Alban's sold all the property attached to Gorhambury except the Park and Manor, saying (with a figure adopted from his favourite trees,) “he would top the branches to save the trunk.” But when it was suggested to him to sell the Oak Wood itself, he replied that he would not “Verulam House” was a summer residence which Lord Bacon was induced to erect near the Fishponds, at the north-eastern extremity of the park, on account of the deficiency of water at Gorhambury, saying that, “If the water could not be brought to the house, he would bring the house to the water.” It no longer exists, but the description which Aubrey has preserved of it will be found very curious and interesting:—
art with his feathers. + Withy:
“It was the most ingeniously contrived little Pile that ever I saw. (I am sorry that I measured not the front and breadth; but I little suspected it would be pulled down for the sake of the materials.) No question but his Lordship was the chiefest architect; but he had for his assistant a favourite of his (a St. Alban's man) Mr. Dobson, who was his Lordship's right hand, a very ingenious person (Master of the Alienation Office), but he spending his estate luxuriously, necessity forced his son William Dobson to be the most excellent Painter that England hath yet bred.
“This house did not cost less than nine or ten thousand the building. There were good chimney-pieces; the rooms very loftie, and were very well wainscoted. There were two bathing-rooms or stuffes," whither his Lordship retired of afternoons as he saw cause. The tunnells of the chimneys were carried into the middle of the house, and round about them were seats. The top of the house was well leaded. From the leads was a lovely prospect to the Ponds, which were opposite to the north-eastside of the house, and were on the other side of the stately walke of trees that leads to Gorhambury House, and also over that long walke of trees whose topps afford amost pleasantvariegated verdure resembling the works in Irish stitch. The Kitchen, Larder, Cellar, &c. are under ground. In the middle of this house was a delicate staire-case of wood, which was curiously carved, and on the posts of every interstice was some prettie figure, as of a grave divine with his book and spectacles, amendicant friar, &c. not one thing twice. Mem. On the the doors of the upper storie on the outside (which were painted dark umber) were figures of the gods of the Gentiles, viz. on the south dore 2d storie was Apollo, on another Jupiter with his thunder-bolt, and bigger than the life, and done by an excellent hand; the heightnings were of hatchings of gold, which when the sun shown on them made a glorious shew. Mem.
The upper part of the uppermost door on the east side had inserted into it a large looking-glass, with which the stranger was very gratefully deceived: for, after he had been entertained a pretty while with the prospects of the Ponds, Walkes, and country which the dore faced, when you were about to return into the room, one would have sworn primo intuitu that he had beheld another prospect through the house, for as soon as the stranger was landed on the balconie the concierge that shewed the house would shut the doore to putt this fallacy on him with the lookingglasse.
“This was his Lordship's summer house; for he says, one should have seats for Summer and Winter, as well as cloathes.
“From hence to Gorhambury is about a little mile, the way easily ascending, hardly so acclive as a desk. From hence to Gorhambury in a straite line lead three parallel walkes: in the middlemost three coaches may passe abreast; in the wing walkes two. They consist of severall stately trees of the like growth and height: viz. elme, chesnut, beach, hornebeame, Spanish ash, cervice-tree, &c. whose topps doe afforde from the walke on the house the finest shew that I have seen, and I saw it about Michaelmas, at which time of the yeare the colours of leaves are most varied.
“The figures of the Ponds were thus [here probably was a plan in the MS.] They were pitched at the bottoms with pebbles of severall colours, which were workt into severall figures, as of fishes, &c. which in his Lordship's time were plainely to be seen through the cleare water, now overgrown with flagges and rushes. If a poor bodie had brought his Lordship halfe a dozen pebbles of a curious colour, he would give them a shilling, so curious was he in perfecting his Fishponds, which I guess doe contain four acres. In the middle of the middlemost pond, in the Island, is a curious Banquetting-house of Roman architecture, paved with black and white marble, covered with Cornish slate, and neatly wainscoted.”
Gorhambury was left by Lord Bacon to his faithful friend Sir Thomas Meautys, who had married Anne, the daughter and heiress of his half-brother Sir Nicholas Bacon, of Culford, Suffolk. The same lady was married secondly to Sir Harbottle Grimston, and thus Gorhambury came into the possession of the family which now enjoys the title of Earl of Verulam The old house continued to be occupied until about sixty years ago, when the present mansion was built on a new site from the designs of Sir Robert Taylor; and a view of it as it appeared shortly before it was relinquished will be found in Pennant’s Tour from London to Chester, pl.x. and in Nichols's Progresses of Queen Elizabeth. MR. URBAN, Dec. 6. IT is natural I should feel an interest in anything that is said about the site of Anderida; but, as I have already occupied and have been the occasion of occupying some portion of your columns" upon that subject, I am unwilling to trespass further upon them. However, I feel constrained to make one or two remarks, which I shall do very briefly, upon the observations of the Rev. Beale Post, contained in your last Magazine, on the site of the station in question. As Mr. Post does not allude to the opinion of its having been at Arundel, I conclude he has not seen the little essayt which has been published on the subject. His observations are, generally, of a negative character; that is, tending to shew that Anderida was not at Newenden: and, in doing this, he has well investigated those authorities which have been made use of (but untruly stated or interpreted and distorted) to bolster up Camden's opinion that this station was there— a conclusion that I have for many years been opposed to. I feel something like indignation when an author conveys a mere opinion in language that induces one to consider it a fact: thus Camden, in speaking of Newenden, says, that “under Edward the First a town sprung up, and, with respect to the more ancient one, began to be called Newenden.” So far from this being the case, Newenden was the name of the place at the time of Domesday Book, namely, two centuries earlier. Harris and Hasted say, or one of them says, that Newenden was given by the name of Andred to the monks or Archbishop of Canterbury, by King
* See Gent. Mag. for April, May, and June, 1243, and April 1844.
t Fragmenta Antiquitatis, No. 1. Hughes, St. Martin's le Grand, 1843,
Offa. Mr. Post has so fairly and judiciously investigated and commented on this point, as to clearly shew it to be untrue, as I always thought. I differ with Mr. Post's explanation of Richard of Cirencester's 15th Iter, as far as respects the distance from “Anderida Portu” “Ad Lemanum,” which he says is 25 miles; and in the commentary upon Richard’s Itinerary it certainly would appear so; but, if we turn to the Itinerary as given by him, there evidently appears a blank between those two places; so that the 25 miles Ad Lemanum was from some other point many miles, I say, to the east of Anderida. As this Iter is generally otherwise correct, in my opinion, I am strongly induced to believe, as I have before stated in another place, that it proceeded by sea from Portus Anderidae to some place within 25 miles of Lemanus, wherever that was. Mr. Post does not seem to contradistinguish the “Anderida Portus” of the 15th Iter from the “Anderida” of Richard's, Lib. 1, cap. 6, and of his 17th Iter. They were not one and the same place, as I have explained in my communication in your Magazine of May, 1843. This distinction has not been observed, that I am aware of, by any of our Antiquaries. Upon the whole, I am much pleased with Mr. Post's observations, as they lead me to place Anderida at Arundel with redoubled confidence.
I HAVE lately seen an engraving in the possession of the Vicar of Marcham, in this county, which affords a curious instance of the use of the collar of SS.
It is an engraving by George Vertue, of a portrait, by Raphael, of Baltazar Castiglione, Count of Castiglione, the author of the famous treatise, entitled, Il Cortigiano. The portrait itself is not remarkable, but at the foot of it there are the arms of the Castiglione family surmounted by a foreign coronet, and surrounded by a collar of SS. from which is suspended a rose between two portcullises,
The question arises, How can we