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esting, but moreover very useful; for, on the principle that whatever is worth doing is worth doing well, so, if we attempt to imitate the forms of ancient art, it is desirable that we should be correct and exact, as well in justice to the style itself as to ensure our own success. Now, a text-book of genuine specimens of ancient calligraphy was a deficiency; and in this respect, therefore, Mr. Shaw's work becomes one of real utility, in the present revived taste for early models of design. The dates he is able to supply to each specimen furnish the principal information that is required, and will render the series, when chronologically arranged, a most interesting study.
The Ecclesiastical Architecture of Great Britain from the Conquest to the Reformation; illustrated by Views, Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Details, &c. By Henry Bowman, Architect. Imperial Quarto. Parts I. to XI.-It is pleasing to observe the improvement in works of this description, as well as the increased share of patronage which they now receive. There are some series of views of churches published from thirty to fifty years ago, which are merely landscape views, a character which, by the bye, applies to too many of the prints that, with "higher pretensions as works of art, are put forward as real views of places in modern publications. Such things may sometimes be very well as souvenirs, but are entirely useless for any architectural or scientific purpose. In a series of views of churches, taken without regard to the prominent
features of architectural interest, a great sameness will ever be found, and very little interest can be maintained. The example of a better mode of treatment has been given by the Oxford Architectural Society, and we have also recently had other valuable works of this kind, particularly the Churches of Yorkshire and of Lincolnshire. The work before us has the advantage of an ample page, which enables the author to maintain a distinctness of detail which a smaller scale would not admit. Plans of the churches are given, exterior and interior views, interesting features of construction or ornament, and several coloured prints of painted windows and tiles. The churches already illustrated are, Norbury, co. Derby; Lambley, co. Nottingham; Castle-Rising, co. Norfolk ; Chaddesley Corbet, co. Worc.; Long Ashton, co. Somerset; and Radford, co. Glouc.; each of them occupying two numbers, excepting the last, which is complete in one. For the first four numbers, Mr. James Hadfield, architect, was associated in the authorship, but he then retired.
PRE PARING FOR PUBLICATION. Antiquitates Tinemuthenses: a History of the Monastery of S. Oswin, King and Martyr, at Tynemouth within the Diocess of Durham. By WILLIAM SIDNEY GIBson, Esq. F.S.A. Barrister-at-Law, &c. This work will be highly illustrated, and illuminated with embellishments designed by Mr. Henry Shaw, F.S.A. It is to form two thick quarto volumes, and the price not to exceed Six Guineas.
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
UNIVERSITY OF Oxfor D.
Mr. Goldwin Smith, demy of Magdalen College, has been elected to the vacant Scholarship on the foundation of Dean Ireland. Mr. Smith obtained the Latin Scholarship in 1842. There were sixteen candidates. Magdalen College has now two Ireland scholars, Mr. Conington having been elected last year.
March 10. Dr. Kidd, the Regius Professor of Medicine, having resigned the office of Lecturer in Anatomy, the Dean of Christ Church, in whose gift that appointment is vested, has nominated Henry Wentworth Acland, esq. M.A. Fellow of All Souls (and formerly of Christ Church), to be the Anatomical Lecturer on the foundation of Dr. Matthew Lee.
March 11. Mr. Henry Barnes Byrne, scholar of Oriel College, was elected to the University Latin Scholarship. There Were ** candidates,
March 13. The degree of Doctor in Divinity was conferred by decree of Convocation on the Rev. J. Medley, M.A. of Wadham College, who has been nominated to the Bishopric of New Brunswick.
UNIVERSITY OF CAM Bridge. Jan. 15.-SMITH's PR1zEMEN : 1. Ds. Thomson, St. Peter's College, Second Wrangler. 2. Ds. Parkinson, St. John's College, Senior Wrangler. March 5. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred by Royal Mandate on James Chapman, M.A. of King's College (Bishop of Ceylon, Elect); and on Charles John Vaughan, M.A. of Trinity College (Master of Harrow School). March 7. Two of the eight scholarships founded by the Rev. William Bell, D.D. Prebendary of Westminster, for the sons or orphans of clergymen, were adjudged as follows: to John Llewellyn Davies, and David James Vaughan, both of Trinity college.
March 14. The two gold medals (value 15 gs. each) given annually by the Chancellor of the University to two commencing Bachelors of Arts, were adjudged as follows:—Senior—Frederick Rendall §. Wrangler and bracketed 1st Classic),
inity college. Junior—Thomas Francis Knox (14th Senior Optime and 3rd Classic), Trinity college.
ROYAL cort PortATION OF THE
March 12. The annual meeting of the members of this Institution was held in the chambers of the corporation, Great Russell-street, Sir William Chatterton, Bart. in the chair. The report stated that the sum dispensed during the past year to distressed authors and their families was 955l. and that the total amount applied to this purpose since the formation of the Society was 31, 1831. Her Majesty had granted the institution the privilege of bearing the imperial crown, with the title of the “Royal Corporation of the Literary Fund.” The Marquess of Lansdowne was re-elected President, and the vacancy caused by the death of the Earl of Mountnorris was filled by the appointment of the Archbishop of Dublin. Charles Dickens, esq. Fraser Tytler, esq. the Rev. Dr. Mill, Sir Harris Nicolas, Mr. Sergeant Talfourd, William Brockedon, esq. and Edward Gandy, esq. were elected members of the committee.
EGY PTIAN Liter ARY Associ ATION.
This Society has published the first number of its proceedings for the year 1842, 4to. Alexandria, entitled, Miscellanea AEgyptiaca, Vol. I. Part I. It contains an account of the foundation of the Association; followed by several papers of interest. Among them a Tour to Bubastis, Sebennytus, and Menzaleh, by Sir Gardner Wilkinson; an archaeological journey in this direction.—Some interesting Extracts of a Journal of Travels in Abyssinia, 1840-42, by J. G. Bell.—An Excursion in the Eastern Part of Lower Egypt, by M. E. Prisse, written in a lively and instructive manner.—Notes on the Sennar, and Observations on the Climate of Egypt, by Dr. Verdot.
The books in preparation for 1845, are— A Second Series of the Zurich Letters, the Remains of Bishop Latimer, a large volume of Bishop Jewell's Works, and a large volume of Devotional Poetry of tha reign of Queen Elizabeth ; or, another volume of Bishop Coverdale's Works.
INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERs. A material change has occurred in this society. It had been felt for some years past that the presidential chair should not always be filled by the same individual, however well suited he might be for the position. After mature deliberation this view was adopted by the council, and in consequence Mr. Walker, who had for ten years ably performed the duties of President, signified his intention of retiring from the post. At the annual general meeting he was, however, re-elected, but, on his stating that his intention of withdrawing remained unchanged, an adjourned meeting was held, at which Sir John Rennie was elected president, supported by the following council : Messrs. W. Cubitt, J. Field, J. M. Rendel, and J. Simpson, vice-presidents; Messrs. Brunel, B. Cubitt, Giles, Locke, Lowe, Miller, Mylne, Sibley, Stephenson, and Taylor, members; and Grissell and Murray, associates. On taking the chair for the first time, on the 4th Feb. Sir John Rennie addressed the meeting. After thanking the members for the honour conferred upon him, and paying a well-merited compliment to Mr. Walker, he remarked, “When we look around us, and see the vast strides which our profession is making on every side, and the deservedly high place it holds in public estimation, we cannot but feel justly proud; for, without the slightest disparagement of the pursuits and duties of other professions, I may confidently ask where can we find nobler or more elevated ursuits than our own, whether it be to interpose a barrier against the raging ocean, and provide an asylum for our fleets, or to form a railway, and, by means of that wonderful machine the locomotive engine, to bring nations together, annihilating, as it were, both space and time; or to construct the mighty steam-vessel which, alike regardless of winds or waves, urges onwards its resistless course ; or to curb and bring within proper bounds the impetuous torrent, converting its otherwise destructive waves to our use and benefit, whether for navigation, trade, or domestic comfort; or, again, the drainage of the unwholesome marsh and converting it into fields of waving corn; or illuminating our cities with gas, changing, as it were, night into day; or the fabrication of machinery of endless form and ingenuity, by means of which every article which can tend to man's comfort can be produced in the greatest perfection at the smallest cost; or to recover from the bowels of the earth Nature's exhaustless treasures, and convert them to our use. In fact, we may almost say that there is nothing in the whole range of the material world which does not come under our observation, or where the skill and science of the engineer is not required, in a greater or less degree, to render the bounties of Providence subservient to the good of mankind. With such splendid prospects before us we have every inducement to stimulate our zeal and to press forward in the career of improvement.” He then impresssed upon the members the necessity of not only communicating good papers themselves, but of engaging the junior members of the profession in their employment to keep journals of the proceedings, and to use the materials so obtained as the basis for papers which would be of a most interesting character.
Mr. Brockedom exhibited some specimens of his “Vulcanised" India-rubber, for diminishing the vibration of railways by a layer of the material being introduced, instead of the patent felt, between the base of the chair and the surface of the sleeper. The preparation is a mixture of caoutchouc and sulphur. Its elasticity is of a surprising character, and preserved under intense pressure for a long period. It has been tried on the Great Western Railway with success, and the advantages of its general introduction were admitted, particularly as its price was very moderate, and was to all appearance indestructible. Another paper read was by Mr. B. L. Vulliamy, “On the construction and regulation of clocks for railway stations.” The author proposed that all railway clocks should be made to show both Greenwich mean time and the actual mean time at the station where the clock was placed. This could be done very inexpensively by applying a double minute hand to the clock, one point indicating Greenwich mean time, the other the actual time of the station, Greenwich mean time being shown by a gilt hand with “London time” marked upon it, and the ordinary time by a plain steel hand. By this simple contrivance the public would readily understand the difference of time between London and the place referred to in the bill, and regulate their arrival at the sta. tion in consequence.
THEOLOGICAL Works. The sale of the stock of the late eminent bookseller, Mr, John Bohn, of Henrietta
street, commenced on Wednesday, Jan. 15, at the rooms of Messrs. Sotheby and Co. The collection contained no less than 5813 lots of theology, whilst the other portions amount to about 30,000 lots. A complete copy of the original edition of the Acta Sanctorum, by John Bollandus, and others, in 54 vols. folio, 1643-1794, produced the same price exactly as the late Mr. Southey's copy, 115l., and was bought by Mr. Rodd.—212, the Venetian reprint of a portion of the above, in 43 vols. folio, 35l. 10s.-243, the celebrated collection of works on Biblical and Classical Antiquities, by Ugolini, Graevius and Gronovius, and others, in 114 folio volumes, full of plates, 70l. Black-letter books appear to be depreciated materially. No. 395, Augustinus de Singularitate Clericorum, 4to., printed by Ulric Zell in 1467, sold for only 21.4s., and would appear to have cost 171. 17s. at the Merly sale. No. 475, Augustinus de Arte Predicandi, folio, printed by Mentelin in 1464, and which produced no less than 28l. 10s. at Sir Mark Sykes's sale, sold here for 2l. 13s. The Fathers of the Church obtained good prices, thus: No. 394, St. Augustime's Works, 18 vols. in 12, 4to., sold for 4l. 8s. ; No. 474, another edition of the same work, in 12 vols. folio, produced 91. Augustini Tarraconensis Opera, 8 vols. 4to. was bought for 5l. 10s. The celebrated Polyglot Bible edited by Brian Walton, in 8 vols. folio, bound in blue morocco, after considerable competition, was sold for 391. a price little more than the cost of the binding.
The Conservators of the Royal Library of Copenhagen have completed the catalogue of its contents, a work upon which they have been engaged for eleven years. It forms 174 folio volumes, and comprises 463,332 volumes, without the pamphlets and single sheets. It has been presented in manuscript to the King of Denmark, and will be printed and published at the expense of the government. The manuscripts in this library amount to about 22,000, of which only between 4000 and 5000 are yet catalogued.
The Association of the Archaeological and Heraldic College of Paris has saved from dispersion the historical manuscripts of the Benedictines of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, by becoming the purchasers of the same, at the sale of the late Marquis de Fortia's effects.
M. Aimé Champollion-Figeac announces a new work, to be entitled “Louis et Charles, ducs d'Orléans, leur Influence sur les Arts, la Littérature et l'Esprit de leur Siècle,” compiled from unpublished documents relating to the objects of art, and the literature of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and illustrated by a variety of plates copied from the paintings on the manuscripts themselves.
F IN E
St.ATUE OF Goeth E. The colossal statue of Goethe, cast in bronze at the Royal Foundry of Munich, according to the model of Schwanthaler, has been completed to ornament one of the squares of Frankfort-on-the-Maine, his native place. Goethe is represented as clad in a mantle, but having his hands free. He wears the simple costume of the present period. His right arm is resting on the trunk of an oak tree, and in his left he holds a laurel crown. His eyes are turned towards heaven. The subjects of the bas-reliefs on the pedestal are borrowed from the works of Goethe. In the front three female figures represent the natural sciences and dramatic and lyric poetry. On the opposite side are seen, at the right, Goets of Belichingen, Egmont, Tasso, and a Faun. On the left the Bride of Corinth, Prometheus, and the King of the Aulmes. One of the lateral surfaces represents Iphigenia, Orestes, Thoas, Faust, and Mephistophiles, and the other Mignon, Wilhelm Meister, the Harpist, Hermann, and Dorothea.
The colossal model in plaster of an Esculapius, the last work which the illustrious artist Thorwaldsen completed, and which was intended to serve as a pendent to his colossal statue of Hercules placed in the museum of Copenhagen, has been unfortunately broken in his studio, and so completely destroyed that it is totally lost for all purposes of art.
The sculptor Vitali has completed models of the twelve colossal statues of the Apostles, to be cast in bronze, and placed over the great gate of the Isaac's Church, in St. Petersburgh. The pediment has been already ornamented by basreliefs from the same hand : and the Government having made the frescoes and mosaics which are to decorate this greatest of the Christian temples of the East the subjects of public competition, the cartoons of the candidates are now exhibiting in the halls of the Academy of Fine Arts in that city.
The King of Sardinia has subscribed 50,000 livres, and the French government 1,000 francs, towards a monument about
The first exhibition of the Fine Arts ever held in Norway has been opened by the government in the Great Hall of the Royal University at Christiania. Art has yet to be created, however, in Norway; and this exhibition is little more than an expression of its absence, and of that absence being felt. The works, 322 in number, are all paintings, drawings, or engravings, and nearly all by foreign hands. Sculpture is unrepresented in the collection, probably from the greater difficulty of transport from abroad. The government has bought many pictures, and the measure is a wise one for awakening the public mind. Mention is also made of a mass of silver ore, just extracted from the mines in the neighbourhood of Königsberg, the largest, it is said, ever found in any mine in the world.
The King of the Netherlands has accepted the dedication of a work entitled “Histoire raisonnée de l'Art de la Peinture et de la Gravure sur Bois et autres en Néerlande.” The author is Dr. G. Rathgeber, director of the cabinet of medals of the Duke of Saxe Gotha, and member of several learned societies.
Some fine specimens of carvings in ivory and wood, and other curiosities, were recently sold in London, in the collection of George Bangley, esq. From the Wanstead House collection were an ivory cup carved by Fiamingo, with groups of bacchanalian boys and goats, mounted in silver gilt, with grape and vine-leaf border, 841.; and an ivory tankard, carved in alto relievo, by John of Bologna, with the Rape of the Sabines, mounted in silver-gilt, and set with twenty antique gems, and sculptured heads, thirteen inches high, 44l. 2s. A group of figures, also in alto relievo–Bathsheba being attired on coming out of the Bath, with David looking from the Tower, by Benvenuto Cellini, 737, 10s, A cupid, by
Oxfortin Architectur AI, soci ETY.
Feb. 26. The Rector of Exeter, President, in the chair. A sheet of Drawings of Decorated Windows, was presented by E. A. Freeman, esq. accompanied by a letter, in which he pointed out the want of any essential difference to justify Mr. Rickman in classing Decorated as a distinct style; when, in point of fact, the later specimens of it belonged to Perpendicular, and those of earlier date to earlyEnglish.
The Master of University shewed some specimens of asphalted felt; intended to be used as a lining between lead or slates and the boarding under them. From experience the want of such a lining had been found in St. Peter's and Holywell churches, which had been recently new roofed. It was unquestionable that some material had been employed formerly, and the one exhibited possessed great advantages in being economical, only one penny per square foot, and at the same time likely to prove durable. The expense of employing it in the new church proposed to be built in St. Ebbe's would amount to about 28l.
A Paper on “Uniformity" was then read by W. B. Jones, esq., B.A., Trinity College. He commenced by stating the object of his paper to be to aid in furnishing an answer to the following question, “What measure of Uniformity is essential to Gothic Beauty 2 " He conceived this to be a question of the deepest interest and importance, and appealed for the truth of the remark to the practical errors into which architects were continually falling. No moderation was preserved in this respect. Some buildings carried their uniformity to an absurd excess; others were erected with no kind of regard to regularity, or rather with a most religious regard to irregularity. Aremarkableinstanceof the latter was the variety of position assigned, of late, to church-towers. The existence of
a mean having been assumed, the next question was, upon what principle the inquiry should be conducted. There were four methods of treating Gothic architecture, the Archaeological, Utilitarian, AEsthetical, and Symbolical. The first, as resting only on a huge induction of ancient examples, was incapable of determining a speculative question. At the head of the second stood Mr. Pugin, whose “rules for design,” viz. to decorate what is useful, and to avoid what is not, Mr. Jones pronounced to be valuable as rules, but worse than valueless as principles. They were calculated to mislead persons into the notion, that the perception of beauty was the result of a discursive process, and that the beautiful was only another form of the useful. At all events they were inadequate solutions of the present difficulty. To the AEsthetical school belonged Mr. Petit, by whom the whole question was resolved into picturesque effect. This opinion was specious, because the picturesque is nearly allied to the essence of Gothic beauty, but it was not the whole truth, for they are sometimes at variance. A Gothic building, for instance, becomes more picturesque by decay. The symbolical method had been adopted by the Cambridge editors of “Durandus.” It was, however, necessary to distinguish the symbolism of ideas from the symbolism of particular facts, such as was that of Durandus. Now, if the perception of beauty were to be regarded as intuitive, the second kind would furnish no clue to the present problem. “To the former kind,” he continued, “to the symbolism or expression of the ideas of reason enlightened and enlivened by Divine Revelation, are we to look for the true principles of art, and, as an immediate deduction therefrom, for an answer to the question under discussion.” Having thus determined the principle upon which the in
quiry should be conducted, he declared his