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finely bound, called, if Irecollectrightly, “Succia Illustrata,” or “ Depicta.” It contained three or four hundred large views, not only of all the principal churches, palaces, &c. &c. in Stockholm, three or four to some, including interiors, as of the Ritterholms Church,--but in all the principal towns of the kingdom, and the villas and armorial bearings of the principal nobility. Several of the plates were very large views of entire places, including Stockholm under various aspects, with the islands and course of the Maelar Lake (Lacus Maleoticus.) On the whole, it was a far grander work than anything of the kind yet published in England, and its value could scarcely have been less than 100l. It therefore excited some surprise that a small and not rich northern country should have produced such a one. The date, I think, was somewhere about 1740, and the titles and explanations were in Latin. It contained the former old palace, with the great and lofty tower of Drie Kronen, or The Three Crowns (Turris Trium Coronarum.) It seems probable that this fine work was not known to, or it would have been alluded to by, Dr. E. D. Clarke; whom the writer had the honour of knowing whilst living, and writing a brief sketch of after his lamented death.” There were also one or two similar works, but much inferior in size and beauty, on Holland, including views and plans of gardens. The motto of this gentleman, whose family had been Dutch, was (if I spell it right) “Unda, freyheit, freyhende.” — Virtue, Liberty, Peace. The “Great House,” an excellent mansion, with large walled gardens, came by purchase from the family of Scott (who have a hatchment in the chancel,—motto Honestas est Optima Polititia) to Mrs. Smith, daughter of Mr. Harvey, of the adjoining parish of Hulcot, the patronage of which
* In the Literary Gazette 1821; also of Mr. J. H. Wiffen, translator of Tasso, &c. in the same, 1836; also of the late benevolent and generous Duke of Bedford, in the Morning Chronicle 1839; and (second shorter notice) of the excellent Mr. Tate, of St. Paul's, formerly of Richmond, in the Times of September last,
church, consolidated with Salford, i in the family, and it is now possessed by the eldest son, the Rev. E. O. Smith. Their ancient seat is engraved in “Fisher's Collections.” They were intimately connected with the honourable families of Boteler and Charnock, of whom some account will be found in the work twice mentioned above. Some charities have been left, yearly added to by the present possessors of the estates; and to this family the church of Hulcot, built by one of the Charnocks, was lately indebted for complete new fittings of fine old carved wainscot. But not having seen this work, or knowing from whence it was brought, I cannot speak of it personally. Two persons above mentioned, Browne Willis and Mr. Marsh, were related to this family. Here is also a solid and handsome mansion, with gardens built by the late Col. Moore, of the Bedfordshire Militia, two cottages ornées, belonging to W. F. Kerr, esq.; and there are some other good houses, including the parsonage house, which is close by the church gates ; also a handsome house built by T. Parker, esq. who is, I believe, nearly, if not quite, the father of the medical gentlemen in this county, enjoying in viridi senectute the respect for talents and humanity of all classes of men. The living of Aspley was about fifty years ago consolidated with Husborn Crawley, about 14 mile distant, the service at the latter being performed in the middle of the day, between two at Aspley. The church of Crawley, much superior to that of Aspley, stands on elevated ground, nearly equally distant from the two places, and has a losty tower, conspicuous in most directions, and a fine peal of six bells, which can be heard at a considerable distance, and are very popular in the neighbourhood. Of this building also a full description was given as above. The lately deceased rector of Aspley, the Rev. T. Farmer, (formerly rector of St. Luke's, Old Street,) was nephew of the celebrated Dr. Farmer, of Emanuel Coll. Cambridge, and, though of somewhat brusque manners for a clergyman, had much integrity and kindness of heart. The present rector is, I understand, the Rev. John Waux
Moore, of Exeter Coll. Oxford, grandson of Col. Moore, above mentioned. Yours, &c. J. D. PARRY.
East Winch Vicarage, MR. URBAN, near Lynn, Dec. 9.
AT page 410 of your 12th Vol., New Series, is the following paragraph:
“Dr. Young, of Whitby, with some of his friends, whilst examining a subterranean Forest which was found during the excavation of a capacious bonding-pond at South Stockton, discovered one of the oaks to have been cut in two, which had evidently been done previous to its being covered by the earth. He supposes the forest may have been cut down by the Roman soldiers, as they were in the habit of laying timber on the low swampy grounds for the purpose of making roads. Be this as it may, it is certain the hand of man has been exerted on the timber, and it may form a fertile subject for the lover of ancient history and the geologist to speculate on.”
The above passage brought to my mind the recollection of a fact that I now beg to communicate to you; and which, as it carries us back to a more remote period than that in which the Roman soldiers may be supposed to have been wood-cutters in our land, you may not think unworthy of insertion in your valuable Miscellany. In ages very remote, the land along the coasts of Lincolnshire and Norfolk extended much further out than it does at present; and whole forests once existed in places which are now entirely occupied by the ocean. In the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1799 is a very interesting account of these submarine forests, by Joseph Correa de Serra. This paper relates only to the Lincolnshire coast; but roots, trunks, and branches of trees are found to extend along the northern shore of Norfolk also, as far as from the Wash to Thornham, and perhaps further. At low water these may be approached from the shore on foot; and about twelve years ago, accompanied by a friend, I walked to examine them. At about a mile from the high-water mark we arrived at the forest, where we sound numberless large timber trees, trunks, and branches, but so soft that they might easily be pene
trated by the spade. They lie in a black mass of vegetable matter, which seems to be composed of the smaller branches, leaves, and plants of undergrowth, occupying altogether a space of five or six hundred acres. But what I would particularly recommend to the notice of your antiquarian readers is, that in the prostrate trunk of one of these trees, imbedded about an inch and a half by its cutting edge, I found a British flint celt, which is now deposited in the Norwich MuSeu in. Much difference of opinion has arisen as to what purpose these ancient implements were applied, and by what people, and at what time they were in use. If the above curious fact should lead to further inquiry it may be of interest to many of your readers, and to none more, Mr. Urban, than Yours, &c. GEoRGE MUN Ford.
MR, URBAN, Aug. 31. THE names of some places in this Island are very singular; appearing, on the face of them, to have been formed from familiar words of our present language; and so conveying the notion that such names, although they must be of modern date, comparatively, have reference to some fact, or legendary tradition, of very ancient times: but such a reason for these names being not at all apparent, or probable, they have given rise to many unfounded, not to say ridiculous, tales and stories relating to such places. This has arisen from the various people who have become the occupiers of this country, since the Britons, speaking a different language from them, and from each other. Such vernacular and homely names may, in most instances, it is thought, be traced to the British language, and may be considered as corruptions thereof. This has not been sufficiently regarded by our antiquaries; and consequently many of them has been led into absurd conjectures, and have been the means of sanctioning, if not of inventing, the many popular, but untrue accounts, that have been mixed up with the history of some places. As an illustration of these observations, I shall advert to some places in this Island, remarkable for their depth and declivity, in the names of which his Satanic majesty's appellation bears a conspicuous part, as if he had been concerned with them, in some inexplicable way, or had some property in them, viz. the Devil's Dike; the Devil's Punch-Bowl; the Devil's Arse-a-peak; the Devil's Den, &c. Now these names are nothing more, I confidently submit, than a corruption, as far as the word “Devil’s,” (thus put in the genitive case,) of DIPhwys, the British for a steep or precipice. And there are many similar words in that language to express depth, profundity, &c. (probably the parent of our word, deep.) THE DEvil's Dike, near Brighton, is well known as a deep cavity, steep and precipitous.* Another Devil's Dike, in Norfolk, is described in the Archaeologia, vol. xxiii. p. 372. THE DEvil's PUNCH Bowl, is on the Portsmouth road, near Hindhead (in Surrey, I believe); and is a place of the like character. The term bowl seems also of British origin, from Pwll or Bwl, signifying a bason-like cavity in the ground. Punch is obviously a facetious addition of modern times. THE DEvil’s-ARSE-A-PEAR (to say the least, an indelicate, as well as an unmeaning name) is in Derbyshire, as is well known. Those who have not witnessed it, have, for the most part, read of it. The name seems to me compounded of the aforesaid word DIPHwys, and of ARswYD, the British for dread, terror, &c. So that the present homely though indecent name is a corruption of some British words, expressing the terrible and awful depth and steep descent of this celebrated place.t. The addition “a Peak,” has probably reference to its situation near the lofty and precipitous Peak, (which in the British is written Pig ;), or more likely it was intended to include that. In addition, I shall add that some high ground, to the south of Dorking, is called Claygate Hill; on one de
* See the legend connected with this, and the poetical version of it by the late William Hamper, esq. F.S.A. of Birmingham, in Gent. Mag. vol. lxxx. pt. i. p. 513.
t It is also observable that, in the British language, Pwll. Duwałlod, means a bottomless pit,
clivity of which is a large and deep pit, in which now grows underwood. It appears to have been dug out, i. e. formed artificially. CLADD, in the ancient British language, means a pit or digging. The common people, thereabouts, call this pit, THE DEvil’s DEN. This is another proof of the etymology I am contending for. The word Denis, in all probability, a corruption of “Dell,” a pit. So that Devil's Den (or rather the words from which the name arose) means nothing more than the steep, or deep pit. It is but an act of justice to our ancestors, to rescue them from the imputation of superstition, which these mysterious names have led to their being charged with, and which has arisen merely from the accidental circumstance of the original names resembling in sound the present awful Ones. J. P. Goodrich Court, Oct. 30. AMOSTinteresting and satisfactory communication was made to your Magazine of November 1840, displaying the usual accuracy and indefatigable research of your Correspondent J. G. N. In this he has proved that in the picture at Chiswick falsely attributed to Van Eyck, the portraits are not those of Lord and Lady Clifford, but Sir John and Lady Donne, of Kidwely, in the county of Caermarthen. He shews how this curious picture may have come from the Clifford family into the possession of the Earl of Burlington; but adds, “from what cause the portraits assembled in this picture were ever ascribed to ‘the Lord Clifford and his family,” it would be difficult to guess.” Now, Sir, I happen to be at this time engaged in correcting the press for the publication of the Visitation of Wales, in the time of Elizabeth, by Lewys Dwnn (or Donne,) deputy herald for that purpose appointed. This curious collection will make its appearance under the patronage of the “Welsh MSS. Society,” for whom I have undertaken the editorship. It contains a very ample pedigree of the Donne family, to whom the compiler was related. From this I find myself enabled to dissolve what has appeared
to your Correspondent a mystery. The Sir Griffith Donne, who in the Gwrgant MS. in the College of Arms, issaid “to have formed an alliance with the Hastings family, and to have left issue, though this marriage does not appear in the accounts of the house of Hastings,” is here represented as married, but no other mention is made of the person, than that she was “the Lady of Tir mawr.” But the offspring of this match is stated to have been Elizabeth, sole heiress. This lady married Thomas Hughes of Uxbridge, son of Dr. Hughes of Wales, and their issue were two sons and two daughters. The younger, Grisel,
married, 1st. Lord Abergavenny, and 2ndly, Christopher Clifford, brother to the Earl of Cumberland. This, excepting the christian name of “Christopher,” is confirmed by Vincent’s Baronagium, No. 20, pp. 15 and 278, where it is stated that Edward Neville d’nus de Abergavenny, obiit Ao. 31 Elizabethae, leaving his widow Griselda, daughter of Thomas Hughes de Uxbridge, who afterwards espoused “Franciscus de Clifford, post mortem fratris sui senioris, comitem suit Cumbriae.” Trusting this short remark may be deemed of use, I remain, Yours, &c. S. R. MEYRick.
GORHAMBURY HOUSE, HERTFORDSHIRE. (With a Plate.)
GORHAMBURY derived its name from the family of Robert de Gorham, who was elected Abbat of St. Alban’s in 1151, and who alienated from the church this manor (previously called Westwick), in favour of his secular relatives." It was re-united, by purchase, to the possessions of the abbey, in 1389.
The foundations of the monastic manor-house, including those of a large round tower, may still be traced in dry summers. It was situated in front of the modern house, lower down the hill, and commanding a good view of the wood.t
After the dissolution of Monasteries the manor was granted by the Crown to Ralph Rowlet, esq. afterwards knighted, and sold by his grandson,
* Elaborate pedigrees of the Gorham family have been recently published in the Collectanea Topographica and Genealogica, vol. v. p. 189, vol. vii. p. 288, vol. viii. p. 92.
f See a plan, showing the situations of the four successive mansions at Gorhambury, in “The History of Gorhambury,” by the Hon. Charlotte Grimston; a volume privately printed in quarto, and remarkable for its being an autograph, multiplied by the process of lithography. It was produced about the year 1826. (See Martin's Catalogue of Privately Printed Books, p. 236.) From this curious and authentic volume our present article will be principally derived,
“Memorandum. There is not accounted for in this brief any Timber felled in the Lord Keeper's woods or otherwise; neither is there valued any freestone from the abbey of St. Alban's, lime, sand; nor the profits that might have accrued of burning and making of brick within the time mentioned.”
Sir Nicholas Bacon's building consisted of a quadrangle of about seventy feet square, in the centre of which was the entrance, and on each side small turrets. The door of entry led through a cloister into a court, in which, facing the entrance, was a porch of Roman architecture, which still exists in ruin, and is represented in the accompanying Plate. Over the arch, engraved on grey marble, were the fol
lowing lines, written by Sir Nicholas himself:
HAEC CUM PERFECIT NICOLAUS TECTA BACONUS, ELIZABETH REGNI LUSTRA FUERE DUO ;
FActus Eques, MAGNI custos FUIt IPSE SIGILLI, GLORIA SIT SOLI TOTA TRIBUTA DEO.
From the Porch an ascent of four or five steps led to the upper end of the Hall. In the centre of the lower end was a door of carved oak which led to a suite of apartments, occupying the left-hand, or western, side of the quadrangle, and consisting of an eatingroom, a small anti-chamber, and a drawing-room. On the opposite side were several other rooms, and a small hall called the Armour hall. Behind the hall was a second court, surrounded by the offices.
The Gallery was panneled with oak, gilt in compartments, with Latin inscriptions over each. In the Royal Collection of MSS. at the British Museum (17 A xxIII.) is a volume containing copies of these inscriptions, beautifully written on fourteen oblong leaves of vellum, in gold letters upon various coloured grounds. The first page contains a very beautiful illumination of the arms of Joanna Lady Lumley," the heiress of the Earls of Arundel, with this superscription :
“Syr Nicholas Bacon Knyghte to his very good ladye the Ladye Lumley sendeth this.”
At the head of the next page is the following title:
“Sentences painted in the Lorde Kepars Gallery at Gorhambury, and selected by him owt of divers authors, and sent to the good Ladye Lumley at her desire.”
The sentences themselves, which are thirty-seven in number, and each bearing a title, as De sum Mo Bono, DE AMBItion E, are transcribed in Miss Grimston’s book; and we believe facsimiles of some of them have been published by Mr. Henry Shaw, F.S.A.
The two following are specimens: and they are given because they were omitted (no doubt accidentally) by Miss Grimston.
* Some notices of the literary pursuits of Joanna Lady Lumley will be found in the Gentleman's Magazine, Wol. CIII. ii. 495.
DE AMIcitia. [1..] In amico admonendo, melius est successum, quam fidem deesse. Omnia cum amico delibera: sed de ipso, prius.
DE AMoR.E. [1..] Amor, insana amicitia : illius affectus :
istius ratio, causa: at ea sola amicitia durat, cui virtus basis est.
Over a gate leading into the orchard, which had a garden on one side and a wilderness on the other, under the statue of Orpheus stood these verses : Horrida nuper eram aspectu latebræque ferarum, Ruricolis tantum numinibusque locus. Elomo fausto huc dum forte supervenit Orpneus Ulterius qui me non sinit esse rudem; Convocat, avulsis virgulta virentia truncis, , Et sedem quae vel Diis placuisse potest. Sicque mei cultor, sic est mihi cultus et Or
eus : Floreat O noster cultus amorque diu !
In the Orchard was a little Banqueting-house, adorned with great curiosity, having the Liberal Arts beautifully depicted on its walls; over them the pictures of such learned men as had excelled in each; and under them verses expressive of the benefits derived from the study of them. These verses, and the names of those whose pictures were there placed, follow:
Lex sum sermonis, linguarum regula certa, Quime non didicit caetera nulla petat.
DoNATUS, LILLY, SERVIUs, and PRiscIAN.
Ingenium exacuo, numerorum arcana recludo, Qui numeros didicit quid didicisse nequit.
Stifelius, BUD/EUs, Pythagoras.
Diyido multiplices, res explanoque latentes, Vera exquiro, falsa arguo, cuncta probo.
ARIstotle, Rodolph, Porphy Ry, SEToN.
Mitigo moerores, et acerbas lenio curas, Gestiat ut placidis mens hilarata sonis.
ARIAN, TERPANDER, OR rheus. RHETORIC.
Me duce splendescit, gratis prudentia verbis, Jamgue ornata mitet quae fuit ante rudis.
Cicero, Isocrat Es, DEMosthenes, QUINTILIAN.